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Where did the National Constituent Assembly decide to abolish feudalism?
I read that the National Constituent Assembly did not meet in a specific place. Therefore I want to know where they met in the night of August 4, 1789 when the decision to abolish feudalism was made.
While investigating a different part of the French revolution, I came to the following conclusion:
Until October 6, 1789, the National Constituent Assembly met in the Hôtel des Menus Plaisirs, Versailles. October 6, 1789 and onwards, the National Constituent Assembly met in Salle du Manège, Paris.
Therefore they met in the Hôtel des Menus Plaisirs on August 4, 1789.
National Assembly (French Revolution)
During the French Revolution, the National Assembly (French: Assemblée nationale), which existed from 17 June 1789 to 9 July 1789, was a revolutionary assembly formed by the representatives of the Third Estate of the Estates-General thereafter (until replaced by the Legislative Assembly on 30 Sept 1791) it was known as the National Constituent Assembly (French: Assemblée nationale constituante), although the shorter form was favored.
The National Assembly
The National Assembly existed from June 13, 1789 to July 9, 1789. It was a revolutionary assembly formed by the representatives of the Third Estate of the Estates-General. This Assembly called themselves the "National Assembly" since they represented at least 96% of the nation. They took sovereign powers in respect of taxation and decided to frame a constitution restricting the powers of the king. Henceforth, sovereignty was to reside not in the person of the monarch but in the nation, which would exercize it through the representatives it elected. However, the Assembly considered itself to be acting in the king's interests and originally they declared all their laws subject to royal approval.
Despite the statements of good faith expressed by the Third Estate to the King, Louis XVI was outraged at the audacity of the Third Estate. On June 19, only two days after the National Assembly convened itself, Louis ordered the Estates to separate and the building in which the National Assembly met closed while he prepared an adequate response. However, the Assembly simply found another place to meet on a tennis court outside of the building. There, they swore that they would not dissolve until France had a written constitution. This "tennis court oath" was both a revolutionary act and an assertion that political authority derived from the people and their representatives, rather than from the monarch. After this point, the National Assembly renamed itself the National Constituent Assembly.
Louis XVI unwillingly acquiesced to the demands of the National Constituent Assembly and granted a constitution of sorts, though nothing near as progressive as what the Assembly had hoped for. However, all of the representatives of the people stood firm, as they had not written a constitution themselves as their oath from the previous week had promised. After this show of defiance by the National Constituent Assembly, relations between the Assembly and the monarch broke down. Furthermore, the people of Paris took to the streets in support of the Assembly, creating a chaotic atmosphere in the capital.
Texts outlining the efforts of the National Assembly in the collection include:
The Procès-Verbal de l'Assemblee Nationale (Call No. DC165.A1) includes almost nine volumes of primary documents relating to the Assembly and its members from 1789-1791. Volume two of this series also has a significant number of documents that relate to the founding of the French Constitution (see below).
Declaration de l'Homme et du Citoyen, 1789
A twelve member Constitutional Committee was convened by the National on July 14, 1789 (also the same day as the Storming ofthe Bastille). Its task was to draft the articles of the new constitution. This committee was composed of two members from the First Estate, two from the Second, and four from the Third. There were many proposals for redefining the French state&mdashespecially after feudalism was abolished in August of 1789. Abbé Sieyes, a member of the clergy elected to represent the Third Estate, was a member of this committee and he wrote a detailed preliminary rationale for what would become the Declaration des Droits de l'Homme et du Citoyen. Abbé Sieyes' Préliminaire de la Constitution, Reconnoissance et Exposition Raisonné des Droits de l'Homme et du CItoyen(Call No. DC165.A1) was published in 1789, and provides a detailed explanation of why a document protecting the rights of French citizens was so important.
The Declaration des Droits de l'Homme et du Citoyen passed in 1791 is a fundamental legal document of the French Revolution and in the history of human rights. It was written by the Marquis de Lafayette, with help from his friend and neighbor, American envoy to France, Thomas Jefferson. The Declaration was also influenced in part by the U.S. Declaration of Independence and Englightenment political philosophy. For example, the Declaration emphasizes Enlightenment principles such as individualism, the general will, the social contract (Jean Jacques Rousseau), and the separation of powers.
