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The First Cleveland Cabinet

The First Cleveland Cabinet


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The First Cleveland Cabinet


The Arcade

Downtown Cleveland at the turn of the twentieth century was a crowded and noisy place. Specialized, multi-level passageways lined with shops - known as arcades - were built in order for people to escape the clamor of the streets, as well as the often inhospitable Cleveland weather. Beyond their functional and economic uses, the intricately designed arcades were a reflection of the technological advances of the industrialized city and a symbol of Cleveland's success.

Euclid Avenue has the nation's finest collection of arcades. The most notable of these is "The Arcade" (often called the "Old Arcade"), built in 1890 with financing from John D. Rockefeller and other industrial tycoons. Inspired by Milan's Galleria Vittorio Emanuele and other European antecedents, the Old Arcade features a five-story glass atrium with ornate metal decorative work, including fearsome gargoyles with red light bulbs in their mouths. It was renovated by Walker & Weeks in 1939 to include Art Deco facades. In 1975, it became Cleveland's first building listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Threatened with demolition, it underwent extensive renovation and redevelopment, becoming home to a Hyatt Regency hotel in 2001.

Other historic arcades in Cleveland include the Euclid Arcade and the Colonial Arcade, both built not long after the opening of the Old Arcade. The two lie parallel to each other on Euclid Avenue across the street from the Old Arcade, connecting with Prospect Avenue to their south. During the 2000s, renovations linked the Euclid and Colonial Arcades together as part of a project that included the opening of a food court and the Marriott Residence Inn, which incorporates the old Colonial Hotel building on Prospect Avenue.


KUNDTZ, THEODOR

KUNDTZ, THEODOR (1 July 1852-14 Sept. 1937) was an inventor, manufacturer, financier, philanthropist, and patriarch of the Hungarian community.

Kundtz was born in Metzenseifen, Hungary, to Joseph and Theresia (Kesselbauer) Kundtz. He learned woodworking from his father and after immigrating to Cleveland in 1873, Kundtz found a job with the Whitworth Co., a small cabinet shop at 28 St. Clair Ave. Kundtz and several co-workers purchased the company in 1875 after a fire seriously damaged the business, reorganizing as the Cleveland Cabinet Co. In 1878, Kundtz split from his partners and opened The THEODOR KUNDTZ COMPANY at 122 Elm Street in the FLATS.

Among his early customers was THOMAS WHITE of the White Sewing Machine Co. (see WHITE CONSOLIDATED INDUSTRIES), for whom Kundtz made what became his chief product, sewing machine cabinets. Kundtz patented 44 inventions, most of which were mechanisms enabling sewing machines to fold up into fine cabinetry of his own design.

Over the years, Kundtz employed a significant portion of his tome town of Metzenseifen. When his business peaked around 1900, 92% of his 2500 employees were from Hungary. Kundtz helped thousands immigrate to Cleveland, acquire homes, and start their own businesses. He founded the Hungarian Savings and Loan Company and built Hungaria Hall on Clark Ave. in 1890.

At the turn of the century, Kundtz built a magnificent mansion in LAKEWOOD overlooking Lake Erie. The Kundtz Castle, as it was called, was torn down in 1961.

Kundtz served on the MAYOR'S ADVISORY WAR COMMITTEE during WORLD WAR I. He was an officer and director of the United Banking and Savings Company, the Forest City Savings and Loan, and the Lorain Street Bank. In 1884, Kundtz married Maria Ballasch of Cleveland and they had ten children: Theodore, Jr., William, Ewald, Leo R., Joseph E., Merie (Mrs. Wm. Tubman), Irene (Mrs. A.C. Weizer), Angela (Mrs. A.T. Hueffed), Dorothy (Mrs. W.J. O'Neil), and Joseph P.

Theodor Kundtz was knighted by Emperor Franz Joseph of Austria-Hungary in 1902. In 1994, the American-Hungarian Foundation posthumously awarded Kundtz the George Washington Medal. He died in Cleveland and was buried in Lakewood Park Cemetery.


Contents

The following seasons saw the Cavaliers gradually improve their on-court performance, thanks to season-by-season additions of talented players such as Bobby "Bingo" Smith, Jim Chones, Jim Cleamons and Dick Snyder. The Cavaliers improved to 23–59 in their sophomore season, followed by a 32–50 record in 1972–73, and 29–53 in 1973–74.

In 1974, the Cavaliers moved into the brand-new Richfield Coliseum, located in rural Richfield, Ohio – 20 miles (32 km) south of downtown Cleveland in Summit County (now part of the Cuyahoga Valley National Park). The move was done as the Cleveland Arena had fallen into disrepair, and the location was chosen in an effort to draw fans in from nearby Akron and other areas of Northeast Ohio. [3] That season, the Cavaliers finished with a 40–42 record, falling just short of a playoff berth.

"Miracle of Richfield" season Edit

In the 1975–76 season with Carr, Smith, Chones, Snyder, and newly acquired Nate Thurmond, Fitch led the Cavaliers to a 49–33 record and a division title. Fitch received the league's Coach of the Year award as the Cavaliers got their first winning season, made their first-ever playoff appearance, and clinched their first Central Division Title.

In the playoffs, the Cavaliers won their series against the Washington Bullets, 4–3. Because of the many heroics and last-second shots, the series became known locally as the "Miracle of Richfield." They won Game 7, 87–85, on a shot by Snyder with four seconds to go. But the team became hampered by injuries—particularly to Jim Chones, who suffered a broken ankle.

The Cavaliers proceeded to lose to the Boston Celtics in the Eastern Conference Finals. It is widely believed among both Cavaliers fans and players that the "Miracle" team would have won the 1976 NBA Championship had Chones stayed healthy. [4]

Cleveland won 43 games in both of the 1976–77 and 1977–78 seasons, but both seasons resulted in early playoff exits. After a 30–52 season in 1978–79, Fitch resigned as head coach.

The following season, after going 37–45 under Fitch's successor Stan Albeck, original owner Mileti sold his shares to Louis Mitchell who sold the shares to minority owner Joe Zingale. [5] In 1980, after just a few months, Zingale sold the team to Nationwide Advertising magnate Ted Stepien on April 12, 1980. [6] Early on in his tenure, Stepien proposed to rename the team the "Ohio Cavaliers", part of a plan that included playing their home games not just in the Cleveland area but in Cincinnati and in non-Ohio markets such as Buffalo and Pittsburgh. He also made changes to the game day entertainment, such as introducing a polka-flavored fight song and a dance team known as "The Teddy Bears". Stepien also oversaw the hiring and firing of a succession of coaches and was involved in making a number of poor trade and free agent signing decisions. The result of his questionable trading acumen was the loss of several of the team's first-round draft picks, which led to a rule change in the NBA prohibiting teams from trading away first-round draft picks in consecutive years. This rule is known as the "Ted Stepien Rule".

The ensuing chaos had a major effect on both the Cavaliers' on-court performance and lack of local support, going 28–54 in 1980–81 (Stepien's first year as owner), followed by an abysmal 15–67 mark in 1981–82. The 1981–82 team lost its last 19 games of the season which, when coupled with the five losses at the start of the 1982–83 season, constitute the NBA's second all-time longest losing streak at 24 games. Although the team improved its record to 23–59 the following year, local support for the Cavaliers eroded which eventually bottomed out that year by averaging only 3,900 fans a game at the cavernous (and isolated) Coliseum which seated more than 20,000.

Though Stepien eventually threatened to move the franchise to Toronto and rename it the Toronto Towers - to the point that he had a Toronto Towers logo created [7] - brothers George and Gordon Gund purchased the Cavaliers in 1983 and decided to keep the team in Cleveland (it would be another 12 years before Toronto finally got an NBA team in the form of the Raptors via expansion). As an incentive to the Gunds, NBA owners awarded the team bonus first-round picks for each year from 1983 to 1986 to help compensate for the ones Stepien traded away. [8]

Shortly after purchasing the Cavaliers in 1983, the Gunds changed the team colors from wine and gold to burnt orange and navy blue. Furthermore, they officially adopted "Cavs" as a shorter nickname for marketing purposes, as it had been used unofficially by fans and headline writers since the team's inception.

Under the coaching of George Karl, the Cavaliers failed again, and missed the playoffs, with a 28–54 record, in the 1983–84 season. The Cavaliers finally returned to the playoffs in 1985, only to lose to the eventual Eastern Conference Champion Boston Celtics in the first round. At that point, the team was in transition, led by dynamic players such as World B. Free, Roy Hinson and John Bagley. But in 1986, Karl was fired after 66 games. Interim head coach Gene Littles guided the team the rest of the way, which saw the Cavaliers finish one game short of the playoffs. During the seven-season period, the Cavaliers had nine head coaches: Stan Albeck, Bill Musselman, Don Delaney, Bob Kloppenburg, Chuck Daly, Bill Musselman (again), Tom Nissalke, George Karl, and Gene Littles. The only playoff appearance earned during this stretch was during the 1984–85 season under Karl, losing to the Boston Celtics in the first round in four games (1–3).

During the 1986 NBA Draft, the Cavaliers acquired Brad Daugherty, Mark Price, and Ron Harper. They would also add Larry Nance just before the 1988 trade deadline, in a deal with the Phoenix Suns. Those four players (until Harper was later traded to the Los Angeles Clippers in 1989 for the rights to Danny Ferry) formed the core of the team, under the direction of head coach Lenny Wilkens, that led the Cavaliers to eight playoff seasons in the next nine years, including three seasons of 50 or more wins.

In 1989, the Cavaliers were paired against the Michael Jordan-led Chicago Bulls in the first round of the playoffs. In the fourth game of the best-of-five-series, Cleveland managed to beat the Bulls in overtime 108–105 to level the series at 2–2. Home court advantage went to Cleveland. The game was evenly matched, until Cleveland managed to score on a drive and raise the lead by one, with three seconds left. Chicago called for a time-out. The ball was inbounded to Michael Jordan, who went for a jump shot. Cleveland's Craig Ehlo jumped in front to block it, but Jordan seemed to stay in the air until Ehlo landed. "The Shot" went in as time ran out, with Chicago winning the series 3–2. The pinnacle of the Cavaliers' success came in the 1991–92 season, when they compiled a 57–25 record and advanced to the Eastern Conference Finals, losing again to the Chicago Bulls, 4–2. Soon after, the Cavaliers entered into a period of decline. With the retirements and departures of Nance, Daugherty, and Price, the team lost much of its dominance and were no longer able to contest strongly during the playoffs. After the 1992–93 season, in which the Cavaliers had a 54–28 regular-season record but suffered an early exit from the playoffs in the Eastern Conference Semi-Finals to the Chicago Bulls, Wilkens left to coach the Atlanta Hawks.

Following the hiring of Mike Fratello as head coach starting with the 1993–94 season, the Cavaliers became one of the NBA's best defensive teams under the leadership of point guard Terrell Brandon. But the offense, which was a half-court, "slow-down" tempo installed by Fratello, met with mixed success. Although the Cavaliers made regular playoff appearances, they were unable to advance beyond the first round. In the 1994 NBA Playoffs, the last which Daugherty and Nance played in, the Cavaliers yet again met the Chicago Bulls in the first round, led by Scottie Pippen in the wake of Jordan's first retirement. The Bulls proved that it was not just the "Jordan Curse", and would prevail yet again by sweeping the Cavaliers 3–0 in the first-round encounter.

In 1994, the Cavaliers moved back to downtown Cleveland with the opening of the 20,562-seat Gund Arena. Known by locals as "the Gund", the venue served as the site of the 1997 NBA All-Star Game. The arena and the Cleveland Indians' Jacobs Field were built together as part of the city's Gateway project.

Mike Fratello years Edit

The Cavaliers revamped their starting lineup during the 1997 off-season, sending guard Bobby Phills, and forward Chris Mills to free agency, and trading Terrell Brandon and Tyrone Hill to the Milwaukee Bucks as part of a three-team trade. They acquired All-Star forward Shawn Kemp from the Seattle SuperSonics (from the three-team trade involving Cleveland, Seattle and Milwaukee) and guard Wesley Person from the Phoenix Suns. Later on, players like Kemp and Žydrūnas Ilgauskas added quality to the team, but without further post-season success. The Cavaliers did have five All-Stars/All-Rookies in 1998 with Kemp a starting All-Star for the East, Brevin Knight and Ilgauskas on the All-Rookie First Team, and Cedric Henderson and Derek Anderson on the All-Rookie Second Team. No other NBA team has ever been represented by five players at the All-Star celebration or four players as All-Rookies in the same year. Still, in the three seasons that Kemp played for the Cavaliers, they managed only one playoff appearance and one playoff win. Fratello was fired following the shortened 1998–99 season.

Early 2000s struggles Edit

Despite the arrivals of Andre Miller, Brevin Knight, Lamond Murray, Chris Mihm and Carlos Boozer, the Cavaliers were a perennial lottery team for the early part of the 2000s. The 2002–03 team finished with the third-worst record in franchise history (17–65), which earned them a tie for last place in the league and a 22.5% chance at winning the NBA Draft Lottery and the first overall selection.

