Mysterious 1,500-Year-Old Stone Complex Unearthed in Kazakhstan

Mysterious 1,500-Year-Old Stone Complex Unearthed in Kazakhstan

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A mysterious stone complex which may have been built by the Huns has been discovered in Kazakhstan. It contains some stones which look exactly like ones found at Stonehenge in the UK. The site also contained some precious silver treasures.

According to LiveScience, the complex was identified during research conducted by Andrey Astafiev of the Mangistaus State Historical and Cultural Reserve, and Evgeniï Bogdanov of the Russian Academy of Sciences Siberian Department's Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography. The complex is huge, covering an area larger than 200 American football fields (about 120 hectares or 300 acres). The site is known as Altÿnkazgan and it is located in Kazakhstan near the eastern shore of the Caspian Sea.

The researchers identified several types and sizes of stone structures at the site. The smallest is 4 by 4 meters (13 ft x 13 ft), but the largest found to date measures 34 by 24 meters (112 ft by 79 ft). It is easy to note similarities between the site and structures found at Stonehenge. Astafiev and Bogdanov also found impressive carvings of creatures and weapons on some of the stones.

A stone structure and a carved stone that shows an animal. ( Live Science )

The researchers recently published an article about their discovery in the journal Ancient Civilizations from Scythia to Siberia . Apart from the stones and carvings, they have made other spectacular finds at the site. For example, they discovered the remains of a saddle made with silver elements and decorated with images of deer, wild boars, and other beasts (perhaps lions).

This outstanding artifact sheds some light on the origins of the mysterious complex. Astafiev and Bogdanov wrote that the decoration is a relief which was impressed onto the front of the saddle surface. They believe that the ancient artisan(s) first designed the images on leather and then glued them onto wooden boards. Silver plates were then fixed over the shapes.

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The site was discovered in 2010 by a man known as F. Akhmadulin who lives in the town of Aktau. He discovered the remarkable site using a metal detector. Akhmadulin was searching the area around the Mangÿshlak Peninsula when he found some artifacts such as the silver saddle. He informed Astafiev about the discovery, enabling the researchers to uncover even more magnificent treasures.

The saddle’s silver facing. ( Andrey E. Astafiev & Evgeniï S. Bogdanov )

The archaeological site is in a sagebrush desert, so it was not especially difficult for the researchers to find. However, the region’s socioeconomic situation prevented them from starting work for four years. They started to dig in 2014 where Akhmadulin discovered the silver saddle and unearthed more of it. They also found other artifacts such as two bronze pieces which are probably the remains of a whip.

The researchers’ main questions are: who built the stone complex and who owned the precious artifacts. By analyzing the saddle, they found that the decoration can be dated back to the period of the Roman Empire’s collapse. At that time, the Huns were traveling across Asia and Europe - and the owner of the saddle was most probably one of them. As Astafiev and Bogdanov told LiveScience, the Huns “led various ethnic groups in the Eurasian steppes to move from their previous homelands.”

Silver facing from the rear end of a saddle flap found at the site. (Andrey E. Bogdanov ) The image shows a beast attacking another creature while a bird attacks the animal’s nose. More birds are depicted around the edge of the saddle flap.

The researchers hope to continue their work at Altÿnkazgan. They informed LiveScience that an article about the silver saddle is planned for publication in 2017. As of now, they have only concluded that the owner of the saddle was a wealthy and powerful person. Symbols engraved on the saddle called “tamgas” suggest the privileged status of the owner in his society. Moreover, it could have also been a family symbol. Archaeologists also unearthed a human skeleton at the site, however the relationship between the saddle and bones is still unclear.

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The arid location around the archaeological site. ( Evgeniï Bogdanov )

Altÿnkazgan is another example of a remarkable archaeological discovery made in Kazakhstan over the last few years. April Holloway reported another exciting find in September, 2014 with the discovery of “the Nazca lines of Kazakhstan – more than 50 giant geoglyphs formed with earthen mounds and timber found stretched across the landscape in northern Kazakhstan. They are designed in a variety of geometric shapes, including crosses, squares, rings, and even a swastika, an ancient symbol that has been in use for at least 12,000 years.”