The Declaration is introduced by a preamble describing the fundamental characteristics of the rights which are qualified as being "natural, unalienable and sacred" and consisting of "simple and incontestable principles" on which citizens could base their demands. Several of the articles of the Declaration also called for the end of feudalism and aristocrativ privilege, the restriction of the powers of the monarchy, a fair taxation system, freedom and equal rights for all human beings (referred to as "Men"), and access to public office based on qualifications and talent. Furthermore, this document allowed all citizens to be involved in the legislative process. The Declaration des Droits de l'Homme et du Citoyen also became the preamble of the constitution adopted on 30 September 1791.
A copy of the Declaration des Droits de l'Homme et du Citoyen can be found in Portraits des personnages célèbres de la révolution, avec tableau historique et noticesby P. Quenard (Call No. DC145 .Q42 1796).
The following engraving from Revolution de France (No. XIII), dediees a la Nation (Call No. DC140. R55. v.1) depicts acocarde personifying the French National Constitution holding a tablet featuring the laws and the Declaration des Droits de l'Homme et du Citoyen.
The Women's March on Versailles, October 5, 1789
Also outlined in revolutionary pamphlets in Archives & Special Collections' holdings is the Women's March on Versailles on October 5, 1789. This event was one of the earliest and most significant and violent events of the French Revolution. The March on Versailles was staged in an effort to obtain bread and force the high prices of bread down by a group of outraged Frenchwomen who gathered in the Parisian marketplaces. Despite being provided with more bread by the Hôtel de Ville, the original crowd of women (numbering almost 6000) and others that had joined them continued to march upon Versailles to ensure that enough bread would be available in the future at reasonable prices. Famine was a real and ever-present dread for the lower strata of the Third Estate, and rumors of an "aristocratic' plot" to starve the poor were rampant and readily believed.
Those who marched on Versailles carried weapons including muskets, pitchforks and scythes, and they also dragged along several canons from the Hôtel de Ville along with them. During the march, there were many protesters who called for the death of Queen Marie-Antoinette, who was inextricably associated with excessive luxury and spending. When they arrived at Versailles, they overtook the National Constituent Assembly and its deputies. Maximilien Robespierre, who was a relatively obscure political figure at the time, assisted with calming the crowd through words of support for the women and their plight. A delegate of women were taken before Louis XVI, they explained their situation to him, and he responded by providing them with more bread and a promise that more would be given to them soon. This placated some of the women and some of the others who had joined them, and they returned to Paris.
However, there were some who demanded the Queen's death and the King's removal from Versailles to Paris, and attacked the palace killing several guards in their attempt to find Marie-Antoinette. General Lafayette intervened with a group of his soldiers and the king's bodyguards and cleared the palace. Afterwards, in an attempt to appease the crowd, the King appeared before the crowd from a balcony and conveyed to them that he would return to Paris with them. The following engravings from the revolutionary pamphlet Revolution de France (No. XIII), dediees a la Nation(Call No. DC140 .R55) provide an idea of the sheer number of people involved in the March on Versailles and how they forcibly brought the King back to the Tuileries Palace in Paris. This pamphlet also contains a contemporary account of the March on Versailles in 1789. The reasoning behind this forced departure from Versailles was the opinion the king would be more accountable to the people if he lived among them in Paris.
The Constitution of 1791
The short-lived French Constitution of 1791 was the first written constitution in France, created after the collapse of the Absolute Monarchy of the Ancien Régime. This document, unwillingly signed by King Louis XVI, created a constitutional monarchy in France. Redefining the organization of the French government, citizenship and the limits to the powers of government, the National Assembly set out to represent the interests of the general will. The Assembly's belief in a sovereign nation and in equal representation can be seen in the constitutional separation of powers. The National Assembly was the legislative body, the king and royal ministers made up the executive branch and the judiciary was independent of the other two branches.