Ricky Davis received national attention on March 16, 2003, in game against the Utah Jazz. With Cleveland ahead in the game 120–95, Davis was one rebound short of a triple-double with only a few seconds left on the clock. After receiving an inbound pass at the Cavaliers' end of the floor, Davis banged the ball off the rim and caught it in attempt to receive credit for a rebound. Utah's DeShawn Stevenson took offense to this breach of sportsman's etiquette and immediately fouled Davis hard. [9] The play did not count as a rebound since firing at one's own team's basket does not count as a shot attempt, and doing so intentionally is a technical foul under NBA rules. Since the referees had never seen anyone shoot at his own basket before, they were unfamiliar with the rule and play was allowed to continue. This (which led to Davis being nicknamed in Cleveland as "Wrong Rim Ricky") and countless other acts contributed to the Cavaliers' trading of Davis later that year and ushering in a new type of team. [10]

Several losing seasons followed which saw the Cavaliers drop to the bottom of the league and become a perennial lottery draft team. After another disappointing season in 2002–03, the Cavaliers landed the number one draft pick in the NBA draft lottery. With it, the team selected local high school phenomenon and future NBA MVP LeBron James. As if celebrating a new era in Cleveland Cavaliers basketball, the team's colors were changed from orange, black and blue back to wine and gold, with the addition of navy blue and a new primary logo.

James' status as both an area star (having played his high school basketball at St. Vincent-St. Mary High School in nearby Akron) and as one of the most highly touted prospects in NBA history has led many to view his selection as a turning point in the franchise's history. Embraced by Cleveland as "King James", the 2003–04 season offered great hope for the future, as James rose to become a dominating player, winning the NBA Rookie of the Year Award. Hope was even greater for the 2004–05 season. James increased his production in terms of points, rebounds, and assists per game. Despite the loss of Carlos Boozer in the offseason, James teamed with Žydrūnas Ilgauskas and Drew Gooden to form the core of the team. After a promising start, the Cavaliers began a downward spiral that eventually led to the firing of coach Paul Silas and general manager Jim Paxson. The team failed to make the playoffs that year, tied with New Jersey Nets for the final playoff spot with identical 42–40 records however, the Nets owned the tiebreaker due to having the better head to head record.

Dan Gilbert takes over Edit

The Cavaliers made many changes in the 2005 offseason. Under new owner Dan Gilbert, the team hired a new head coach, Mike Brown, and a new general manager, former Cavaliers forward Danny Ferry. The team experienced success on the court in the following season, clinching their first playoff appearance since 1998. After a first round win over the Washington Wizards, the Cavaliers rebounded from a 0–2 deficit in the second round against the #1 seeded Detroit Pistons, winning three consecutive games to come one game away from the Conference Finals. They lost a close Game 6 at home, and followed it with a 79–61 loss in Game 7. The playoff rounds were a showcase for the emergence of James, who achieved many "youngest ever to. " records during the run.

2006–2007: Eastern Conference champions Edit

The Cavaliers continued their success in the 2006–07 season. The team earned the second seed in the East with a 50–32 record, generating a series of favorable matchups in the playoffs. They battled 7th-seeded Wizards, who struggled with injuries near the end of the season. The Cavaliers swept this series 4–0, and defeated the New Jersey Nets, 4–2, in the second round. The Cavaliers faced the Pistons in the Eastern Conference Finals. After again losing the first two games at Detroit, the Cavaliers won the next three to take a 3–2 series lead. This time, the Cavaliers eliminated Detroit in Game 6. The wins included a 109–107 double-overtime game at The Palace of Auburn Hills in Game 5, in which LeBron James scored the last 25 points for the Cavaliers, and his performance in this game is recognized as one of the best in NBA history. They continued to a dominant 98–82 win at home in Game 6. Rookie Daniel "Boobie" Gibson scored a career-high 31 points in the series clincher, and the franchise won its first ever Eastern Conference Championship. The team's first trip to the NBA Finals was a short one, as they were outmatched and outplayed by the deeper, more experienced San Antonio Spurs, who swept the Cavaliers 4–0.

The Cavaliers took a step back in the 2007–08 season. They battled injuries and had many roster changes, including a three team trade at the trade deadline in which the team acquired F Joe Smith, G-F Wally Szczerbiak, F-C Ben Wallace, and G Delonte West. The Cavaliers finished 45–37 and lost in the second round against eventual champion Boston. The next off-season, the team made a major change to its lineup, trading G Damon Jones and Smith (who later in the season rejoined the Cavaliers after being released by Oklahoma City) for point guard Mo Williams. This trade was made in hopes of bringing another scorer to aid James.

2008–2010: High expectations Edit

In the next season, the Cavaliers made progress. They finished with a record of 66–16, the best regular-season record in franchise history. The year marked other notable franchise records, including a 13-game winning streak, and road and home winning records. The Cavaliers entered the playoffs as the #1 seed in the NBA with home court advantage throughout the playoffs. They finished the season 39–2 at home, one win short of the best all-time home record. Head coach Mike Brown won NBA Coach of the Year honors and LeBron James finished second in NBA Defensive Player of the Year Award voting and won the NBA Most Valuable Player award. The Cavaliers began the 2009 postseason by sweeping the 8th-seeded Detroit Pistons, winning every game by ten or more points. In the conference semifinals, the Cavaliers swept the 4th-seeded Atlanta Hawks, again winning each game by at least ten points, becoming the first team in NBA history to win eight straight playoff games by a double-digit margin. The Cavaliers then met the Orlando Magic in the Eastern Conference Finals. The Cavaliers lost Game 1 of the series 107–106 at home despite James' 49-point effort. Despite winning Game 2 by a score of 96–95, with the help of a James buzzer-beating three-pointer, it was not enough as Orlando won the series in six games.

During the 2009 off-season, the Cavaliers acquired four-time NBA champion and 15-time All Star center Shaquille O'Neal from the Phoenix Suns. [11] The Cavaliers also signed wingman Anthony Parker, and forwards Leon Powe and Jamario Moon for the following season. On February 17, 2010, the Cavaliers acquired All-Star forward Antawn Jamison from the Washington Wizards and Sebastian Telfair from the Los Angeles Clippers in a three team trade. The Cavaliers originally lost Žydrūnas Ilgauskas in this trade, but after being waived by Washington, he signed back with the Cavaliers on March 23 for the rest of the season. The Cavaliers managed to finish with the NBA's best record for the second straight season, with a 61–21 record. James was named the NBA MVP for the second consecutive year. The Cavaliers defeated the Chicago Bulls 4–1 in the first round of the 2010 NBA playoffs, but lost to the Boston Celtics in the semifinals after leading the series 2–1, with the Celtics proceeding to win 3 consecutive games (afterwards, the Celtics went to the 2010 NBA Finals and lost to the Los Angeles Lakers 4–3.) Each team would suffer record-setting playoff defeats on home soil the Celtics lost by 29, 124–95, in Game 3, the greatest defeat in the history of the Boston Celtics in the playoffs, while the Cavaliers lost by 32, 120–88, in Game 5.

The Decision Edit

With the Cavaliers out of the playoffs, the focus turned to James' impending free agency. On July 8, 2010, James announced in a nationally televised one-hour special titled The Decision on ESPN that he would be signing with the Miami Heat. [12] The repercussions of this announcement left many in the city of Cleveland infuriated and feeling betrayed. A number of LeBron James jerseys were burned, and the famous Nike "Witness" mural of James in downtown Cleveland was immediately taken down.

Shortly after James made his announcement, Dan Gilbert, the owner of the Cavaliers, announced in an open letter on the Cavaliers website that James' decision was a "cowardly betrayal" and promised an NBA Championship for the Cleveland Cavaliers before James won one, [13] although James would win a championship before the Cavaliers with the Miami Heat in 2012.

2010–2011: Struggles and infamy Edit

During the 2010 off-season, before LeBron James left the team, the Cavaliers fired head coach Mike Brown, along with most of their coaching staff. General Manager Danny Ferry resigned on June 4, 2010, and Assistant General Manager Chris Grant was promoted to replace Ferry. On July 1, the Cavaliers hired former Los Angeles Lakers guard and former New Jersey Nets and New Orleans Hornets head coach Byron Scott as the 18th head coach in franchise history.

The Cavaliers spent the rest of the 2010 off-season rebuilding their team after James' departure. They signed 2009 first-round pick Christian Eyenga and acquired Ramon Sessions and Ryan Hollins from the Minnesota Timberwolves in a trade that saw the Cavaliers give away Delonte West and Sebastian Telfair. The Cavaliers also signed free agent Joey Graham and undrafted rookies Samardo Samuels and Manny Harris. The Cavaliers were also active at the trade deadline in February 2011. They acquired former All-Star Baron Davis and a 2011 first round draft pick from the L.A. Clippers in exchange for Mo Williams and Jamario Moon. [14]

On the court, the 2010–11 season was a stark contrast from the previous season. They went from a league-best 61 wins in 2009–10 to a conference-worst 19, the biggest single-season drop in NBA history. This season also saw the Cavaliers lose 63 games, including a 26-game losing streak, which set an NBA record and tied the 1976–77 Tampa Bay Buccaneers for the longest losing streak in any American professional team sport. [15]

2011–2014: Rebuilding with Kyrie Irving Edit

Having the second-worst team record in the 2010–11 season as well as the Clippers' first-round pick that they received in the Mo Williams–Baron Davis trade, the Cavaliers had high odds of winning an early draft pick in the NBA Draft Lottery, with a 22.7% chance of their pick becoming number 1 overall. [16] The selection acquired from the Clippers became the first pick in the lottery, while the Cavaliers original selection ended up as the #4 selection in the draft. The Cavaliers took Duke Blue Devils guard Kyrie Irving with the first pick. With the 4th pick, the Cavaliers selected Texas Longhorns power forward Tristan Thompson. The Cavaliers used the next year to build around the two top-5 picks. They acquired small forward Omri Casspi and a lottery-protected first-round draft pick from the Sacramento Kings for forward J. J. Hickson.

At the next year's trade deadline, the Cavaliers acquired forward Luke Walton and a first-round draft pick from the Los Angeles Lakers. The 2011–12 lockout shortened season was an improvement for the Cavaliers, as they finished 21–45. Irving was named NBA Rookie of the Year and was unanimously voted to the NBA All-Rookie First Team. Thompson was named to the NBA All-Rookie Second Team.

For the second straight year, the Cavaliers had two first-round picks in the NBA draft. [17] With their own #4 pick, they chose guard Dion Waiters from Syracuse, and with pick #17 (which was acquired from Dallas on draft night), they chose center Tyler Zeller from North Carolina. [17] In August 2012, the Cavaliers signed veteran free agent swingman C. J. Miles. [18] The team struggled in 2012–13, which led to them sacking head coach Byron Scott after a 64–166 record in three seasons. [19] The following week, the Cavaliers rehired Mike Brown as head coach, making him the second two-time head coach in team history, after Bill Musselman in the early 1980s. [20] [21]

The Cavaliers had several early picks in 2013. They won the 2013 NBA Draft Lottery to receive the first overall pick. They also had the 19th pick (acquired from the Los Angeles Lakers), as well as two out of the top three picks in the second round. [22] [23] For the third straight year, the Cavaliers had two picks in the first round of the NBA draft. The Cavaliers made somewhat of a surprise pick when they drafted forward Anthony Bennett of UNLV. This made Bennett the first Canadian born player in history to be the number one pick. With the 19th pick, the Cavaliers selected swingman Sergey Karasev out of Russia. [24] The Cavaliers signed free agent forward Earl Clark to a two-year contract and veteran guard Jarrett Jack to a four-year deal. [25] [26] The Cavaliers also signed two-time NBA Champion and former All-Star center Andrew Bynum to a one-year contract. [27] [28] [29] Bynum was then be traded on January 7, 2014, to the Chicago Bulls (along with draft picks) for two-time All-Star forward Luol Deng. [30]

The Cavaliers on February 6 fired GM Chris Grant. The team then announced that VP of basketball operations David Griffin would serve as acting GM. [31] On May 12, 2014, the Cavaliers announced that Griffin had been named as the full-time GM, while also announcing that Mike Brown had been fired after one season in his second stint with the team following going 33–49. The Cavaliers won the #1 draft pick in the 2014 Draft Lottery, making it the third time in four years they would win the lottery. [32]

The Cavaliers were perennial title contenders between 2014–15 and 2017-18 following the return of LeBron James to Cleveland. [33] [34] On July 11, 2014, James revealed via a first-person essay in Sports Illustrated that he intended to return to the Cavaliers. [35] In contrast to The Decision, his announcement to return to Cleveland was well received. [36] [37] [38] A day later, he officially signed with the team, [39] who had compiled a league-worst 97–215 record in the four seasons following his departure. [40] A month after James' signing, the Cavaliers acquired Kevin Love from the Minnesota Timberwolves, forming a new star trio along with Kyrie Irving. [41]

2014–2015: Return to the NBA Finals Edit

The Cavaliers struggled over the first two months of the 2014–15 season. They were 19–16 on January 5, and fifth in the Eastern Conference. David Blatt's coaching job was in peril and the Irving/James/Love Big 3 wasn't clicking. [42] That was the day general manager David Griffin saved the season with two moves. First, Dion Waiters was sent to the Oklahoma City Thunder in a three-team deal that landed J. R. Smith and Iman Shumpert. Then two days later, Griffin gave up two first-round picks for Denver Nuggets center Timofey Mozgov. [42] The Cavaliers bottomed out at 19–20 on January 13 but were 32–9 the rest of the way. [43] Irving proved to be a worthy partner for James during the 2014–15 season, as he ascended to James' level with a 55-point effort on January 28 against Portland and a 57-point effort on March 12 against San Antonio, which broke the franchise scoring record of 56 held by James. [44]