Holloway reported that “the geoglyphs, which are very difficult to see on the ground, were first spotted on Google Earth. Since then, a team of archaeologists from Kostanay University in Kazakhstan and Vilnius University in Lithuania, have investigated the giant structures using aerial photography and ground-penetrating radar. Their results revealed a wide variety of shapes ranging from 90 to 400 metres in diameter, mostly made of earthen mounds, but one – the swastika – was made using timber. Researchers have not yet dated the structures but their characteristics suggest they are around 2,000 years old.”

Some of the geoglyphs found in northern Kazakhstan. Credit: Image copyright DigitalGlobe, courtesy Google Earth

Mysterious pool and fountain discovered at ancient Christian site in Israel

Archaeologists have unearthed a large 1,500-year-old pool and elaborate fountain at the site of an ancient church near Jerusalem.

Archaeologists in Israel have announced the discovery of a large 1,500-year-old pool and elaborate fountain at the site of an ancient church near Jerusalem.

The pool is part of a system of pools unearthed at Ein Hanniya Park between 2012 and 2016, officials said Wednesday. Built during the Byzantine era, the pools date back to between the 4th and 6th centuries A.D., according to the Israel Antiquities Authority. Other artifacts found at the site include a rare silver coin from the 4th century B.C. and an ancient capital, or part of a pillar. Experts say that the capital is typical of royal structures found the First Temple period between 960 B.C. and 586 B.C.

The site’s large pool, in particular, is generating plenty of buzz. “The most significant finding in the excavation is a large and impressive pool from the Byzantine period,” explained Irina Zilberbod, the excavation director for the Israel Antiquities Authority. “This pool was built in the center of a spacious complex at the foot of a church that once stood here. Roofed colonnades were built around the pool that gave access to residential wings.”

There are still, however, plenty of unanswered questions about the mysterious pool. “It’s difficult to know what the pool was used for – whether for irrigation, washing, landscaping or perhaps as part of baptismal ceremonies at the site,” said Zilberbod. The pool’s water, she noted, drained through a network of channels to a fountain.

The fountain at the Ein Hanniya site (Photo: Assaf Peretz, Israel Antiquities Authority)

The fountain, a monument adorned with depictions of nymphs, is the first of its kind in Israel, according to archaeologists.

Experts worked to restore the ancient water systems, which are now functioning again.

Coins, pottery and glass found at Ein Hanniya indicate that the location was a hive of activity between the 4th and 6th centuries B.C. The site has also been linked to the New Testament account of an Ethiopian Eunuch’s conversion to Christianity by St. Philip the Evangelist. “We believe that some early Christian commentators identified Ein Hanniya as the site where the Ethiopian eunuch was baptized, as described in Acts 8:26–40,” said Jerusalem District Archaeologist Dr. Yuval Baruch, in a statement. “The baptism of the eunuch by St. Philip was one of the key events in the spread of Christianity. Therefore, identifying the place where it occurred occupied scholars for many generations and became a common motif in Christian art.”

The site of Ein Hanniya after Israel Antiquities Authority Conservation Administration work. (Photo: Assaf Peretz, Israel Antiquities Authority)

Part of the site, Baruch, noted, is still owned by Christians and is a focus of religious ceremonies by the Armenian Church (which owns the site) and the Ethiopian Church.

Archaeologists also think that, prior to the Byzantine era, Ein Hanniya may have been a royal estate at the time of the First Temple, as evidenced by the capital discovery.

The site is one of a number of amazing archaeological locations in Israel, many of which shed light on early Christianity. Last year, for example, archaeologists uncovered a stunning 1,500-year-old Christian mosaic that was once the floor of a church or monastery in the ancient coastal city of Ashdod-Yam.

Rare silver coin from the 4th century BCE, one of the most ancient ever discovered in the Jerusalem area. (Photo: Clara Amit, Israel Antiquities Authority) ( )

Also in 2017 an ancient Greek inscription was found on a 1,500-year-old mosaic floor near the Damascus Gate in the Old City of Jerusalem. The inscription mentions the Byzantine emperor Justinian, who ruled in the 6th century A.D., and commemorates the building’s founding by a priest called Constantine.

In 2015 a 1,500-year-old church was discovered at a Byzantine-era rest stop between Tel Aviv and Jerusalem. In 2014 the remains of another church from the same period were uncovered in southern Israel.

Experts also believe they have found the lost Roman city of Julias, formerly the village of Bethsaida, which was the home of Jesus' apostles Peter, Andrew and Philip.