The Champs de Mars Massacre, June 17, 1791
On July 17, 1791, the National Constituent Assembly issued a decree that the king, Louis XVI, would remain king under a constitutional monarchy. However, the leaders of the republicans in France decided to rally against this decision. A large group of citizens met in the Champs de Mars to sign a petition demanding the removal of the monarchy however they were disbanded by the Marquis de Lafayette and the National Guard. A larger crowd returned later in the day, and when the National Guard attempted to disperse them and violence erupted. The crowd began throwing stones, and the National Guard were eventually forced to begin firing on the crowd. It is estimated that 50 people (at most) lost their lives that day.
According to the revolutionary pamphlet Revolution de Paris (No. 106) (Call No. DC140 .R55), public perception of the massacre was mixed: "Le masscacre du 17 juillet est-il un bien? le massacre du 17 juillet est-il un mal? voilà la seule question qui divise la France." The National Assembly and many other government officials believed that the French Capital was overrun by brigands that compromised the safety of all the citizens of Paris while others believed that the massacre of peaceful citizens and their families was the result of the execution of martial law and a formidable desire to hinder the progress of the revolution.
The National Constituent Assembly dissolved itself on September 30, 1791. The Legislative Assembly would hold power in Revolutionary France until the National Convention was convened on September 21, 1792.
"Malheureuse journee du 17 juillet 1791" in La Revolution de Paris. No. 106. (Paris:1791), 54.
The August Decrees
After the storming of the Bastille, the next significant event of the French Revolution occurred on August 4, 1789. On that day, the National Constituent Assembly adopted 18 decrees or articles – The August Decrees – concerning the abolition of feudalism, other privileges of the nobility, and seigneurial rights.
This decision took place in the context of the Great Fear, rural peasant revolt fueled by rumors of an aristocrats’ “famine plot” to starve or burn out the population.
While the decrees dampened the unrest of the Great Fear, violence continued for a year. Under the original decree, peasants were supposed to pay for the release of seigneurial dues. Most refused and in 1793 the obligation was cancelled.
This excerpt from the film La Révolution française (1989) depicts the peasant uprisings of July and August 1789 and the National Assembly’s August 4th decrees.
The Real Tennis Room: from a royal “sports hall” to a museum of the French Revolution
Built in 1686, this sports hall was privately owned. The royal family, and especially the king, played real tennis here, a type of ball game that was a predecessor of tennis. On 20 June 1789 the deputies of the Third Estate (the Commoners) made the famous Oath of the Real Tennis Room here, and on 7 'Brumaire'* of the year II (28 October 1793), a decree in the Convention procured the room for the French nation. It thereafter served a variety of purposes. (*Brumair was the second month in the French Republican Calendar, named after the French word 'brume', for the fogs common in that season, roughly October-November of our current calendar.)
In 1804 the room was used as a workshop by the painter Antoine-Jean Gros, as a military hospice in 1815, and as a workshop by the painter Horace Vernet during the reign of Louis-Philippe, before being fully restored under the Third Republic. The restoration work on the building and decor was undertaken by the architect Edmond Guillaume (1826-1894) and began in 1879.
Edmond Guillaume installed a Doric aedicule held up by two marble columns, which came from the Grove of the Domes in the gardens of Versailles. The aedicule was topped with a rooster in bronze sculpted by Auguste Cain and housed a marble statue of Jean Sylvain Bailly by René de Saint-Marceaux. Running around the edge of the room is a frieze of foliage in which the names of the signatories of the oath are painted. Twenty busts commissioned from contemporary sculptors represent the Assembly’s key members.
The French Revolution Class IX SST History: Important Questions
1. Who was Louis XVI?
Louis XVI was the King of France. He was from Bourbon family. He ascended throne in 1774. He married, the Austrian princess Marie Antoinette, at the age of 20 years.
2. Why was the treasury of France empty and what were the reasons that led to the need of increasing taxes?
The following points explain why the treasury was empty and the king was going to propose increase in the tax resources.
- The treasury was empty because of the long-drawn wars in which France was helping the 13 colonies to gain independence from Britain.
- Another big reason was the extravagant expenditure incurred to maintain the functioning of the court at the palace of Versailles.