The Cavaliers entered the 2015 NBA playoffs as the second seed in the East with a 53–29 record. They advanced through the first three rounds of the playoffs virtually unchallenged, sweeping Boston in the first round, defeating Chicago in six games in the second round, and sweeping Atlanta in the Conference Finals to claim the franchise's second ever Eastern Conference championship and a trip to the NBA Finals. [45] Games 1 and 2 of the NBA Finals saw a pair of overtime games, in which Game 1 went to the favored Golden State Warriors and Game 2 went to the Cavaliers. The Cavaliers went on to win Game 3 to take a 2–1 lead in the series, with James taking on the bulk of offensive responsibilities – through three games, James played 142 of 154 possible minutes, scored 123 points and took 107 shots. [46] Despite taking the lead however, the Cavaliers went on to lose the next three games, as the Warriors took out the 2015 NBA Championship on Cleveland's home court in Game 6. The Cavaliers struggled without Love, who suffered a shoulder injury in the first round, and Irving, who fractured his kneecap in overtime of the first game of the Finals. [47] To make matters worse, Smith and Shumpert had poor Finals campaigns, which led to players such as Matthew Dellavedova and James Jones playing roles that were beyond their capabilities. [47] Despite the loss, James received serious consideration for Finals MVP after averaging 35.8 points, 13.3 rebounds and 8.8 assists over the six games. [48]

2015–2016: First NBA Championship Edit

The Cavaliers enter the 2015–16 season seeking redemption following a disappointing, injury-riddled exit from the NBA Finals. While the Cavaliers kept just five players in 2015, they had a returning cast of 11 players heading into the 2015–16 season. Love silenced many a doubter with his decision to sign a five-year deal to stay in Cleveland, spurning bigger markets and roles in the process. Smith, Shumpert and Dellavedova agreed to new contracts as well. [49]

During the 2015–16 season, James was criticized for his role in several off-court controversies, including the midseason firing of head coach David Blatt. [50] [51] Despite the Cavaliers' boasting the best record in the Eastern Conference at 30–11, Blatt was fired on January 22 and replaced by his assistant Tyronn Lue. The lack of chemistry and cohesion was the catalyst for the move. [52] Lue had a firm, even-handed approach to coaching the Cavs, building trust within a team that often seemed on the verge of splintering. He managed egos, implemented an up-tempo offense and made some deft decisions. [53]

The Cavaliers entered the 2016 NBA playoffs as the first seed in the East with a 57–25 record, and once again advanced through the first three rounds of the playoffs virtually unchallenged, reaching the NBA Finals with a 12–2 postseason record, including winning 10 straight games as they threatened to sweep through the Eastern Conference playoffs. The 10–0 start to the playoffs saw Lue pass Pat Riley (9–0) for the most consecutive playoff wins to start a coaching career. [53]

In the NBA Finals, the Cavaliers faced a rematch with the Golden State Warriors. The Warriors, coming off an NBA-best 73–9 regular season record, raced to a 2–0 series after handing the Cavaliers back-to-back blowout losses in Games 1 and 2. The Cavaliers responded with a blowout win of their own in Game 3, before falling behind 3–1 in the series with a loss in Game 4. [54] James and Irving responded in Game 5, with both scoring 41 points to lead the Cavaliers to a 112–97 win in Oakland. The pair became the first teammates to each score 40 points in an NBA Finals game. [55] James continued his hot form in Game 6, as he put together his second consecutive 41-point game, leading the Cavaliers to two consecutive wins to stave off elimination. [56] In Game 7 at Oracle Arena in Oakland, a number of key plays down the stretch in the fourth quarter put the Cavaliers in position for victory: James' chase-down block on Andre Iguodala with 1:50 to go Irving's three-pointer with 53 seconds left that propelled the Cavaliers to a 92–89 lead and Love's defensive play on Stephen Curry in the ensuing possession. [57] Cleveland emerged victorious with a 93–89 win to earn the city's first professional sports title in 52 years. [58] James was named the unanimous Finals MVP. James became the third player to have a triple-double in Game 7 of the NBA Finals, joining Jerry West in 1969 and James Worthy in 1988. He had 27 points, 11 rebounds and 11 assists in the clincher, capping a series where the Cavaliers became the first team to successfully overcome a 3–1 deficit in the Finals. [59]

An estimated 1.3 million people attended the downtown victory parade on June 22. [60] At the championship rally later that day, general manager David Griffin noted that "The Shot, The Drive, The Fumble all must now be replaced by The Block, the three, and the D." [61]

2016–2018: Continued Eastern Conference dominance Edit

The 2016–17 season was marred by injuries and unexpected losses for the Cavaliers. LeBron James described it as one of the "strangest" years of his career, [62] and felt the Cavs' roster was too "top heavy" after falling to 30–14 following a three-game losing streak in late January. [63] The team had fickle chemistry and camaraderie out on the floor due to the constant changing of line-ups. [62] The Cavaliers finished the regular season as the second seed in the East with a 51–31 record, after losing their final four games. [64] Despite this, the Cavaliers rolled through the Eastern Conference playoffs, going 12–1 and putting up the best offensive efficiency in the history of the postseason through the first three rounds, besting the "Showtime" Los Angeles Lakers of the 1980s. [65] However, they met their match in the 2017 NBA Finals, facing the Golden State Warriors in a highly anticipated rematch. The Warriors had gone 12–0 in their Western Conference playoff run, and took down the Cavaliers in five games despite James averaging 33.6 points, 12.0 rebounds and 10.0 assists to become the first player to average a triple-double in the championship round. [65]

In the 2017 off-season, Kyrie Irving demanded a trade, citing that he no longer wanted to play second fiddle to LeBron. Irving's wish was later granted, sending him to the Boston Celtics.

Midseason saw a massive overhaul of the Cavaliers roster, such as trading Dwyane Wade to the Miami Heat, Isaiah Thomas to the Los Angeles Lakers for Larry Nance Jr. and Jordan Clarkson, and Derrick Rose and Jae Crowder were shipped to the Utah Jazz in exchange for George Hill. This new roster made the Cavaliers play better. They made it to the NBA Finals for the fourth straight year, only again to be stopped by the Warriors, who swept them 4–0.

After the Finals, three frontrunners emerged as favorites to sign LeBron: The Cavs, Los Angeles Lakers, and Philadelphia 76ers. LeBron signed with the Lakers, leaving Cleveland again. Trying to stay competitive, the Cavs re-signed Kevin Love to 4-year, $120 million extension.

After LeBron had left, Cleveland's plan was to remain competitive with Collin Sexton and Cedi Osman developing together and lead by Love, but unfortunately injuries to Love and Tristan Thompson derailed the Cavs season with few bright spots, such as Cedi performing in the Rising Stars Challenge. The Cavs would miss the 2019 NBA playoffs and receive the 5th pick in the 2019 NBA Draft, despite having the 2nd worst record. With the 5th pick in the NBA draft, the Cavs selected Darius Garland out of Vanderbilt, looking to pair him with Collin Sexton in the backcourt. The Cavs also had 2 other first round selections, taking two wings in Kevin Porter Jr. and Dylan Windler. The Cavs also hired John Beilein, previously head coach of the Michigan Wolverines men's basketball team. With pairing Sexton and Garland, as well as selecting Windler, Beilein stated favoring implementing a free flowing offense with multiple shooters on the floor together. During the 2020 NBA trade deadline, the Cavaliers acquired 2-time All Star Andre Drummond from the Detroit Pistons to pair alongside Love, Sexton, and Garland. While the team played better with Drummond the Cavs season was cut short due to COVID-19. In the 2020 NBA draft the Cavs selected Isaac Okoro out of Auburn with the 5th pick in the 2020 NBA Draft.


Publisher William O. Walker became Rhodes Cabinet member: Black History Month

View full size Plain Dealer file William O. Walker (1896-1981). Cleveland councilman, publisher of black newspaper Call & Post, Ohio director of industrial relations, first black man to hold Cabinet position in the state.

As part of Black History Month, we remember William O. Walker, dynamic publisher of the Cleveland Call & Post and a man considered by many to be the dean of black publishing.

Founded in 1916, the newspaper's rise to prominence began in 1932, when Walker became editor at age 36. He revived the struggling weekly paper and turned it into a profit-maker.

Shortly afterward, Walker became the paper's publisher and majority owner. He became well known in Cleveland, speaking out for civil rights and exposing discrimination and wrongdoing.

Walker also urged the establishment of legal-aid societies by the black community, and encouraged black solidarity and self-reliance. He died in the Call & Post building on Oct. 29, 1981, at age 85, and was buried in historic Lake View Cemetery.

Walker served as a councilman for Ward 17 from 1940 to 1947. In the 1960s, he became Ohio's first black cabinet member, serving as industrial relations director for Gov. James A. Rhodes.


History of Cleveland's baseball team name

CLEVELAND -- The Cleveland Indians have had their name since 1915, but after 105 years, the team is set to take its franchise in a new direction following the 2021 season.

Baseball teams in Cleveland have had a handful of different names, including the Forest Citys, the Spiders, the Bronchos and the Naps, but where did the Indians nickname originate?

There are records of a Cleveland baseball team that date back as far as 1869, referring to the club as the Forest Citys or Blue Stockings. It wasn’t until 1889 that the team became the Spiders -- a name that’s had a resurgence of popularity among the fan base today -- for a 10-year span.

In 1897, the Spiders signed Louis Sockalexis, who became the first Native American in professional baseball. On March 10 of that year, it was written in The Plain Dealer that Sockalexis was said to be “a fine outfielder and a wonderful batter.” That season, he hit .338 with an .845 OPS in 66 games. But Sockalexis battled alcoholism, and his addiction led to his dismissal from the team in 1899.

When referencing the Spiders, the club is often associated with that disastrous 1899 season, during which the team finished 20-134, according to Baseball-Reference. Owner Frank Robison bought the St. Louis Browns and thought a good team there would draw better, according to Baseball Almanac, and shortly before the start of the season, he transferred all of Cleveland's best players to that team, which he renamed the Perfectos.

In that tough 1899 season, Sockalexis played in only seven games before his dismissal. The Spiders had not always been that bad and had played in the 1895 and 1896 Temple Cups (the precursor to the World Series), winning it in ྛ. By the end of the year, however, the Spiders were dropped from the National League, and Cleveland was without a baseball team.

Two years later, the current Cleveland franchise was born, but it had yet to determine a regular nickname. The Plain Dealer had referred to the team as the Babes, Spiders, Buckeyes and Clevelands at different points throughout the 1901 season. It wasn’t until 1902 when the Cleveland Press -- the Plain Dealer’s competitor -- named the team the Bronchos.

The Bronchos nickname lasted only one season before the Cleveland Press opened up a fan poll to vote on the Cleveland baseball team’s new moniker. The fans overwhelmingly voted for the Naps in honor of the team’s star player, Nap Lajoie. Buckeyes placed second, Emperors received the third-most votes and names like the Metropolitans, Giants, Cyclops, Gladiators, Imperials, Armour Clads and Red Devils were also in the running.

Lajoie had a tremendous 13-year career in Cleveland, hitting .339 with an .840 OPS, 919 RBIs and 424 doubles, but when he left for Philadelphia in 1915, the club was left in the predicament of needing to come up with a new name immediately.

While the tale often has been told that because Sockalexis died in 1913, the team was named the Indians in his honor, but that is unlikely. His years with the Spiders coincided with the club’s decline, and his departure from the team was not the most positive. His stardom in Cleveland was not the same as Lajoie’s, which made it less likely that the team would’ve been named after him.

There are old newspaper records that show that the baseball writers were left to vote on a name and had decided on Indians. In 1914, the Boston Braves had won the World Series, which could leave some to wonder if the name for Cleveland -- the last-place team that season -- was inspired by one that experienced great success.

Either way, records have indicated that the Indians name was not intended to be a long-term choice. But after undergoing a handful of different team names over the previous 15 years (and after the team won the World Series in 1920), the moniker ended up sticking for the next 105 years.

Fast forward to 2020 and the franchise -- following conversations with local and national Native American groups and other appropriate stakeholders -- has determined that the Indians name has run its course. The team announced that 2021 will be the final season that the name is used and that it will be seeking a new nickname for the franchise.


Women Ruled the Floor When the GOP First Came to Cleveland

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In June 1924, thousands flocked to Cleveland as visitors and delegates to the 18th Republican National Convention. The newly built Public Auditorium echoed with speeches and rousing patriotic tunes led by John Philip Sousa. Outside, salesmen hawked elephant figurines and women held signs emblazoned with the name of the presumed Republican nominee and sitting president: Calvin Coolidge. Clevelanders clustered around speakers set up in the city’s iconic Arcade while listeners throughout the country tuned in from the comfort of their living rooms to experience the first national party convention broadcast over the radio.

The official guide to the 1924 convention declared that Cleveland was “humming with industrial activity teeming with business enterprise and progressiveness mindful always of maintaining its proud record of civic accomplishment ever careful of the health, comfort and recreation of its people and every inhabitant a booster of his city.” At the time, Cleveland was the fifth-largest in the country, and “second to none in the possibilities for future growth and expansion.”

Supporters of women’s rights, too, hoped that the convention in Cleveland would further their cause, even as women’s representation in national government had always been scarce. With the ratification of the 19th Amendment in the summer of 1920, women had finally gained the right to vote. Yet the Plain Dealer noted “it was evident that, with few exceptions, the women were attending their first national party convention.”