Stone-complex discovery

In 2010, a man named F. Akhmadulin (as named in the journal article), from a town called Aktau, was using a metal detector in Altÿnkazgan, which is located on the Mangÿshlak Peninsula, near the eastern coast of the Caspian Sea, when he found parts of a silver saddle and other artifacts. Akhmadulin brought the artifacts to Astafiev who works in Aktau. [7 Bizarre Ancient Cultures That History Forgot]

"Most of the territory consists of sagebrush desert," Astafiev and Bogdanov wrote. However, Astafiev found that the desert location where Akhmadulin brought him contained the remains of an undiscovered 120-hectare stone complex. Akhmadulin located the artifacts in one of these stone structures.

"Unfortunately, the socioeconomic situation in the region is not one in which it is easy to engage in archaeological research, and it was not until 2014 that the authors of this article were able to excavate certain features within the site," Astafiev and Bogdanov wrote.

When excavations got underway in 2014, the archaeologists excavated the stone structure where Akhmadulin had found the saddle. They found more saddle parts, along with other artifacts, including two bronze objects that turned out to be the remains of a whip.

Recently, an artifact that was unearthed in Oregon and was identified as an “ ancient Swiss army knife,” may have been the oldest artifact so far found in western North America.

The simple stone tool, hewn from a piece of bright orange agate, was unearthed near a shallow cave that has already turned up evidence of early human occupation — including stone points, tools, and charcoal-stained hearths — dating back as much as 12,000 years. But this artifact was found even deeper in the region’s sandy clay, beneath a layer of volcanic ash that experts have found to be 15,800 years old. If its age is confirmed, the tool would be nearly 3,000 years older than the widespread artifacts of the Clovis culture, once thought to be the continent’s earliest inhabitants.

“This is really exciting,” said Stephen Baker, spokesman for the Oregon office of the U.S. Bureau of Land Management, in an interview. “But of course there’s more research to do.” The hand-sized tool was first unearthed in 2012 by the University of Oregon’s archaeology field school, at a site in south-central Oregon known as Rimrock Draw Rockshelter, on BLM land. The fact that it was found beneath — and was therefore presumably older than — the layer of ancient ash was “fascinating” in itself, Baker said. After a chemical analysis of the artifact revealed that it also contained traces of proteins from bison, confirming that it had been used as a tool.

Ancient bison skeleton from the La Brea tar pits in California This orange agate stone tool, found buried beneath a layer of 15,800-year-old volcanic ash, may be the oldest artifact yet found in western North America, archaeologists say.

“Getting this bison residue further corroborated the idea that it was a tool, likely used for butchering,” Baker said. Dr. Patrick O’Grady of the University of Oregon, who has been leading the excavations, said that the discovery came about after his field school uncovered debris from an ancient rockfall near the cave.

“Our excavation units had reached a jumbled layer of rockfall that appeared to be the result of a collapse of portions of the rock shelter face,” O’Grady said in an interview.

“We wanted to break that material up and clear a path so we could continue excavating to the bedrock underneath.” Beneath the debris, the team found large fragments of tooth enamel from an extinct species of camel. And beneath those, they hit a sudden, even layer of volcanic ash and rock, called tephra. Experts from Washington State University analyzed the ash, and were able not only to radiocarbon date it to about 15,800 years ago, but were also able to isolate its source: Washington’s Mount St. Helen’s.

Now sagebrush country, the terrain around Rimrock Draw Rockshelter was likely much wetter when the artifacts found there were originally used.

“We found the stone tool 20 centimeters under the Mount St. Helen’s tephra, in dense sandy clay sediment,” O’Grady said. Baker, of the BLM, said researchers quickly identified the object as a tool.

“When they found it, they kind of joked that it was like an ancient swiss army knife,” he said.

“One edge, they believe, was used for scraping animal hide, and another side that’s been worn down over the years they believe was used for carving wood or bone. So, there are a couple of theories, but they think this is kind of a multi-purpose tool.”

The archaeologists were also struck by the tool’s unusual material, he added. It’s this bright orange agate, Baker said. “In that area, there’s a lot of obsidian, but they’d never seen this material in that area before. So it really raises a lot of questions.

“They’re fascinated with, how did this tool get here? Where did it come from? What did they use it for?”