- The debt due to the war had risen to more than 2 billion livres and the lenders had started charging 10% percent interest on state credit.
- The other regular expenses included the cost of maintaining an army, the court, running government offices or universities.
3. What was old regime?
The rule of Monarchy before the French revolution is called old regime.
4. Describe the structure of the French society during old regime.
4. The structure of the French society before the French revolution is given below:
businessmen, merchants, court officials, lawyers etc
5. Mention the different types of taxes during the old regime.
The system of taxation was highly unjust and impractical at the mode of collecting revenue, watch expensive and corrupt. The nobility and clergy who purchased 40% of the national wealth. The minimum and the main burden of the Texas and fell on the unprivileged classes – the third estate. The following two main types of taxes were paid.
- Taille -The direct taxes were paid to the state. There were other various indirect taxes levied on commodities of daily conjunction like salt, tobacco, etc.
- Tithe – such taxes were expected by the church and it comprised 1/10 of the agricultural produce.
- Feudal dues – the nobles had feudal privileges whereby agents were obliged to render services to the Lord – to work in his house in fields – to serve in the army or to participate in building roads.
6. What do you understand by the ‘Subsistence Crisis’?
The gap between the poor and the rich widened as France was under grave influence of inflation on the eve of the outbreak of the French Revolution. It resulted in the struggle to survive. The following points explain the reasons behind the subsistence crisis.
- The population of France rose from about 23 million 1715 to 28 million in 1789 and it led to a rapid increase in the demand for food grains. The production of grains could not keep pace with the rising demand.
- The price of bread, the staple diet of the majority, rose rapidly the workers employed as labourers had their wages fixed and were not able to keep pace with the rising prices of the bread.
- There were frequent drought or hail that reduced harvest adding to the subsistence crisis that occurred frequently in France during the Old Regime.
7. What was the vision of the growing middle class in France?
- A middle class was growing from among the third estate that was educated. They were prosperous as they had earned their wealth through an expanding overseas trade and from the manufacture of goods such as wool and silk textiles that were either exported or bored by the original members of society.
- Besides merchants and manufacturers, the third estate included professions such as lawyers, doctors, teachers, and administrative officials etc.
- They were educated and receptive to new ideas and were liberal in their thoughts’ favoured privileges and social positions based on merit and not primarily on birth. They had the vision of a society based on freedom and equal laws and opportunities for all.
8. Which philosophers inspired the French Revolution?
It is said that an idea can cause a revolution or the pen has the power to change and transform the society or the thinking of the people. This also applies to the French Revolution which was influenced by the great philosophers. The contribution of some philosophers is listed below.
John Locke – he was a British philosopher who refuted in his “Two Treatises of Government” the doctrine of the divine and absolute rights of the monarch. He emphasised that no group in the society should be privileged by birth. It must be the basis of a person’s social position. For his liberal views is also called the father of liberalism.
Jean Jacques Rousseau – He was born in Switzerland. In his book “social contract” propose the idea of form of government based on social contract between people and their representatives. He said that the king remained on the throne under no obligation to go with the contract. If he failed in his duty, the contract was broken and it would be deposed by the general i.e. the will of the people.
Montesquieu – He was born in French. In his book ‘speed of laws’ he openly attacked the absolute monarchy of France he advocated the constitutional monarchy and proposed a division of power within the government between the legislative, executive and the judiciary. This model was an exercise in the USA after the 13 colonies achieved independence from Britain.
Voltaire – He was a French philosopher who was a crusader and exposed the corruption and the evils prevailing in the church and attacked the superstitions, tyranny and injustices. He criticised the government and society and bitterly condemned the maladies afflicting them. He advocated the freedom of speech, freedom of religion and separation of church and the state.
9. How was the National Assembly formed in France before the French Revolution of 1789?
- The king had called a meeting of the Estates General to propose new taxes and the Third Estate had also sent its 600 most prosperous and educated members as representative to convey the grievances of the people contained in around 40,000 letters.
- The Third Estate members asked to consider the Three Estates as a single assembly for individual voting on democratic to replace the traditional voting system based on one vote for each Estate.