Republican Convention in session, Cleveland Public Auditorium, 1924 (Special collections, Michael Schwartz Library, Cleveland State University)

Four years earlier, at the Republican convention in Chicago, only 27 delegates were women. In Cleveland, 120 women were delegates, with 277 serving as alternates. Not only were women better represented in the delegate count, the national committee passed a measure that required each state and territory to be represented by one man and one woman, doubling the committee in size. While convention-goers in Cleveland celebrated this requirement as a triumph for women’s rights, it was rescinded a mere 28 years later. 

Yet, women delegates made the most of their time at the convention in Cleveland. They gave speeches seeking the party’s support for issues ranging from temperance to peace. Hallie Quinn Brown, president of the National Association of Colored Women and vice president of the Ohio Council of Republican women, attended as a delegate and addressed the convention. Although she had criticized the Republican Party four years earlier for not taking a stronger stance in opposition to lynching, she helped organize African-American women to support the Republican cause through the National League of Republican Colored Women. 

When Florence Collins Porter, a member of the Woman’s Christian Temperance Union and a former crusader for women’s suffrage, gave a speech seconding the nomination of Calvin Coolidge, she paved the way for other women to follow in her path. 

RNC speaker and delegates, Cleveland Public Auditorium, 1924 (Special collections, Michael Schwartz Library, Cleveland State University)

As Brown and Porter broke new ground, Cleveland businesses sought to capitalize on a new market of women. Businesses sprinkled their advertisements with artfully sketched elephants holding umbrellas alongside descriptions of women’s shoes and silk chemises. Newspapers declared that women had to bring home “something from the convention.” 

The Plain Dealer wrote that these women delegates, however, held their focus to events inside the Auditorium: “They were interested in political talk and in the colorful scene about them. After the chairman’s gavel had brought the convention to order, these women were all attention. Politics seemed to come to them naturally.”

President Coolidge was the undisputed nominee. The vice-presidential nomination was less clear. As the delegates voted to nominate Frank Lowden of Illinois as vice president, the weary attendees, many suffering from the ailment of “convention feet,” made their way back to their hotels to pack and head home. Lowden declined the nomination, the only vice-presidential nominee to do so, and the delegates were herded back to the Public Auditorium for an emergency evening session. The trains were held at the station.

Just before midnight on June 12, the delegates, having successfully nominated Charles G. Dawes as vice president, shuffled to their trains and sped off into the night. 

Reports after the convention praised Cleveland for its successes as a host city. The gleaming Public Auditorium was well-suited for the job. Accommodations, which organizers had worried might be too few, were actually in surplus during the convention. The Republican National Committee declared that “Cleveland is fast becoming one of the most popular convention cities in America.” And, in 1936, twelve years later, the Public Auditorium reopened its doors, and the RNC came to Cleveland again.

About Rebekkah Rubin

Rebekkah Rubin is a public historian and freelance writer. Her work has appeared in outlets such as Belt Magazine, The Week, and Electric Literature.


The First Cleveland Cabinet - History

CLEVELAND'S CHURCHES AND MISSIONS (also see part 2 of Church history)

"Show me a place where there isn't any Meetin' Houses and where preachers is never seen, and I'll show you a place where old hats air stuffed into broken winders, where the children are dirty and ragged, where the gates have no hinges, where the wiinmen air slipshod, and where maps of the devil's wild land air painted upon men's shirt bosoms with tobacco jooce! That's what I'll show you. Let us consider what the preachers do for us before we aboose 'em." - Artemus Ward.

About the beginning of the nineteenth century, Rev. Joseph Badger, a soldier of the Revolutionary war, preached under a tree by the roadside out in Newburgh. He was a missionary. He wrote home that the people here were opposed to piety and gloried in their infidelity. No effort was made at this time to organize a church and it was not until 1816, twenty years after the city was founded by Moses Cleveland, that it had a church organization and then no church building.

On November 9th of that year Rev. Roger Searle from Connecticut got together a small gathering at the home of Phineas Shepherd. Thirteen families were represented at this meeting and Trinity Protestant Episcopal Church, the first in the city, the oldest of the multitude that we can now point to with pride, was organized with eleven members. The first vestrymen and wardens were Josiah Barber, Phineas Shepherd, Charles Taylor, James S Clark, Sherlock J Andrews, Levi Sargent, and John W. Allen. In 1820 they held their meetings out in Newburgh, where the more active and influential members lived, but two years later they moved back to Cleveland. Reverend Mr. Freeman gave some of his time to the church, and preached, and was the first rector. He went East and secured $1,000 to aid in building a church In 1828 the vestry incorporated and a frame building was raised. It was built at a cost of $3,000 and dedicated August 12, 1829. This, the first church built in Cleveland, was located in the residence and business section of the town, at the corner of St. Clair and Seneca (West Third) streets, and the site was purchased at the nominal price of two dollars per acre. In 1830 Reverend Mr. Elroy succeeded Reverend Freeman and was the first rector who gave his whole time to the church. Trinity grew and in 1854 the site that had cost two dollars an acre was sold for $250 per foot front, the old frame church having in the meantime been burned, and a stone church was built at the corner of Superior and Bond (East Sixth) streets. This church was dedicated in 1855. It had a tower and an equipment of chimes comprising nine bells. Among the early rectors of Trinity, the first church, were Revs. W. N. Lyster, Seth Davis, E. Roy, E. Boynden, David Burger, Richard Bury, I. Windsor, James A. Bolles, Thomas A. Starkey, Charles Breck, W. E. McLaren and John W. Brown. The next and crowning achievement after the building of the stone church on Superior Street was the erection of Trinity Cathedral at Euclid and East Twenty second Street. This present structure is the center of the Protestant Episcopal churches of Ohio. It is under the wing of Rt. Rev. W. A. Leonard, Bishop of the Diocese of Ohio, Rev. Francis S. White is dean and Rev. W. L. Rutan, curate. Near by is the Cathedral House, the Church Home and the City Mission.

Since the organization of this first church in Cleveland, which we have outlined in its history thus briefly, the religious life of the city has kept pace with the growth in other respects, or it may be historically true that it has led. As Cleveland is noted for the diversity of its products in manufactures, for the cosmopolitan character of its people, developed from the New England nucleus that came before the beginning of the nineteenth century, so is it remarkable in its religious development, having now nearly six hundred churches and missions, scattered in convenient locations throughout its borders, and embracing nearly one hundred different denominations.

Of the Protestant Episcopal churches since Trinity St. John's on the West Side was organized in 1834. Meetings were held in Columbus Block, in schoolhouses, and in homes until 1836 when a stone church was built at the corner of Church and West Twenty sixth (Wall) streets. This building cost $17,000 and is still the home of the original organization. In 1866 it was partly destroyed by fire but was rebuilt with additional room. The first rector was Rev. Seth Davis. Among those who served later were Revs. S. R. Crane, D. W. Tall ord, William Burton and Lewis Burton. In the '80s the wardens were George L. Chapman and C. L. Russell vestrymen, Thomas Axworthy, George L. Chapman, J. M. Ferris, M. A. Manna, F. W. Pelton, Elias Simms treasurer, A. L. Withington and clerk, Howard M. Ingham.

Grace Church was organized in 1845 at the residence of Rev. Richard Bury by former members of Trinity, this congregation having outgrown its accommodations. A lot was bought at the corner of Erie (Fast Ninth) and Huron, then the eastern limits of the city. Here a brick church was built costing $10,000. The first vestrymen were A. A Treat and E. F. Penderson, and the first wardens, H. A. Ackley, Moses Kelley, J. F. Jenkins, S. Englehart, William Richards, John Powell, Thomas Bolton and George F. Marshall. Among the early rectors were Revs. Lawson Carter, Gideon Perry, William A. Rich and William Allen Fisk. The money to build Grace Church was subscribed on condition that all seats should be free. This was a new departure and Grace was designated as the "Peoples Church." It was the first "free" church in Ohio. The downtown section of the city became so valuable for business purposes and the churches with one or two exceptions, which we will name later, have moved for the better convenience of the people into the residence districts and Grace Church moved with the rest. It now is located on Prospect Avenue at Boliver Road. Rev. George C. Wadsworth preceded the present rector, Rev. Wm. C. Hicks.

St. Paul's was organized October 26, 1846. The first rector was Gideon B. Perry. D. W. Duty and Aaron Clark were the first vestrymen and James Kellogg, H. L. Noble, Moses Kelley, W. J. Warner, T. W. Morse, O. A. Brooks, Oliver Arey and Edward Shepard were the first wardens. Services were first held in an upper room on Superior Street near Seneca (West Third). In March, 1848, a lot was bought at the corner of Sheriff (East Sixth) and Euclid and a frame church begun but this was burned while under construction. Nothing daunted the members immediately began the construction of a brick building which was completed and opened for services in 1851. The first sermon in the new building was preached by Rev. Dr. Perry. Following him in their order were Revs. R. B. Claxton, Wilbur T. Paddock, J. H. Rylance and Frederick Brooks. In 1874 the church property was sold and a chapel built at the corner of Euclid and Case (East Fortieth). At this point is located the commodious church of today. In the '70s, Rev. Nelson S. Rulison was rector Rev. W. C. French, assistant rector C. J. Comstock, senior warden J. D. Devereaux, junior warden Zenas King, A. C. Armstrong, F. W. Hubby, H. C. Ranney, George A. Tisdale, J. M. Adams, E. S. Page, C. E. Stenley, vestrymen. The present pastor is Walter R. Breed. It should be mentioned that the last rector of St. John's was Rev. Frederick B. Avery, and at present there is no settled rector, as the church has not yet called his successor.

Another of the earlier churches of this denomination was St. James, a child of Trinity and presided over for some time by the assistant rector of the parent church. The first established rector was Rev. R. Bury. A brick church at the corner of Superior and Alabama streets was its home for many years. It is now located on East Fifty fifth Street and the present rector is Rev. Vivian A. Peterson.

Grace Church, South, was organized in 1869 by Rev. Frederick Brooks, rector of St. Paul's. The congregation first held meetings in an old Presbyterian building. This they afterwards purchased and moved to a site secured at Harvard and Sawyer (Fast Ninety first) streets, where it is now located. After Frederick Brooks, Rev. Royal B. Bascome was at the head, then came Revs. Stephen W. Garrett, Marmaduke M. Dillon and I. McK. Pittenger. Reverend Pittenger had been pastor of the Congregational Church at Brecksville. This became Presbyterian and Reverend Pittenger was chosen presiding elder at a meeting of the Synod in Cleveland. Soon after he embraced the Episcopal faith and became rector of Grace Church This came in the days when the articles of belief were more strictly drawn in the popular mind than now and he was roundly criticized by some of his former associates in religious work. This would seem unjust, for in Protestant churches, according to Schaff, the authority of creeds is relative and always subordinate to the Bible as the only infallible rule of faith and practice. We have referred to this incident in the history of Grace Church as showing how in later years, as the churches multiplied, there has been a change and church homes are selected with less regard to the form of worship. We would like to give more of the history of this church and of others but the limits of this chapter will not permit. The present rector of the church is Reverend Mr. Trinkett.

St. Mary's Church began as a mission or school in 1863, when Levi Battles and S. N. Sanford started The Cleveland Female Seminary, a school for girls, providing for religious training. Meetings were held and Mr. Sanford acted as licensed lay reader. In 1868 a church was organized with S. N. Sanford and Levi Battles as wardens and Lorenzo R. Chapman, Walter Blythe, H. C. Deming, J. W. Fawcett and T. W. Mason as vestrymen. The first rector was Rev. Royal B. Bascom, and under his rectorate a church was built and dedicated in 1870. Among those who served after him were Revs. J. J. A. Morgan, Frank M. Hall and J. Sidney Kent. We mention these who were connected with the earlier history of the church. The present rector is Rev. James W. Heywood and the church building is located on Ramona Boulevard.

All Saints, St. Mark's, Emanuel Church, Memorial Church of the Good Shepherd, and St. Luke's, all have an interesting history dating back some fifty years. To one who would pass today the modest frame church at the corner of Scranton Road and Mentor Avenue, the home of All Saints Church, he would hardly associate it, without previous information, with the many who are and have been prominent in the business and civic life of Cleveland and have been identified with its history. The present rector is Rev. J. S. Banks. Emanuel Church on Euclid Avenue was organized in 1876. The first wardens were Dr. J. B. McConnell and W. C. Miller, and its vestrymen, Thomas C. Early, Enos Foreman, Zenas King, A. C. Armstrong, George Wratten, William Snape and B. C. Field Rev. B. C. Noakes was its first rector. Its first home was a chapel at Euclid and Case (West Fortieth) and its present home the commodious church at Euclid and East Eighty seventh Street. The present rector is Rev. Kirk B. O'Ferrall. Memorial Church of the Good Shepherd was built as a memorial to Rev. Alexander Varian, his widow and children providing a lot on which a church was built in 1873 on Addison Road. The present rector is Rev. Geo. I. Foster. St. Luke's began as a mission of St. Paul's and a brick church was built on Broadway. The St. Luke's of today is located at West Seventy eighth Street on Lake Avenue and the present rector is Rev. Leon T. Haley.