O’Grady agreed that the use of agate is unusual for the region, and potentially significant.

“It is much less common in eastern Oregon sites than obsidian,” he said of the agate.

“My take is that older points tend to be made of [materials like agate] more often than obsidian.” For archaeologists, this new discovery readily invites comparison with a similar find made nearby — at Oregon’s Paisley Caves, just 200 kilometers away, wherein 2008 animal bones and human feces were found that dated to about 14,300 years ago. While those finds, too, remain controversial, both men acknowledge that the Paisley Cave samples gave scientists more to work with than what they have so far at Rimrock Draw.

Sites around the rock shelter have turned up other evidence of early human occupation, including these obsidian stone points, flakes, and hearths dating back as much as 12,000 years.

The comparison with the Paisley Caves is just kind of inevitable, Baker said. Paisley Caves is just a perfect situation because there they found many, many samples. But in this situation [at Rimrock Draw], they have just a couple of pieces of evidence in one particular area that they need to expand and add more evidence too.

“So we’re in the very early stages of this.”

O’Grady agreed, adding that it’s too early to begin finding a place for Rimrock’s ancient orange tool in the timeline of American pre-history. We all know the significance of the Paisley Caves site, with the exquisite fieldwork, the sequence of radiocarbon dating, and well-dated human fecal material that has firmly placed the site among very few in the Americas that are established as pre-Clovis occupations, he said.

In an attempt to find a comparable body of evidence, he added, the coming field season at Rimrock Draw will be devoted largely to identifying the size of the 15,800-year-old layer of volcanic ash, and testing to see if more artifacts await beneath it. Rimrock has to produce strong dateable evidence through either cultural features or stratigraphic time markers to begin any conversation about its place in the realm on pre-Clovis sites,” O’Grady said.

“We have a hint of such a possibility through the association of the orange flake tool 20 centimeters under the Mount St. Helens tephra. But, it is only that — a hint — until we can show that the tephra is widely distributed across the site and that artifacts are found consistently underneath it.

“It is at that point that the work really begins,” he continued, “to verify the relationship in collaboration with other Paleoamerican researchers and conduct vast amounts of geological and archaeological analyses to firmly establish the relationship. It is that next step that must be approached very carefully, to watch warily for the older signs, and we are moving toward it with caution, but also with hopeful optimism.

Mysterious Ancient Stone Structures Found In Kazakhstan

Archaeologists have unearthed a massive stone structure in Kazakhstan, the likes of which have never been seen. Researchers are currently still at a loss to explain many of the features of the sprawling Stonehenge-like complex which stretches across 300 acres (120 hectares) of Kazakhstan’s Caspian Sea shoreline. The site was first discovered in 2010 by a local man who came across the remains of an ornate silver saddle buried in the ground. After the saddle was brought to the attention of Kazakh historians, several other artifacts were discovered at the site including a bronze-handled whip.

The saddle is covered in animal designs, some of which are new to archaeologists.

After years of securing the resources necessary to fully excavate the site, archaeologists Andrey Astafiev and Evgeniï Bogdanov were finally able to unearth the structure. What they found was nothing short of breathtaking. The structure is a sprawling stone complex composed of carved slabs of rock, some of which are the size of the stele at Stonehenge. Carbon dating revealed the structure was around 1,500 years old.

Kazakhstan is also home to several pyramids, some which pre-date Egyptian pyramids.

The researchers’ findings have been published in the awesomely-named journal Ancient Civilizations from Siberia to Scythia . According to the publication, it’s currently assumed that nomadic tribes of Huns built the structure as some sort of ritual gathering place.

Many of the designs on the ornate silver saddle depict native animals.

While many of the artifacts recovered match those found at other Hun sites, many of the aspects of this structure remain a mystery :

The depictions of the animals and birds on the facings are unique and there are no precise parallels for them. At the same time certain parallels do exist for the way in which the metal has been worked using ‘strokes’ of incised lines and for the use of rectangles (such as those on the withers of the lions’ bodies) in materials from the period of the Huns.

The reason for the burial of the saddle currently remains a mystery, although it is speculated that it could have been interred as part of a ritual burial of an important tribal leader . Skeletal remains have been found at the site, but these have not been dated yet. While it’s assumed that this is a Hun site, it could also have been built by a previously unknown Turkic civilization which was later assimilated by the Huns.