- The king rejected the proposal of new voting procedures demanded by the Third Estate.
- The members of the Third Estate walked out of the assembly. They viewed themselves as the spokesmen of the whole French nation.
- On 20 June, they met in the hall of an indoor tennis court in the grounds of the Versailles.
- They declared themselves as National Assembly and took oath not to disperse till they had drafted a constitution for France to limit the powers of the King.
- The National Assembly lasted from 17 June 1789 to 30 September 1789.
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10. What were the important achievements of the National Assembly (1789-1791)
The Third Estate took a revolutionary decision when it declared itself as the National Assembly on 17 June 1789 as they viewed themselves as the spokesmen of the whole nation. The following points estimate the works of the National Assembly.
- Rights of the Privileged Classes abolished – On 4 August, 1789 passed a decree abolishing the feudal system of obligations and taxes. the nobles voluntarily surrendered their feudal rights and privileges like rights of hunting, fishing and collecting taxes. Tithes were abolished and lands owned by the Church were confiscated.
- Declaration of the rights of man and citizen – it was one of the most important works of the National Assembly that declared some fundamental rights to its citizen in August 1789. It was signed by the king on October 5, 1789.
- France becomes a constitutional monarchy – the constituent assembly completed the Constitution in 1791 with the main objective to curtail the powers of the monarch. The law-making powers were distributed to legislative Assembly which was indirectly elected.
Thus, we can say that the constituent assembly abolished feudalism, serfdom and privileges of the elite. It ended the era of absolutist monarchy and class-based society class-based society It laid the foundations for modern society based on individual rights.
11. Explain the role of National Convention’ (Oct. 1792-Oct. 1793) and its achievements.
- The National assembly was replaced by an elected ‘National Convention’. It started its work on September 21, 1792.
- The national Convention ended monarchy and declared France a Republic on 22 September 1792.
- Emperor Louis XVI was tried for treason and executed on Jan 21, 1793 followed by his queen Marie Antoinette in Oct 1793.
12. What was the ‘Reign of Terror’ that lasted from 1793 to 1794?
Perhaps it was the most terrible time during the revolutionary period in France as Maximilian Robespierre had adopted the policy of civil control and punishment to punish the enemies of Republic in the name of saving France from the forces opposing the Democratic and public system in France.
- All those local team work considered as a means of Republic. They were arrested, imprisoned and tried by Revolutionary Tribunal.
- If the Revolutionary Tribunal found the accused guilty, they were guillotined.
- The reign of terror became intolerable and even his own party men started demanding moderation in policies.
- The reign of terror ended with the execution of Robespierre. He was arrested on the 27 July 1794 and was executed the very next day.
13. What were the achievements of Robespierre government?
- Laws were issued placing the maximum ceiling on wages and prices.
- Peasants were forced to transport your Grange to the cities and sell it at fixed prices.
- Consumption of more expensive white floor was restricted and also regions were asked to eat the equality bread made of whole wheat.
- Meat and bread were rationed.
- Equality norms were introduced in modes of speech and address. The traditional Mosieur (Sir) was replaced by Citoyen and the term Madame (Madam) by Citoyenne i.e citizens.
- Churches were shut down and converted into barracks or offices.
14. Write a short note on the formation and the rule of the ‘Directory’ in Frances.
- The reign of terror came to an end with the execution of Robespierre in July 1794. The new constitution was drafted in October 1795. The new constitution provided for two legislative assemblies who appointed five members to form an executive called Directory. This system was adopted as a safeguard against the concentration of power in one-man executive.
- The role of the Directory was marred with instability as the members of the directory and the legislative assemblies clashed with each other and it became unpopular among the French people.
- It was overthrown by Napoleon Bonaparte through a coup in 1799.
15. What was the condition of women in France?
- Most women in the third estate had to work for a living. They worked as seamstress or laundress, sold flowers, fruits and vegetables. They worked as domestic servants in prosperous houses.
- Most women did not have access to education or job training but the wealthier families could study at a convent.
- Working women also cared for their families and id daily chores like cooking, fetching water, queuing up for bread and looking after the children.