The number of Protestant Episcopal churches in Cleveland, at the present time, is exceeded by other denominations but it has the distinction of having established the first church in a city of six hundred churches, a consummation not probably dreamed of by the little gathering that met at the log house of Phineas Shepherd in 1816 and organized Trinity. Among the later churches organized may be mentioned Christ Church at Superior and East 108th with E. G. Mapes as rector, Holy Spirit on Wade Park Avenue, with Edwin L. Williams as rector Incarnation on 105th Street, A. R. McKinstry, rector St. Albans on Edghill Road, J. E. Carhartt, rector St. Andrews (colored), East Forty ninth Street, William B. Southern, rector St. Mark's, on Franklin Avenue, Lucius W. Shey, rector St. Martin's on Fairmount Boulevard, John K. Coolidge, rector St. Matthew's on Clark Avenue, Leon T. Haley, rector St. Paul's, Euclid in East Cleveland, Walter R. Breed, pastor St. Peter's, Edanola Avenue, L. B. Goodwin, rector St. Stephen's East 105th, William H. Rogers, rector and St. Phillip's at West Thirty third and Denison Avenue, Rev. George Bailey its rector. The last named church under the active support of its rector and a mean's league of unusual capability has in the past year erected a beautiful brick church replacing a modest frame building that had been its temporary home. And here again, as appears in so much of written history, we have made a grave omission, for the woman's guild was an important factor and history should so record.

Methodist preaching began in Newburgh quite early and a class was formed in 1818. This had its ups and downs and finally became extinct. The town was given up as a lost colony for a while. The statement written home by Reverend Badger seemed to be founded on fact. On New Year's day in 1832, Lyman Ferris went to Cleveland and invited Reverend Mr. Goddard, who had preached out there, to come out and try again. He did so and a class was formed consisting of Lyman Ferris and wife, Stephen Ames and wife, Cyrus Chapman and wife, Mr. D. Henderson and Mrs. Willis. This was the beginning of Methodism in the present limits of Cleveland. The first Methodist to live in Cleveland was Mrs. Grace Johnson, who came to the county in 1822. The class formed in Newburgh in 1832 grew, having preachers from neighboring circuits, and in 1841 a church building was erected at a cost of $3,000. This church had no settled pastor until 1860, when Rev. D. C. Wright was engaged. Revs. S. Gregg, D. Prosser, R. M. Warren, M. Hill, G. W. Chesbro, Thomas Stubbs, J. R. Lyon and A. S. Dobbs followed him in the order named. Under Reverend Dobbs a brick church was built to replace the first frame building. In the '70s the board of trustees consisted of Edmund James, John Henderson, William P. Braund, George R. Hill, George W. Culett, J. D. Jones, Robert Woodley, Noah Rathmer and William Jones. Revs. C. Prindle, A. D. Morton and Benjamin Excell had also been settled pastors of the church prior to the '80s.

Various meetings had been held by circuit riders in Cleveland, as originally bounded, previous to 1841, and in that year the first Methodist Church was organized and a church built at the corner of St. Clair and Wood streets. This was the first Methodist church organized in the original boundaries of Cleveland. In 1869 a new chapel was built at the corner of Euclid and Erie (East Ninth), which became the church home until 1874 when the chapel was replaced by a fine building costing $140,000. This church on the outskirts of Cleveland soon found itself in the business center of the city and in 1904 the present beautiful edifice at Euclid and Fast Thirtieth, costing $250,000, was erected. In all of its history this church has been the parent organization of Methodism in the city, establishing missions and churches and starting them on their way. It has a membership of over three thousand and the pastor is Rev. Albert E. Piper. Among the early pastors have been Revs. Francis A. Dighton, Hiram Gilmore, J. W. Lowe, Hiram Kinsley, H. N. Stevens, J. Renney, J. K. Hallock, H. M. Bettes, A. M. Brown, L. D. Mix, Samuel Gregg and B. K. Maltby.

Of the fifty churches in the city and vicinity multiplied as the population grew to the present time, we have mentioned the East Cleveland, which was organized in 1827. There was the First German Methodist Episcopal, which was organized in 1845 and three years later built a brick church building between Ontario and Erie (East Ninth), the Franklin Avenue, however, was organized fifteen years before, in 1830. In 1860 the First German Church was built on East Ninth (Erie) and later exchanged for the Baptist Church building at the corner of Scovill and Sterling. Early pastors of this church include Revs. C. H. Buhre, C. Helway, John A. Klein, C. Gahn, P. F. Schneider, J. Rothweiler, N. Nuhfer and Ennis Barr.

Christ Church organized by Rev. Dillon Prosser, and Taylor Street organized three years later, in 1853, by Rev. Benjamin Parkins, and The German Methodist Church of the west side, are linked with the early history of Cleveland. Reverend Prosser in the '50s established a Ragged School at the corner of Canal and Water streets. This was a sort of relief work, such as the Salvation Army, are engaged in at the present time. The efforts of Reverend Prosser were directed towards the rescue of destitute children. As Mrs. Ingham wrote of his work: "His pulpit was an inverted flour barrel, from which he preached to the 'great unwashed.' " Mrs. Harriet Sanford Mitchell and Mrs. Abby Fitch Babbit were engaged with Reverend Prosser in this rescue work. The work was enlarged and, in 1855, many were engaged in perfecting the workings of this rescue mission. Homes were visited and idle and destitute children were brought in, but as many came from the vicious classes the work of the missionary was an important element. Classes were taught, clothing was distributed, and work now done by the Associated Charities was carried on. Rev. Dillon Prosser was a pioneer in this work, the importance of which in the building up of a great city can hardly be overestimated. Quite early the headquarters of this relief or rescue work was located on Champlain Street near where the police station now stands. Of this we will speak later.

Superior Street Tabernacle, the Scovill Avenue Church, the first organized in 1860 and the second in 1866, were also brought into being under the enthusiastic direction of Reverend Prosser. Lorain Street Methodist Church was organized in 1868 by Rev. H. L. Parish, who was its first pastor. Grace Church near Literary Street, organized in 1870, and Broadway in 1872 under Revs. Ruddick and C. N. Grant, respectively, have a place in the history of the early Methodist churches. The Willson Avenue Mission is identified with the early history of Methodism in Cleveland. This was organized in a saloon on St. Clair Street as a mission Sunday school, then Mrs. Prosser, wife of Rev. Dillon Prosser, purchased the building and had it removed to Willson Avenue (Fifty fifth Street). This was never organized into a church.

Closely allied in religious worship but differing somewhat in creed was the first Wesleyan Methodist Church formed in Cleveland. It came about in this way. At the Erie conference of the Methodist churches held in 1838 some expression was adopted on the question of slavery that offended very many of the Cleveland Methodists. This action seems to have been taken at the conference before the organization of the First Methodist Church, but was probably brought before the church here at a later period. As a result sixty members of the First Church withdrew and formed the First Wesleyan Methodist in 1843. This church stood alone until 1848 when it entered into the Wesleyan Methodist Connection of America. Thus early in the churches of Cleveland as elsewhere the slavery question became an issue.

Of the fifty Methodist churches in Cleveland three are German, one is Swedish and nine are colored. The first colored church was organized in 1874 under the name of the Union Chapel. In the same year a church building was erected by C. H. Norton and given to the society. The first pastor was Rev. Henry Stum. Since that others have been organized from time to time and they have been a great factor in the training of men and women for good citizenship. There is the Allen Chapel Mission on Burke Avenue with David Irvin as pastor. The Avery Methodist Episcopal Church on East Twenty eighth Street with Rev. Jesse Bass as pastor, the Bethel on Shiloh Road with Rev. H. H. Applegrove as pastor, the Cory on Scovill Avenue with Rev. John B. Redmond as pastor, the Holsey Mission on Croton Avenue, Rev. Robert B. Vinson, pastor Lee Memorial on Cedar Avenue, Rev. L. H. Brown, pastor, and others.

It would be interesting to include a history Of each of the fifty churches of this denomination. The German churches have taken an enviable place in the caravan of progress. As early as 1853 Mrs. Charlotte Degmeier, wife of a German Methodist minister, began a work among the neglected children of the city, particularly among those of her own nationality. She organized a School and Relief Society. The boys and girls were collected in a brick building at the corner of Detroit and Pearl (West Twenty fifth) Street. This labor of love continued and Mrs. Degmeier purchased a building on Main Street and was aided by Mrs. Alf Davis, Mrs. Horace Benton, Mrs. W. B. Guyles and Mrs. John Cannon in her School and Relief Society. How much we owe to the women through the century and more of Cleveland's building the writer can only indicate and the reader reflect upon.

Of the Free Methodists there are only two churches in the city. The first was formed in 1873. It started with six members and a small building was erected on Pearl (West Twenty fifth) Street. The first officers were A. Bradfield, William C. Jones, E. Thomas and Thomas Service. The first pastor was Rev. William H. James. Rev. C. F. Irish was the pastor in the latter part of the '70s and he was later the pastor of churches of the Methodist Episcopal faith. There was a Welsh Calvinist Church organized in 1858. We have given the Union Chapel as the first African Methodist Church organized in the city but St. John's appears to have been organized in 1865 and hence should claim the distinction of being the first.

The circuit riders of the Methodist Church were genuine pioneers, they endured the hardships of the forest life and were a part of the crude civilization that built the first fires in the woods, beside which they called to a better life based on the example of the Great Master. It is probable that some in this later time who are engaged in the ministry may trace their ancestry back to the circuit riders of the early days. Among them are Revs. Elmer E. Smith, John M. Baxter, John Oetjen, James T. Hoffman, John H Le Croix, John B. Redmond, Paul E. Secrest, Elton D. Barnett, Louis C. Wright, Albert E. Piper, William C. Stokes, F. M. Baker. J. J. Wyeth, Franklin J. Nichols, Robert B. Vinson, D. W. Knight, L. O. Eldredge, Marcellus B. Fuller, L. H. Brown, Joseph Kenney, John J. McAlpin and John F. Rutledge and the superintendent of the Cleveland District, Rev. Isaac E. Miller.

The first Presbyterian church was formed with sixteen members September 19, 1820. The organization meeting was held in the old log courthouse on the public square. Rev. Randolph Stone was the first minister. The meetings of the church were held in the log courthouse for two years, then in the brick academy on St. Clair Street, where engine house No. 1 now stands. The meetings were held on the second floor. The organization of the church was preceded by that of a Sunday school, which was formed in June, 1819, with Elisha Taylor as superintendent. He was a Presbyterian, while the secretary, Moses White, was a Baptist. Mr. Taylor is represented as a forceful character and his wife as one "given to hospitality and a readiness to entertain ministers of all creeds who chanced to visit the settlement." These were prominent in the formation and early years of the church as they had been in the Sabbath school which preceded it a short time. The secretary, Mr. White, attended the meetings until the formation of the first Baptist Church in the city. The original or charter members of the church were Elisha Taylor and Ann Taylor, his wife Henry Baird and Ann Baird, his wife Samuel I. Hamlen, Philip B. Andrews, Sophia L. Perry, Sophia Walworth, Mabel Howe, Bertha Johnson, Robert Baird and Nancy Baird, his wife Rebecca Carter, Juliana Long, Isabella Williamson and Harriet Howe. These were the first members of the Old Stone Church, as it is now called, a church which has withstood the test of fire and business aggression and still has its home on the Public Square, its walls resting in solemn grandeur on a site purchased for $400. Its history is closely allied with that of Trinity, for after various meeting places were used, including those we have mentioned, and after Trinity erected a frame building on St. Clair Street, both churches met in the new building. Later the Presbyterian Church was built on the Public Square. The site was purchased, and this is the site upon which the present Old Stone Church stands, by Samuel Cowles from Joel Scranton and there was a provision in the sale that within three years the property be sold to the First Presbyterian Church for the purpose of erecting a meeting house thereon. The $400 was contributed by ten men, Samuel Williamson, Samuel Cowles, Leonard Case, Peter M. Weddell, Nathan Perry and Harmon Kingsbury each gave $50, and John M. Sterling, Samuel Starkweather, A. W. Walworth and Edmund Clark each gave $25. The first building was put up in 1832, or it was begun in that year and Samuel I. Hamlen was appointed to supervise the building at $2 per day. Money was scarce and the construction did not progress rapidly until a loan was secured from the Commercial Bank of Lake Erie. The building as dedicated in 1834 was of stone and cost $9,500. It was 55 by 80 feet and in the language of the school youth a "swell" building. The Rev. John Keep, who later assisted in the founding of Oberlin College, was a supply pastor of the church. The first installed pastor was Rev. Samuel Clark Aiken. He began his pastorate in 1835, and, as illustrating the solidity and stability of the Old Stone Church, he remained until 1861. In the meantime a great calamity had visited the congregation, their fine building, the finest in the city, with a spire 230 feet high, was burned. There was insurance and reconstruction immediately began. In 1884 a second fire, which originated in the Wick Block adjoining, visited the church. The loss was $175,000. The next day the pastor, Doctor Mitchell, preached on the text, "Thou knowest not what a day may bring forth." After this fire the agitation in the church and community began for a removal of the church away from the downtown location to some residence section but it did not prevail. Col. John Hay was one who urged the retention of the present site. Others of influence joined and it was finally determined to retain the old historic site. The Old Stone Church is identified with the history of Cleveland from a very early date and its activities have been many. Probably no church in the city has had so many men and women of wealth and influence connected with it as has this one. Its pastors have been retained for long periods. Among them have been Revs. Samuel Clark Aiken, William Henry Goodrich, Hiram Collins Hayden, Arthur Mitchell and Alf red J. Wright. The present able and eloquent leader is Rev. Andrew Barclay Meidrum, who began his labors as pastor in 1902. In a history of the Old Stone Church recently published by Arthur C. Ludlow, D. D., we find this paragraph: "The growing cosmopolitan character of the Stone Church is emphasized by such names upon its rolls as George Assad, Woo Let, Maryem and Farceedy Maalouf, Halvin Najeb, Michael Nassif, Assas Said, Nahli and Naseef Salim, Foo Lock, Wong King, Carlos Gomez, Alphonzo Espinosa and others."