Mysterious 1,500-Year-Old Stone Complex Unearthed in Kazakhstan

A mysterious stone complex which may have been built by the Huns has been discovered in Kazakhstan. It contains some stones which look exactly like ones found at Stonehenge in the UK. The site also contained some precious silver treasures.

According to LiveScience, the complex was identified during research conducted by Andrey Astafiev of the Mangistaus State Historical and Cultural Reserve, and Evgeniï Bogdanov of the Russian Academy of Sciences Siberian Department’s Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography. The complex is huge, covering an area larger than 200 American football fields (about 120 hectares or 300 acres). The site is known as Altÿnkazgan and it is located in Kazakhstan near the eastern shore of the Caspian Sea.

The researchers identified several types and sizes of stone structures at the site. The smallest is 4 by 4 meters (13 ft x 13 ft), but the largest found to date measures 34 by 24 meters (112 ft by 79 ft). It is easy to note similarities between the site and structures found at Stonehenge. Astafiev and Bogdanov also found impressive carvings of creatures and weapons on some of the stones.

A stone structure and a carved stone that shows an animal. (Live Science)

Ancient Stone Bowl Unearthed in Jerusalem Perplexes Experts

It's unclear whether a mysterious 2,100-year-old stone bowl fragment recently unearthed in Jerusalem belonged to royalty or a commoner, the Israel Antiquities Authority (IAA) announced late last week.

The fragment — made from chalk, a type of limestone — is small enough to fit in a person's hand. But it's large enough to contain a striking detail on its side: the name "Hyrcanus" engraved in Hebrew letters.

Hyrcanus was the name of two different kings who ruled during the Jewish Hasmonean dynasty, which lasted from about 140 B.C. to 37 B.C., when Herod the Great came into power. However, Hyrcanus was also a commonly used name during that time, the IAA said. Although the name itself is Greek, many Jews used it during the Hellenistic period, The Times of Israel reported.

"This is one of the earliest examples of chalk vessels to appear in Jerusalem," Doron Ben-Ami, an archaeologist with the IAA, and Esther Eshel, a professor in the Bible department at Bar-Ilan University in Israel, said in a statement. "These stone vessels were extensively used by Jews because they were considered vessels that cannot become ritually unclean." [The Holy Land: 7 Amazing Archaeological Finds]

Researchers discovered the fragment in 2015, but the IAA decided to delay the announcement so that researchers could have time to study the artifact. The researchers noted that the fragment was found under the Givati parking lot at the City of David — Jerusalem's oldest neighborhood and one of its largest archaeological sites.

Archaeologists found the fragment under the ancient foundations of a mikvah complex, a pool used as a Jewish ritual bath. But its placement sheds little light on its past owners, the researchers said.

There are so few engraved vessels in the archaeological record from this period that it's difficult to say whether the newfound artifact was a routine creation or a special tribute, the IAA said.

"The name Hyrcanus was fairly common in the Hasmonean period," Ben-Ami and Eshel said in the statement. "We know of two personages from this period who had this name: John Hyrcanus, who was the grandson of Matityahu the Hasmonean and ruled Judea from 135 [to] 104 B.C.E., and John Hyrcanus II, who was the son of Alexander Jannaeus and Salome Alexandra however, it is not possible to determine if the bowl belonged specifically to either of them."

The Givati parking lot also holds the remains of a famous fortress (known as the Akra or Acra), built under the rule of Antiochus IV Epiphanes, the Greek king of the Seleucid Empire who tried to control Judea during the Maccabean Revolt, the rebellion whose events led to the first Hanukkah.

The Hasmoneans eventually conquered the Akra. Intriguingly, the bowl fragment was discovered near the Akra's remains, the researchers said.

Kazakhstan megalithic site

Archaeologists announced the discovery of a 1,500-year-old stone complex in Kazakhstan that sprawls over 300 acres (120 hectares) of land, or more than 200 American football fields. A large amount of work remains to be done. However, archaeologists can already report the discovery of a saddle made partly of silver and stones carved with images of weapons and creatures. The complex may have been constructed by the Huns, a people who traveled across Asia and Europe and came into conflict with the Roman Empire.

In the latest breakthrough discovery of lost civilization, researchers have found the largest and the oldest Mayan site through a unique laser technology called lidar.