- Their wages were lower than those of women.
16. Did women participate in revolutionary activities? What were their demands?
Since the very beginning the women had been very active in all the events related to the revolution. When the men were busy fighting at the front, the women took responsibility of earning a livelihood and taking care of the families.
- The crowd that the stormed the Bastille on 14 July 1789 included a large number of women
- On 5 October 1789, a large number of women set out for the royal palace at Versailles and forced the king and his family to leave Versailles for Paris.
- Women established around 60 political groups in different cities of France. The society of Revolutionary and Republican women was the most renowned club established in 1793 in Paris.
- Their major political demands included the right to vote, to be elected to the assembly and to hold political offices.
- Examples of some prominent Revolutionary Women include the names of Olympe de Gouges, Charlottee Corday and Marie Jeanne Ronald.
17. What were the steps taken by the revolutionary government to improve the lives of women?
- State schools were established and elementary education was made compulsory for all girls.
- They could not be forced to marry against their will and marriage was made into a contract entered into freely. It was registered under civil law. And divorce was made legal.
- Women were entitled to train for jobs, become artists or running small businesses.
18. Mention different steps to abolishing of slavery in French Colonies.
There was widespread slavery in the European colonies of the Caribbean and the Americas. Martinique, Guadeloupe and Domingo (Dominican Republic) were the main French colonies in the Caribbean in the 17th century.
- The National Assembly debated long on the issue of a abolition of slavery but it did not pass any laws abolished slavery in French colonies fearing opposition from businessmen pros and incomes depended on the slave trade.
- The abolition of slavery was one of the most revolutionary achievements of the Jacobin rule as the National Convention passed laws in 1794 to free slaves of French colonies but it was a temporary measure as it was reintroduced by Napoleon Bonaparte in 1802.
- It was in 1848 that the slavery was finally abolished in French colonies.
19. What was the triangular slave trade?
- The slave trade began in the 17th century and the triangular slave trade was carried between Europe, Africa and America.
- The Europeans did not want to go to work in distant and unfamiliar lands so slaves were bought from Africa and sold to Plantation owners of sugar, coffee, indigo and tobacco plantations to meet the demand for labourers.
- The French merchants sailed from the ports of Bordeaux or Nantes to the African coast, where they bought slaves from local chieftains. There were packed tightly shackled in the ships that sailed for around three months to reach Caribbean island where the slaves were sold to the plantation owners.
20. What was the legacy of the French Revolution? How did it affect the world and especially Europe?
The effects of the French Revolution of 1789 were far-reaching not only for France but the whole world. It began a new era of liberty, equality, fraternity being the watchwords that he echoed in the whole of Europe.
Effects on France
- The revolution brought about the downfall of the monarchy. First it was made a constitutional monarchy and then declared a republic on September 22, 1792.
- The old social system based on feudalism and the privileges of the nobles and the clergy came to an end and a new social order based on the foundations of liberty and equality began to take shape.
- The Declaration of Rights of Man granted individual freedom and fundamental rights on August 26, 1789.
Effects on the World
- Liberty, Equality and Fraternity, the award words of the French Revolution became a source of inspiration for different countries of Europe. The people became aware of power of masses in converting an absolutist monarchy into a contitutional monarcy or a republic.
- The masses in other European countries also started movements to achieve a individual freedom, right to property, an establishment of responsible government and the freedom of writing a speech in publication et cetera.
Rise of Napoleon Bonaparte
The French Revolution gave rise to Napoleon Bonaparte. After the dissolution of ‘Directory’ He first became the first consulate and then ultimately the Emperor of France in 1804. He is called the ‘child of revolution’.
According to the new constitution, the new Legislative Assembly met in 1791. When the revolution broke out many of the nobles managed to escape from France. They carried out propaganda against the revolution in France and tried to mobilize support from other countries. Austria and Prussia came forward to help them. To curtail their activities the Legislative Assembly passed laws. The king did not approve of these laws and used his veto against them.