Since the founding of the Old Stone Church thirty more have been added, many of them if not all promoted in their organization by the first church on the Public Square. Among them are one colored, one Hungarian and one Italian Church.

The South Presbyterian we have ref erred to in the chapter on Newburgh. There was no Presbyterian preaching out there until 1821 when occasional meetings were held at the house of Noah Graves and it was in this house in December, 1832, that Revs. David Peet of Euclid and Harvey Lyon organized the South Presbyterian Church. It was Congregational in form but attached to the Cleveland Presbytery. There were eleven charter members, Edward and Theodocia Taylor, James and Sarah Ashwell, Elizabeth Southern, John and Martha Stair, John and Amy Righter and Elizabeth Derrick. A temporary meeting place was fitted up out of an old carpenter shop on Miles Avenue. At first there were no regular meetings held but Rev. Simon Woodruff preached occasionally. Rev. John Keys, who began his labors after Woodruff, was the first stated supply. He was followed by Rev. Mathew Fox and under his ministry the church became Presbyterian in form and was attached to the Wooster Presbytery. In 1841-42 a frame church was built near the present site of the Hospital for the Insane on a lot given by Judge Hosmer. This was the first house of worship built in the part of Cleveland that was once Newburgh. In 1869 a brick church was built costing $15,000, a large sum in those days, and the building was a wonderful advance over the carpenter shop where the first meetings were held. Among the early pastors have been Revs. William McReynolds, James Straw, Erastus Chester, D. W. Childs, William C. Turner, Joseph S. Edmonds and E. Curtis. In the '80s John Davidson, Harvey H. Pratt and H. B. Marble were trustees.

Following a notice of the early churches somewhat chronologically, the United Presbyterian Church comes next although of a different denomination. This was organized in the Hancock Block at the corner of Superior and Seneca streets in 1843 by Reverend Mr. McLaren. The first ruling elders were I. Campbell, D. Pollock and J. Dodds. A small building was erected for its meetings at the southwest corner of Seneca and Superior streets and in 1853 an expensive brick one at Erie and Huron. Rev. J. W. Logue was the first minister giving a part of his time to a church of the same denomination in Northfield Summit County. Reverend Logue was the father of Judge Logue of the Police and Common Pleas courts of Cleveland. Revs. H. A. McDonald. and J. L. Althen were early pastors.

The Second Presbyterian Church was organized in 1844, under a charter granted some years before in the Ohio Legislature, by Rev. S. C. Aiken of the Old Stone Church. Most of its membership came from that church originally. This congregation first built on Rockwell where the County Jail now stands. This building they sold to the Second Baptist Society and moved to Erie (East Ninth) Street. In 1876 this church was burned and two years later a fine church, seating 1,300 people, at the corner of Prospect and Sterling, was dedicated. David Long, Henry Sexton. Jeremiah Holt, Eli P. Morgan, Jesse F. Taintor and Samuel Mather were the first ruling elders, and William A. Otis, T. P. Handy and S H Fox the first deacons. Among the early pastors were Revs. Sherman B. Canfield, James Eells, Theron H. Hawks and Charles H. Pomeroy. During the pastorate of the last named the roll of officers comprised many well known names in the annals of Cleveland. There were Leverett Alcott, E. I. Baldwin, Martin L. Brooks, Dan P. Fells, Erastus F. Gaylord, Truman P. Handy, John Mansfield, Samuel Mather and Edwin R. Perkins, who were ruling elders, O. J. Benham, Charles W. Chase, Charles J. Dockstader, George G. Johnson, Charles H. Randall and Henry S. Whittlesey, who were deacons, and H. B. Hurlbut, J. G. Hower, S. H. Benedict, A. K. Spencer and E. I. Baldwin were trustees.

The Euclid Avenue Presbyterian was an early church, organized in 1853 with thirteen members all from the Old Stone or First Church. Zalmon Fitch and Elisha Taylor were the first elders, Augustus Fuller and Joseph Perkins the first deacons, and Rev. Joseph B. Bittinger the first pastor. Among the early pastors were Revs. Oxman A. Lyman, Charles H. Baldwin, W. H. Jeffers and J. L. Robertson. Its church building at the corner of Brownell and Euclid was put up in 1853 by the Old Stone Church at a cost of $30,000.

A Welsh Presbyterian Church was organized in 1866 by John Moses, who was its first pastor. For various reasons its membership soon dwindled away. The North Presbyterian Church began as a mission of the Old Stone Church as a Sunday school on St. Clair Street and regular church services were instituted as early as 1865. It built a chapel on Aaron Street and Revs. Aaron Peck, Jr., B. P. Johnson and D. W. Sharts preached. Rev. Aaron Smyth was the first regular supply. In 1872 under the pastorate of Rev. H. R. Hoisington the Sunday school had an enrollment of 1,000. Memorial Presbyterian Church, at the corner of Case (Fortieth) and Sibley, was organized in 1870 by Rev. James A. Skinner. The first regular pastor was Rev. Francis A. Horton, W. H. Vantine, John C. Grant, John C. Preston, Donly Hobart, Alfred Adams and Truman Hastings were the first elders Henry T. Carline, deacon and Mrs. Julia L. Ozanne, Mrs. Mary W. Hastings and Mrs. Emily A. Horton, deaconesses. In these latter officers we note that the age of progress was at hand. Walter R. Austin was auditor and Truman Hastings, clerk. The Woodland Avenue Presbyterian Church was organized in 1872. Its first officers were Solon L. Severance, Ira Lewis, Marcus W. Montgomery and Henry James, elders John J. Davis and William W. Robinson, deacons. Its first pastor was Rev. Edward P. Gardner. Its commodious church at Woodland and Kennard housed in the '70s the largest Sunday school in the city.

Presbyterian headquarters in the Hippodrome Building are in charge of Rev. C. L. Zorbaugh, superintendent. We cannot dose this outline of the expansion of this great church in Cleveland without mentioning some of the ministers whose activities are more recent. Among them are Revs. Elliott Field, Charles D. Darling, Adelbert P. Higley, Alexander McGaffin, Francis De Simone, Samuel W. Griffiths, Joel B. Hayden, Andrew B. Meldrum, Frank H. Ferris, Julius Kish, Arthur H. Limouxe, Eugene E. House, Fred W. Pace, Alfred J. Wright, Arthur M. Campbell, J. Grant Walter, Arthur C. Ludlow, E. Pugh Thomas, Harvey E. Holt, W. P. Thomas, Pietro A. Fant, C. L. Jefferson, Narver H. Bergen, B. R. King, L. F. Ruff, Frank T. Barry, Paul F. Sutphen, Louis F. Ruf and Doctor McIntosh.

The First Baptist Church of Cleveland was organized in February, 1833, by Rev. Richmond Taggart. It was attached to the Rocky River Baptist Association. It should be remembered, however, that the first sermon preached in the present confides of Cleveland was by a Baptist missionary, the Revolutionary soldier, Reverend Mr. Badger. The original members of this first church were seventeen in number, Moses White, Benjamin Rouse, Rebecca E. Rouse, Thomas Whelpley, Jeduthan Adams,

John Seamon, Horatio Ranney, Leonard Stockwell, Sophia Stockwell, Thomas Goodman, John Malvin, Harriet Malvin, S. M. Cutler, Mary Belden, Harriet Hickox, Letha Griffin and Elizabeth Taylor. The first meetings were held in the old academy at St. Clair and West Sixth Street. The church was not long in getting a home of its own, for, three years later, a meeting house built at the corner of Seneca and Champlain streets at a cost of $13,000 was dedicated. When Rev. Levi Tucker, who succeeded Mr. Taggart, began his labors the church had grown from the original seventeen. Two hundred and twenty nine had been received by baptism and 204 by letter. Rev. S. W. Adams was the church pastor from 1846 until his death in 1864. During his pastorate, in 1855, the Plymouth Congregational Church at the corner of East Ninth and Euclid was purchased and this became the church home. Among the early pastors were Revs. A. H. Strong, Judy L. Richmond, E. F. Willey, J. H. Walden, S. W. Adams, J. F. Behrends, George W. Gardner and Phillip S. Moxom. The first deacons were Moses White, Alexander Sked, Benjamin Rouse and John Benney. A history of the First Baptist Church published in 1922 under the direction of a historical committee consisting of A. L. Walcott, Mary E. Adams and H. G. Baldwin, outlines its history as follows: Organization of the Female Baptist Sewing Society, dedcation of first building at the corner of Seneca and Champlain, purchase of site corner Euclid and East Ninth, organization of Idaka Sunday School, organization of Idaka Memorial Baptist Church, celebration of the fiftieth anniversary, the union of Idaka Church with the First Baptist, laying the corner stone of the edifice at Prospect and Kennard, dedication of the same, organization of the Men's League, organization of the Women's League, celebrating of the seventy fifth anniversary, contributions reaching the high water mark for benevolence in the year 1921, to-wit $56,862.07. Membership in 1922, 801. Idaka Chapel was the gift of Stillman Witt and his daughter, Mrs. Dan P. Eells. This was the home first of a Sunday school and then of the church mentioned. The present pastor of the church is Rev. David Bovington and the assistant pastor, Rev. H. Schuyler Foster. The trustees are Ambrose Swasey, W. H. Prescott, David E. Green, H. G. Baldwin, C. S. Smith, C. B. Ellinwood, F. W. Lovill, J. P. Mapes and C F. Groth, and the deacons, John R. Owens, A. L. Talcott, T. E. Adams, C. H. Prescott, W. A. Stevenson, Harry Hales, Robert R. Buckley, Albert H. Price, H. C. Schofield and Edwin F. Groth. Among the later pastors have been Revs. Herbert F. Stillwell, A. G. Upham, Loundes Pickard and Charles H. Prescott.

Since the organization of this first church in Cleveland the Baptist churches have increased to eighty six, outnumbering any other Protestant church in the city and equaling the number of Catholic churches. We must mention a few of the early churches.

The Second Baptist Church was organized from the First Baptist in 1851 and was first known as the Erie Street Baptist Church. It began with forty three members. The first pastor was J. Hyatt Smith, the first trustees, Ransom Green, V. A. Payne, H. Ranney, Peter Abbey and Daniel Himebaugh clerk, Benjamin Rouse and the treasurer, Ezra Thomas. They built a church at the corner of Erie and Huntington, which was dedicated in 1871. After this they were known as the Second Baptist Church. Among the early pastors were Revs. Alfred Pinney, D. S. Watson, Samuel W. Duncan and George Thomas Dowling. The Third Baptist Church came into being as the First Baptist Church of Ohio City and was organized in 1852. After the two cities united it took the name of the Third Baptist Church of Cleveland. It began with a membership of eight men and twelve women. The first pastor was Rev. N. S. Burton the clerk, C. A. Crumb the treasurer, William Tompkins and the trustees, John McClelland, John Honeywell and Richard Phillips. Its early pastors include Revs. S. B. Page, George W. Gates, William Carmac, A. Darrow, M. E. Hayne, W. F. Barten and J. H. Scott. In the same year the Superior Street Baptist Church had its inception in the Cottage Baptist Mission and Sunday School. A church was organized in 1870 with Rev. Edwin A. Taft as its first pastor. The mission was founded in 1852. The Tabernacle Baptist Church should be included among the early churches. It developed from the Scovill Avenue Baptist Mission which was founded in 1858. The first pastor was Rev. T. L. Lyon.

Shiloh (colored) was founded in 1865, the First German Baptist in 1866 with Rev. Gerhard Koopman as its first pastor and Rev. Edward Greutzner as a later pastor, the Welsh Baptist, organized out in the old Eighteenth Ward (Newburgh) with thirty six members in 1868, the first preachers, Revs. William Owen and Richard Evans, and the first regular pastor, Rev. S. Thomas. Among the early pastors of this church have been Revs. J. T. Griffiths, D. C. Thomas, Moses Wright, S. Job, W. Brees and W. J. Williams, and its early officers included Edward Jones, Edward Rodway, and John Stevens, deacons, and John E. Jones, choir leader. This church became famous quite early for its excellent choir singing. Of a different denomination, the Scranton Avenue Free Baptist, located at Scranton and Putnam, was founded in 1868. The first pastor was Rev. A. H. Chase. A. K. Moulton, O. D. Patch and Ransom Dunn were early pastors. Trinity Baptist founded in 1872 by Rev. J. L. Tollhurst, and the Garden Street Mission of the First Baptist are identified with the early history of this church. The Baptist headquarters are located in the Schofield building with Rev. Arc M. McDonald as superintendent. There are in the city, of this denomination, twenty four colored churches and missions, two German, one Czecho-Slovak, two Hungarian, one Polish, one Swedish, one Slovak, one Italian mission, two Romanian and one Slovanian mission.

Of the later ministers of this church we should mention Rev. William W. Bustard, pastor of the Euclid Avenue Baptist Church, whose church has become famous by reason first of the eloquence of its pastor and second as having for many years among its parishioners John D. Rockefeller, who took an active interest in its welfare. The thrift that is inherent in Mr. Rockefeller's nature is shown in an incident connected with this church. Taking the Sunday school out for an outing at one of the beaches, Mr. Rockefeller interviewed the boatman who operated a pleasure launch giving rides out into the lake at so much per head. "How much do you charge?" said he to the captain. On receiving a reply, he said, "Yes, but how much for a thousand?" An arrangement was made by which all had a ride during the day much to the profit of the boatman and with much saving to Mr. Rockefeller over what it would have cost at the retail price.