Using the aerial remote-sensing method, researchers at the University of Arizona found a colossal rectangular elevated platform that was built between 1000 and 800BC in Tabasco state, Mexico.

The new structure is located at the site called Aguada Fenix that liest near the border of Guatemala, which in its total volume exceeds the 1,500-year-old Great Pyramid of Giza in Egypt.

The site, called Aguada Fénix, is located in the state of Tabasco, at the base of the Gulf of Mexico. It’s so vast for its age, the find is making archaeologists recalibrate their timelines on the architectural capabilities of the mysterious Maya.

Aguada Fénix, which measures over 1,400 meters (almost 4,600 ft) in length at its greatest extent, dates to a similar timeframe, with researchers estimating it was built between 1000 and 800 BCE – but its immense size and scope make it unlike anything found before from the period.

Airborne remote sensing allowed scientists to create a 3-D rendering of newly discovered Aguada Fénix, including the 3,000-year-old Maya site’s massive ceremonial plateau with a platform and mound in its center.

“To our knowledge, this is the oldest monumental construction ever found in the Maya area and the largest in the entire pre-Hispanic history of the region,” the researchers, led by archaeologist Takeshi Inomata from the University of Arizona, explain in a new paper about the discovery.

What’s even more staggering is that this huge, unknown structure has actually been hiding in plain sight for centuries, seemingly unrecognised by the modern Mexicans living their lives on top of the vast complex.

“This area is developed,” Inomata says. “It’s not the jungle people live there. But this site was not known because it is so flat and huge. It just looks like a natural landscape.”

Despite Aguada Fénix’s inconspicuousness, it can’t hide from non-human eyes.

Aerial surveys using LIDAR detected the anomaly, revealing an elevated platform measuring 1,413 metres north to south, and 399 metres east to west, and extending up to 15 metres above the surrounding area.

“Artificial plateaus may be characterised as horizontal monumentality, which contrasts with the vertical dimensions of pyramids,” the authors write, noting the layout of Aguada Fénix marks it as an example of the Middle Formative Usumacinta (MFU) pattern, characterised by a rectangular shape defined by rows of low mounds.

Nine wide causeways extend from the platform, which is also surrounded by a number of smaller structures, including smaller MFU complexes and artificial reservoirs.

It’s difficult to see the remains of Aguada Fénix from this aerial view of the landscape today. But laser technology gave researchers a look at the site’s causeways and reservoirs, in front, and ceremonial area, in back.

The site bears certain similarities to the Olmec sites San Lorenzo and La Venta in the nearby state of Veracruz, but Aguada Fénix’s lack of human-shaped statues could provide a clue about the ancient Maya that inhabited this complex, distinguishing them from the Olmec.

“Unlike those Olmec centres, Aguada Fénix does not exhibit clear indicators of marked social inequality, such as sculptures representing high-status individuals,” the authors write.

“The only stone sculpture found so far at Aguada Fénix depicts an animal.”

Excavations of the oldest and largest Maya ceremonial structure unearthed an animal sculpture, possibly representing a white-lipped peccary or a coatimundi, that the researchers nicknamed Choco.

If the researchers are right about that, the site could be hugely important in helping us understand more about how these enigmatic human societies functioned and organized themselves – especially if they embraced a communal form of societal structure that rejected hierarchical forms.

“This kind of understanding gives us important implications about human capability, and the potential of human groups,” Inomata says.

“You may not necessarily need a well-organized government to carry out these kinds of huge projects. People can work together to achieve amazing results.”

1 Monkey-Shaped Skull

The Maya played a fun but somewhat deadly sport that involved two opposing teams passing a ball using only their knees, hips, and elbows. What made this sport deadly was that the losing team could be sacrificed at the end of the game.

To protect themselves from injury and to make certain maneuvers easier, the players wore different types of clothing, including a hand guard worn around the wrists. Now, archaeologists have discovered a monkey-shaped skull, which they concluded was a representation of this particular hand guard.

The Maya believed that they would still play their ball game even after they died. To prepare them for this afterlife sport, they created stone versions of the different types of clothing that they wore during the real-life games. These stone versions, like the monkey-shaped skull, were commonly found inside tombs.

Watch the video: Ancient burial of Saka princess was found in the eastern Kazakhstan (May 2022).


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