King Leopold of Austria issued the famous Declaration of Pilnitz against the revolutionaries on 27 th August 1791. War broke out between the revolutionary government and Austria in 1792. The revolutionary army was defeated. The wrath of the revolutionaries turned against the French king. On 10 th August 1792 the mob attacked the King's palace at Tuileries. The king was suspended and elections were ordered for a National Convention to prepare another new constitution for the country. This was followed by the 'September Massacres'. The Revolutionary government at Paris led by Danton massacred 1500 suspected supporters of the French king. Then the French army defeated the Austrian army at Valmy.
Where did the French National Constituent Assembly meet on August 4, 1789? - History
On June 13, 1929, Sister Lucia Santos had an apparition the Most Holy Trinity. Near the right arm of the cross was Our Lady and in her hand was her Immaculate Heart. Our Lady said to Lucia: “The moment has come in which God asks the Holy Father, in union with all the Bishops of the world, to make the consecration of Russia to my Immaculate Heart, promising to save it by this means. There are so many souls whom the Justice of God condemns for sins committed against me, that I have come to ask reparation: sacrifice yourself for this intention and pray.”
Later, in an intimate communication, Our Lord complained to Lucia, saying: “They did not wish to heed my request!… Like the King of France, they will repent and do it, but it will be late. Russia will have already spread her errors throughout the world, provoking wars, and persecutions of the Church: the Holy Father will have much to suffer.”
In a letter of August 29, 1931, addressed to her bishop, Sister Lucia told the bishop about recently receive revelation regarding the consecration of Russia. In this intimate communication God said to Lucia: “Make it known to My ministers that, given they follow the example of the King of France in delaying the execution of My request, they will follow him into misfortune. It will never be too late to have recourse to Jesus and Mary.”
Hundred years: June 13, 1929 — June 13, 2029
In 1689 Margaret Mary Alacoque had addressed to Louis XIV, the King of France, with the Lord's requirement of the consecration of France to His Sacred Heart. This requirement has been ignored. As a result, exactly one hundred years later, the French Revolution happened. And about three and a half years after the Revolution's inception (1789-06-17 — 1793-01-21) the King was beheaded.
If the solemn consecration of Russia by the Pope together with all the Catholic bishops will not happen, then the world could expect that in June 2029 the great distress will begin.
2032. The End of the Papacy
The «Prophecy of the Popes» by St. Malachy of Armagh predicts that the end of the Pontificate of the last Pope, i.e. the end of the papacy, falls on Thursday, March 18, 2032.
The request of Our Lord to consecrate France to His Sacred Heart
In 1689, shortly before her death, Margaret Mary Alacoque wrote several letters to her ex-Superioress Mother de Saumaise. These letters let into the theme of the reign of the world's Sacred Heart of Jesus. Some of these letters were addressed to Louis XIV, the King of France. Margaret Mary had suggested that through the King's confessor, Father Francis de La Chaise, those letters should be handed over to the King.
These letters contained the request of Our Lord to the King of France:
the King must consecrate France to the Sacred Heart of Jesus.
Margaret Mary Alacoque wrote to Mother de Saumaise to thank her for what she had done toward promoting devotion to the Sacred Heart. The letter expresses the confidence in the establishment of the reign of the Sacred Heart.
Margaret Mary Alacoque wrote the second letter. It described the desire of the Lord, addressed to King Louis XIV: King has to consecrate himself, his court, and the whole of his kingdom to the Sacred Heart of Jesus.
Margaret Mary Alacoque wrote the third letter. It emphasizes the importance of the issue raised and expressed the concern at the lack of response.
Margaret Mary Alacoque wrote the last letter to transfer to the King Louis XIV. She emphasized again the seriousness of the issue of the consecration of France to the Sacred Heart of Jesus. This letter-declaration in the solemn and majestic words sets out in details all steps of the required consecration.
At the age of 43 Margaret Mary Alakok had reposed in the Lord.
Neither King Louis XIV, nor his successors — Louis XV, and then Louis XVI — did not fulfill this requirement.
In May 5, 1789, during an acute financial and political crisis, King Louis XVI convened the Estates-General. It was the eve of the French Revolution. Prior to this, the last convocation of the Estates-General was in 1614.