Among the later pastors of the city may be mentioned, in addition to Mr. Bustard, Revs. J. T. Raymond, Albert Knopf, Washington M. Page, J. Sims, Irving DePuy, James M. Crawford, Joseph E. Wilson, William L. Lemon, Horace C. Bailey, William Daude, Franklin W. Sweet, J. C. Walker, Howard A. Vernon, Millard Breisford, T. W. Dons, Roy D. Wood, Charles Gersak, Joseph Vanek, Michael Prof ant, Fred J. Blake, Karl Jarsak, Romyer M. Green and others.

The Disciple or Christian Church as it is now called first began its history in Cleveland by preaching out in Newburgh, then a separate township, as early as 1828, Ebenezer Williams being the first preacher. The Eighteenth Ward Disciple Church was organized in that part of the present limits of the city in 1842. The elders have been William Hayden, John Hopkinson, Jonas Hartzler, F. M. Green, James A. Garfield, O. M. Atwater, Lathrop Cooley, John Pinkerton, J. M. Monroe, S. K. Sweetman, J. H. Jones, E. D. Barclay and W. F. Spindler. These among the early ministers officiated during the first third of a century and more of the church life. In the same year the Franklin Street Disciple Church on the West Side was organized by Rev. John Henry. This church began with thirty members. There was preaching by many pioneer evangelists. Rev. Lathrop Cooley was the first pastor. Others who served the church in that capacity were James A. Garfield, William Robinson, W. D. Winter, C. C. Foote, B. A. Hinsdale, James Cannon and Alanson Wilcox. A. J. Marvin, James Cannon, William Tousley, R. O. White, N. D. Fisher and Albert Teachout were among the early officers.

The Euclid Avenue Disciple Church was organized in 1843 near Doan's Corners. The first minister was Elder M. S. Clapp. Among the first ministers were J. B. Pinkerton, C. C. Foote, J. H. Jones and Jabez Hall, and its early officers included C. B. Lockwood, W. S. Streator and B. L. Pennington. There are now fourteen churches of this denomination in the city, now denominated the Christian Church. The headquarters are in the Arcade with Rev. Isaac J. Cahill as executive secretary. Ministers at the present time having charges include Revs. Franklin D. Butchart, Charles N. Filson, T. E. Winter, Fred H. Schmitt, Jacob H. Golden, F. Hooker Groom, Clarence A. Hanna, Charles J. Pardee, Walter S. Cook, William N. Vickers, G. S. Bennett and Myndert Bothyl. Rev. Golden has a wide reputation as a speaker and leading divine.


Timeline

1908 Addie Joss pitches a 74-pitch perfect game at League Park on October 2, 1908. Joss&apos fantastic career comes to an abrupt end two and a half years later when he contracts tubercular meningitis and passes away. Joss is elected to the Hall of Fame via the Hall of Fame Veterans Committee in 1978.

1910 League Park&aposs old, wooden, facility is replaced with concrete and steel and opens April 21, 1910, seating about 21,000. Almost 19,000 fans pour into the new park at E. 66th and Lexington and watch the Detroit Tigers defeat the Cleveland Naps 5-0. For the next 36 years, League Park hosts Cleveland baseball.

1911 In a forerunner of today&aposs All-Star Game, stars gathered at League Park for an exhibition against the Naps to benefit the family of the late Addie Joss on July 24, 1911. The All-Stars cruise to a 5-3 victory, but the goal of the event is accomplished - $12,931.60 is raised for the Joss family.

1914 On September 27, 1914, Nap Lajoie becomes the first player to reach the exclusive 3,000 hit mark in a Cleveland uniform. Nap Lojoie is the reason that Cleveland is called the Naps, showing what honor and respect his team and city had for him.

1915 Cleveland took on the name "Indians" in 1915, reviving a nickname of its old NL club upon the arrival of this Native American in 1897. Hall of Famer John Montgomery Ward referred to Sockalexis as "a marvel".

1920 Game 5 of the 1920 World Series sees many firsts. Elmer Smith belts the first ever Grand Slam in the first inning. In the 4th, Jim "Sarge" Bagby becomes the first pitcher to ever hit a home run in the Series. And lastly, the most improbable firsts happens in the 5th when Bill Wambsganss&apos turns an unassisted triple-play, a feat that may never be duplicated.

1925 Indians player-manager Tris Speaker got his 3000th hit on May 17, 1925 at League Park - the second player to do so for Cleveland. Speaker was a shoe in for the Hall of Fame and was elected in 1937.

1926-1950

1932 The first game at the new Stadium in 1932 was one of Cleveland&aposs great sporting events with a reported total attendance of 80,184. Initially, Municipal Stadium split time with League Park as home to the Indians, but took over full duties in the 1947 season. 1993 is its final season.

1940 Bob Feller&aposs Opening Day no-hitter on April 16, 1940 at Comiskey Park was the first of three no-hitters he pitched for the Indians. No one has ever opened the season with a no-no.

1948 In the pivotal Game 4 of the 1948 World Series, Larry Doby&aposs home run makes the difference in a 2-1 Tribe victory. Steve Gromek goes the distance, shutting the Braves offense down to a single run. The Indians take a 3-1 Series lead and take home the crown 2 games later.

1951-1975

1954 Led by the stellar pitching of Lemon, Wynn and Garcia, the 1954 Indians set American League records for wins (111) and winning percentage (.721). Feller, Mossi, Narleski and Newhouser were also notable in the dominating pitching staff. Doby, Rosen and Avila shined with the bats.

1959 Fan favorite Rocky Colavito ties the MLB record for home runs in a game with four (in consecutive at bats) at Baltimore&aposs Memorial Stadium on June 10, 1959. He goes on to lead the league in homers with 42.

1963 Wynn&aposs 300th Win On July 13, 1963, Early Wynn beat the White Sox at Cleveland Stadium to become the only pitcher to win his 300th game with the Tribe. Nine years later, Wynn finds a home in the Baseball Hall of Fame.

1975 Frank Robinson Player-Manager Debut April 8, 1975 mark a great stride for not only baseball, but America. Frank Robinson becomes the first African-American manager in MLB history, and he enters the ranks in grand style, hitting a homer in his first at bat.

1976-1999

1977 Dennis Eckersley Throws a No-Hitter On May 30, 1977, Dennis Eckersley hurls a 1-0 no-hitter. Eckersley ended up now known for his great achievements as a closer with the Oakland A&aposs, winning the Cy Young and MVP awards in 1992.

1981 Barker perfect game The shortened season sees the Indians play only 103 games, but one is among the most memorable ever. Large Lenny Barker retires 27 consecutive batters on May 15, 1981, to become the first Cleveland player to do so since Addie Joss. He beat Toronto 3-0 at Cleveland Stadium.

1994 Opener at Jacobs Field A new era in Indians History begins on April 4, 1994 when the Tribe plays its first regular season game at Jacobs Field - a 4-3 win in 11 innings vs. Seattle before 41,459 fans.

1995 Murray&aposs 3000th Eddie Murray makes history on June 30, 1995 at Minnesota, when he bounces a single throught the right side for his 3000th hit. Eddie Murray joins Nap Lajoie and Tris Speaker as the 3rd player to enter the 3000 hit club while with Cleveland.

1995 Clinch A drought of 41 years ends on September 8, 1995 at Jacobs Field when the Tribe&aposs 3-2 victory vs. Baltimore clinches the AL Central Division. A season of memorable comebacks along with hefty poundings sees the Indians go 100-44, winning the Division by 30 games, the largest margin ever.

Pena home run 10/3/95 In the wee hours of the morning, Tony Pena delivers Cleveland its first post-season victory since 1948 with his 13th inning HR on October 3, 1995 in game one of the ALDS. Most of the Indians faithful remains in chilly Jacobs Field to watch and celebrate.

1995 ALCS HeroKenny Lofton scores from second base on a passed ball in game six of the 1995 ALCS in Seattle. The rattled pitcher, Randy Johnson, gives up a home run to the ensuing batter, Carlos Baerga and the Indians burst into the World Series for the first time since 1954.

1997 On To The World Series Tony Fernandez lifts a laser over the right field wall in Camden Yards in the top of the 12th to give the Indians the only run of the game. In the bottom half, Jose Mesa strikes out Roberto Alomar clinching victory over Baltimore in the sixth game of the 1997 ALCS.

2000-2009

2000 Fielding Record For so many years the defense of the Indians has dazzled the league, and 2000 was no different. Gold Glovers R. Alomar, Vizquel, and Fryman, lead the 2000 Indians to set AL season fielding records in percentage(.988)& fewest errors(72).

2001 Comeback Tribe The Indians won their sixth American League Central Division crown in seven years in 2001. After missing the playoffs by one game in 2000, the Indians did what they were unable to do in 2000--win games within their division. The Indians finished 91-71 with a 47-29 record in the Central.

January 9, 2001: Tribe signs Juan Gonzalez After home grown slugger Manny Ramirez signed a free-agent contract with the Boston Red Sox, the Indians needed someone to fill the clean up spot and play right field. The Tribe signed two-time AL MVP Juan Gonzalez to a one-year contract with a mutual club and player option for &apos02. "We needed a guy to take Manny&aposs spot, and Juan (Gonzalez) did a better than expected job, both offensively and defensively," Shapiro said.

February 28, 2001: Indians signs Omar Vizquel to contract extension The Indians inked the best fielding shortstop in baseball history to a two-year contract extension. The signing likely insures that Vizquel will finish is career as an Indian. "Omar is a very special player -- on the field and off it for the Indians,&apos&apos said General manager John Hart about the eight-time gold glove winner.

March 12, 2001: Indians signs Einar Diaz to a four-year contract After deciding not to re-sign fan favorite Sandy Alomar, Jr., the Indians decided to sign Diaz to a long-term contract. The 28-year-old turned out to be a solid force behind the plate, not to mention offensively.

March 17, 2001: Travis Fryman out 2-4 weeks with elbow injury In what turned out to be an injury that plagued him the entire year, Fryman missed the rest of Spring Training and the first two months of the season with an elbow injury. The injury hurt the Tribe defensively and offensive. Fryman had high hopes for the 2001 season as he was coming off a career year. He batted a career high .321 in 2000, drove in 106 RBI and won is first Gold Glove.

March 25, 2001: Jaret Wright and Charles Nagy start season on DL Two links to the Tribe&aposs success in the past were placed on the disabled list to start the season. Wright and Nagy will eventually rejoin the Indians in the middle of the season, but neither could finish the season without being placed back on the DL.

April 2, 2001: Opening Day Juan Gonzalez hits two homers against the Chicago White Sox, but the Tribe still loses. Marty Cordova makes the 25-man roster coming out of Spring Training and plays a big role in the season.

April 4, 2001: Sellout streak comes to an end The sellout streak that began on June 12, 1995 ended on April 4. The 455 sellouts is a Major League record.

April 8, 2001 - Rookie C.C. Sabathia makes Major League debut 20-year-old left-handed pitcher, Sabathia makes his first career start against the Baltimore Orioles. After giving up three runs in the first inning, Sabathia settled down and allowed just one hit the rest of the way.

April 13, 2001: Sabathia picks up his first win The rookie gives up five runs in five innings, but the Tribe defeats the Tigers, 9-8. The win marks the first of 17 wins for the young southpaw.

April 21, 2001: Jim Thome homers on bobblehead doll day Struggling to start the season, Thome didn&apost even start the game against the Tigers. But in the 11th inning on his bobble head doll day, Thome homered off closer Todd Jones to give the Tribe a 5-4 victory.

April 28, 2001: Indians start longest winning streak of the season In a 7-3 win over the Rangers, the Tribe embarked on season-high 10-game winning streak.

May 10, 2001: Streak ends The Tribe&aposs 10-game winning streak comes to an end with an 8-3 loss to the Royals. During the streak, the Indians swept two teams and outscored their opponents 86-33.

2004 A little past, present and future The Indians did a lot of looking back. The organization held celebrations of its 1954 AL pennant and its 10th season in Jacobs Field. But the Indians also gave fans some reason to celebrate the present. The club, which made a strong August bid for first place, showed it was one year ahead of schedule in terms of contending for a title, and it also introduced its fans to a collection of players who will be the faces of the future. Victor Martinez, Travis Hafner, Jake Westbrook and Coco Crisp had breakthrough seasons as the Tribe finished third in the Central Division with an 80-82 record.

2005 Indians contend, but fall just short General manager Mark Shapiro, who after the season was named Executive of the Year by The Sporting News, promised that the Indians would contend and they did, battling for a playoff spot all year long, only to fall short in the final week. The disappointment of not reaching the postseason could not diminish what was an exciting season in Cleveland, highlighted by the impressive performances of hitters Travis Hafner (33 homers, 108 RBIs), Jhonny Peralta (.292, 24 homers), Ronnie Belliard (.284, 17 homers), Grady Sizemore (22 homers, 22 steals) and Coco Crisp (.300, 15 homers, 15 steals). Starters Cliff Lee (18-5, 3.79 ERA), C.C. Sabathia (15-10, 4.03) and Jake Westbrook (15-15) and relievers Fernando Cabrera (2-1, 1.47), Bob Howry (7-4, 2.47) and Bob Wickman (45 saves in 50 chances) combined to form a solid pitching staff that ranked among the best in the league.