The Estates-General ( фр. États Généraux) — a general assembly, existing in 1302—1789, represented the French estates of the kingdom: First Estate — the clergy, Second Estate — the nobles, and Third Estate — the common people (98% of France's population). The Estates-General proposed solutions to king's government's financial problems.
On May 28, the representatives of the Third Estate began to meet on their own. from June 13 to June 17 they were gradually joined by some of the nobles and the majority of the clergy. On June 17, this group began to call itself the National Assembly.
This happened exactly 100 years after the letter of Mary Margaret Alakok on 1689-06-17, which sets forth the requirement of the Lord to dedicate France to His Sacred Heart.
On 9 July 1789, the National Assembly reconstitutes itself as the National Constituent Assembly ( fr. Assemblée nationale constituante) and began to function as a governing body and a constitution-drafter.
King Louis XVI acquiesced to the Civil Constitution of the Clergy.
Consecration was done but it was late
King Louis XVI was arrested on 13 August 1792 and imprisoned at the Temple's tower. On 21 September 1792, the National Assembly abolished the Monarchy and declared the First French Republic. Being imprisoned at the Temple's tower, Louis XVI secretly consecrated France to the Sacred Heart of Jesus, but it was late because he was not a king of France any more.
On Monday, 21 January 1793, Louis was beheaded by guillotine on the Place de la Révolution.
The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
On 26 August 1789, the French National Constituent Assembly issued the Déclaration des droits de l'homme et du citoyen (Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen) which defined individual and collective rights at the time of the French Revolution. Some delegates at the Assembly had expressed their admiration for Magna Carta and other constitutional documents, such as the United States Declaration of Independence, but ultimately the Déclaration rejected appeals to ancient charters of liberties, based on the principle that the rights of man were natural, universal and inalienable.
The Déclaration nonetheless echoed Magna Carta in certain key statements, such as by subordinating the monarch to the rule of law (clause 3) by maintaining that, &lsquoNul homme ne peut etre accusé, arreté ni detenu que dans les cas déterminés par la loi&rsquo (No person shall be accused, arrested or imprisoned except in those cases established by the law clause 7) and by ensuring that taxation could only be raised by common consent (clause 14). Marquis de La Fayette (1757-1834), the principal author of the Déclaration, collaborated with Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826), who had been influenced in turn by Magna Carta. Jefferson&rsquos influence is clearly discernible in clause 1, which declares that, &lsquoLes hommes naissent et demeurent libres et egaux en droits&rsquo (Men are born and remain free and equal in rights).
Painted by the artist Jean-Jacques-François Le Barbier (1738-1826), this depiction of the Déclaration celebrates these rights as a crowning achievement of the French Revolution. The allegorical figures of France breaking her chains and Fame under the eye of God sit atop the Déclaration, which is associated with a red Phrygian cap, a snake biting its tail and a laurel wreath, representing liberty, eternal unity and glory respectively.
Legacy [ edit | edit source ]
The declaration has also influenced and inspired rights-based liberal democracy throughout the world. It was translated as soon as 1793–94 by Colombian Antonio Nariño, who published it despite the Inquisition and was sentenced to be imprisoned for ten years for doing so. In 2003, the document was listed on UNESCO's Memory of the World register.
Constitution of the French Fifth Republic [ edit | edit source ]
According to the preamble of the Constitution of the French Fifth Republic (adopted on 4 October 1958, and the current constitution), the principles set forth in the Declaration have constitutional value. Many laws and regulations have been canceled because they did not comply with those principles as interpreted by the Conseil Constitutionnel ("Constitutional Council of France") or by the Conseil d'État ("Council of State").
- Taxation legislation or practices that seem to make some unwarranted difference between citizens are struck down as unconstitutional.
- Suggestions of positive discrimination on ethnic grounds are rejected because they infringe on the principle of equality, since they would establish categories of people that would, by birth, enjoy greater rights.
Conspiracy theories [ edit | edit source ]
The Eye of Providence represents the sun 'shining' on the laws and fueled several conspiracy theories, for instance that the French Revolution was caused by occults groups. ⎧] ⎨] Template:Better source