2006 The Indians came into 2006 with high hopes that their rebuilding plan would reach its playoff fruition. But a troubled bullpen and shaky infield defense led to the club being out of contention by midseason. Ranking second in the Majors in runs scored with 870 and compiling the third-best starters&apos ERA in the AL with a 4.31 mark was not enough to overcome those glaring faults.

Though the team struggled, several players had big years. Travis Hafner hit 42 homers and drove in 117 runs, despite missing the last month with a broken hand, while Grady Sizemore led the AL in runs scored (134), extra-base hits (92) and doubles (53). Ace left-hander C.C. Sabathia ranked third in the AL in ERA with a 3.22 mark and eighth in strikeouts with 172.

2007 Five years after general manager Mark Shapiro tore up a perennial playoff contender and began the painful process of rebuilding, the Indians delivered on Shapiro&aposs long-stated promises in 2007. Behind 19 victories from both Cy Young winner CC Sabathia and Fausto Carmona, a career year from Victor Martinez and a league-leading 45 saves from Joe Borowski, not only did the Indians contend for the American League Central Division crown, they ran away with it by eight games. And not only did they reach the postseason for the first time since 2001, they toppled the New York Yankees in the playoffs.

Unfortunately for the Indians, one last goal eluded them. A 3-1 AL Championship Series lead against the Red Sox went to waste when Sabathia and Carmona struggled, and a World Series berth could not be attained. It was a bitter end to a splendid season.

2008 In 2008, the Indians returned virtually the entire team that fell one win shy of the World Series the previous year. But the magic of 2007 was gone. In its place stood a team derailed by injuries to the likes of Victor Martinez, Travis Hafner, Jake Westbrook and Fausto Carmona, as well as an unreliable bullpen and an offense that slumbered for the season&aposs first two months.

The price of all this not only came in the standings, where the Indians finished in third place with an 81-81 mark. It also came when staff ace CC Sabathia was dealt to the Brewers for prospects on July 7.

Still, 2008 did leave some lasting memories. Cliff Lee resurrected his career and captured the Cy Young Award with a 22-3 season, and Grady Sizemore became just the 10th player in American League history to join the 30-30 (30 homers, 30 stolen bases) club, and Asdrubal Cabrera turned just the 14th unassisted triple play in baseball history.

2009 The Indians, despite the offseason additions of closer Kerry Wood, starter Carl Pavano and third baseman Mark DeRosa, never got on track in 2009 and fell to 65-97, tied with the Royals for last in the AL Central. Major organizational changes were made as a result. Once it was firmly determined that the team would not contend in the AL Central, the Indians had their second sell-off in as many seasons, trading away stars Cliff Lee and Victor Martinez, as well as DeRosa, Pavano, Rafael Betancourt, Ryan Garko and Ben Francisco to bring in prospects and rebuild the club. At season&aposs end, manager Eric Wedge and his entire coaching staff were dismissed, as the Indians prepared to open a new chapter with manager Manny Acta in 2010.

2010-2019

2010 With a young, developing roster, the Indians were never seriously expected to contend in 2010. In fact, with an average age of 26.06 and 10 rookies on board, the Tribe ended the season with the youngest roster in the big leagues. Injuries and trades only added to the rebuilding nature of manager Manny Acta&aposs first season at the helm, and the Indians finished with a 69-93 record, good for fourth place in the AL Central. Grady Sizemore was limited to 33 games by a knee injury that required season-ending surgery and Asdrubal Cabrera missed two months with a fractured forearm. Sizemore, Cabrera and Shin-Soo Choo, the three core position players the Indians planned to build around, were in the same lineup just 28 times. Hot-hitting rookie catcher Carlos Santana also saw his year come to a premature end thanks to knee surgery. Veterans Jake Westbrook, Jhonny Peralta, Kerry Wood and Austin Kearns were all dealt at the Trade Deadline, opening up even more opportunities for unpolished players. It was a rebuilding year in every sense, as the Indians evaluated their internal talent to determine what players can help them in 2011 and beyond.

2011 The Indians ended the 2011 season with an 80-82 record, marking an 11-win improvement over the team&aposs showing in the previous campaign. Cleveland stormed out of the gates, running to a 30-15 record and a seven-game lead atop the American League Central through May 23. Injuries and other issues hindered the Tribe down the stretch, however, and the team ended the year in second place. Shortstop Asdrubal Cabrera, who earned an American League Silver Slugger Award, started for the AL in the All-Star Game and ended the year with a club record for home runs (25) by a shortstop. Closer Chris Perez was also an All-Star. Catcher Carlos Santana set a franchise mark for a switch-hitter with 27 homers in his first full season in the big leagues. The Indians acquired starter Ubaldo Jimenez in a blockbuster deal prior to the July 31 non-waiver Trade Deadline and then landed slugger Jim Thome in an August waiver deal. Thome&aposs return to the Tribe -- after joining baseball&aposs 600 Home Run Club earlier in the summer -- created some late-season excitement in the latter stages of a losing season. Justin Masterson and Josh Tomlin topped the rotation with 12 wins apiece and Cleveland&aposs bullpen ranked fifth in the AL (first in the division) with a 3.71 ERA.

2012 The Indians hoped to build on a promising season in 2011, but fell short of expectations in a disappointing 2012 season. Cleveland turned in 94 losses, marking the third time in a four-year span that the club ended below .500, and finished fourth in the American League Central. The second-half slide, which included a 5-24 showing in August, cost Manny Acta (214-266 in parts of three seasons with the Indians) his job as manager on Sept. 27. Sandy Alomar Jr. served as the Tribe&aposs interim manager for the season&aposs final six games, but the Indians hired Terry Francona as the franchise&aposs 42nd manager in October. There were some bright spots, including second baseman Jason Kipnis, who was one of three players in the Majors (Mike Trout and Ryan Braun were the others) to achieve at least 10 homers, 30 stolen bases, 70 RBIs and 80 runs scored in 2012. Kipnis was only the fourth Indians hitter in the past 25 years to reach those marks in a single season. Kipnis and Carlos Santana led the offense with 76 RBIs, while Santana led the club with 18 homers. That marked the fewest homers by a team leader for the Tribe since 1983.

On Oct. 2, designated hitter Travis Hafner belted his 200th home run as a member of the Indians, putting him eighth on the franchise&aposs all-time home run list. The Indians offense ranked third in the AL with 555 walks, but 13th with 667 runs. The pitching staff had an AL-high 4.78 ERA, with the rotation going 48-76 with a 5.25 ERA. Justin Masterson (11-15) and Ubaldo Jimenez (9-17) labored through disappointing seasons at the top of the staff. Shortstop Asdrubal Cabrera and closer Chris Perez (39 saves) were named to the American League All-Star team. Setup man Vinnie Pestano, who set a club record with 36 holds, earned the Bob Feller Man of the Year Award from the Cleveland chapter of the Baseball Writers&apos Association of America. Acta earned the BBWAA&aposs Frank Gibbons-Steve Olin Good Guy Award for his understanding of the media&aposs role and willingness to help on a daily basis. The Indians named Cody Allen their Minor League Pitcher of the Year (Bob Feller Award) and outfielder Tim Fedroff the club&aposs Minor League Player of the Year (Lou Boudreau Award).

On Dec. 11, the Indians made a bold move, teaming with the Reds and D-backs for a three-team, nine-player trade. Cleveland received pitchers Trevor Bauer, Bryan Shaw and Matt Albers from Arizona, and outfielder Drew Stubbs from Cincinnati, in exchange for outfielder Shin-Soo Choo (Reds), infielder Jason Donald (Reds), reliever Tony Sipp (D-backs) and first baseman Lars Anderson (D-backs).

2013 In Terry Francona&aposs first season as Cleveland&aposs manager, the Indians experienced a 24-win improvement over their 2012 showing. That matched the franchise&aposs best one-year turnaround in terms of wins, excluding strike-shortened seasons. Second baseman Jason Kipnis and starter Justin Masterson made the American League All-Star team for the 92-win Tribe, which won 21 games in September to claim the league&aposs top Wild Card spot. The Indians ended the regular season with 10 straight wins, becoming only the sixth team in the Modern Era to accomplish that feat. Cleveland hosted the AL Wild Card Game, but was defeated by Tampa Bay in the Tribe&aposs first trip to the playoffs since 2007. The Indians&apos rotation was led by strong comeback seasons from Masterson, Ubaldo Jimenez and Scott Kazmir, while the offense was led by Kipnis, Carlos Santana, Michael Brantley and Nick Swisher. Young players such as Corey Kluber, Yan Gomes, Danny Salazar and Cody Allen emerged as key parts of the roster in a season that included 11 walk-off wins, 16 shutouts and 51 wins at home. Cleveland&aposs incredible comeback season helped earn Francona the American League Manager of the Year Award in voting by the Baseball Writers&apos Association of America.

2014 The Indians won 85 games during the 2014 season, securing consecutive winning seasons for the first time since 2000-01. A year after capturing the American League&aposs top Wild Card spot, Cleveland remained in the hunt for the playoffs until the final weekend of the regular season. Leading the charge for the Tribe was pitcher Corey Kluber, who won 18 games, struck out 269 and turned in a 2.44 ERA in a remarkable breakout season that ended with the AL Cy Young Award. Kluber joined Cliff Lee (2008), CC Sabathia (2007) and Gaylord Perry (1972) as the only Cy Young winners in team history. Led by Kluber, the Indians pitching staff also set a single-season Major League record with 1,450 strikeouts. Left fielder Michael Brantley earned a spot on the AL All-star team and finished third in voting for the league&aposs Most Valuable Player Award after becoming the first player in team history to end a season with at least 20 home runs, 20 stolen bases, 40 doubles and 200 hits. Brantley and catcher Yan Gomes each picked up a Silver Slugger Award for their offensive contributions in 2014. Indians great Omar Vizquel was inducted into the team&aposs Hall of Fame during the summer. Following the season, Cleveland acquired slugger Brandon Moss from the A&aposs in exchange for Minor League infielder Joe Wendle in a Dec. 8 trade.

2015 The Indians entered the 2015 with lofty expectations, but a slow start hindered the club en route to an 81-80, third-place finish in the American League Central. Cleveland did not make up a Sept. 12 rainout against Detroit, allowing the Indians to end with a winning record for a third consecutive season. From 2013-15, the Indians&apos .532 winning percentage ranked fourth overall in the AL. Second baseman Jason Kipnis took home the AL Player of the Month Award for May (.429 average, 30 runs, 51 hits) and was named to his second career All-Star team. Shortstop Francisco Lindor joined Cleveland in June, hit .313 in 99 games, was named the AL&aposs Rookie of the Month for September and finished second in voting for the AL Rookie of the Year Award. Rookie righty Cody Anderson won the AL Pitcher of the Month Award for September as well. Corey Kluber and Carlos Carrasco became the first Indians teammates to each amass 200-plus strikeouts in a season since 1968, when Sam McDowell and Luis Tiant achieved the feat. The Indians also joined the 1969 Astros and the 1990 Mets as the only teams since 1920 to have four pitchers (Kluber, Carrasco, Danny Salazar and Trevor Bauer) with at least 170 strikeouts apiece. Kluber tied Bob Feller&aposs 1946 team record for strikeouts in a nine-inning game with 18 against the Cardinals on May 13. Carrasco came within one strike of a no-hitter against the Rays on July 1. The Indians carried a no-hitter through at least five innings 10 times and led the Majors with 693 no-hit innings overall. The 1,407 strikeouts piled up by Cleveland&aposs staff marked the second-most in team history and the fifth-highest mark in a single season in baseball history. On Aug. 7, the Indians changed course with their roster by trading Nick Swisher and Michael Bourn -- two marquee free-agent additions prior to the 2013 campaign -- to the Braves. That deal followed a series of roster-altering subtractions (Brandon Moss, David Murphy and Marc Rzepczynski were also traded) that paved the way for an improved showing offensively and defensively in the second half. The retooled roster helped Cleveland pull into Wild Card contention until the final week of the regular season. After the season, team president Mark Shapiro left Cleveland to assume the same role with the Blue Jays. The Indians then promoted Chris Antonetti from general manager to president of baseball operations and named Mike Chernoff the new general manager for the Tribe.

2016 The Indians enjoyed one of the greatest seasons in franchise history. Cleveland won the American League Central for the first time since 2007, captured an AL pennant for the first time since &apos97 and played until Game 7 of the World Series against the Cubs. To reach the sixth Fall Classic in franchise history, the Indians defeated the Red Sox (3-0) and the Blue Jays (4-1). Lefty Andrew Miller was named the Most Valuable Player for the AL Championship Series victory over Toronto. During the regular season, Cleveland went 94-67, marking the ninth time in the team&aposs 116-year history that it won at least 94 games. It also represented the fourth winning season in a row for the Indians, marking the longest run for the club since an eight-year streak from 1994-2001. Cleveland&aposs 352-294 record in four years under manager Terry Francona represents the best record in the AL in that four-year span. The Indians&apos record in 2016 was powered by a 53-28 showing at home (second-most wins for the Indians in ballpark history) and a 49-26 ledger against AL Central opponents. The Indians won 22 games in June for the most in a single month for the team since June of 1965. Indians pitchers Corey Kluber and Danny Salazar, as well as shortstop Francisco Lindor, represented the team at the All-Star Game in San Diego. Kluber became the fourth Cleveland pitcher in history to pick up the win in the Midsummer Classic. Kluber went 18-9 with a 3.14 ERA on the season, finishing third in balloting for the AL Cy Young Award. For his work, Francona was named the AL Manager of the Year, which he also won in 2013 with the Indians. Outfielder Tyler Naquin (.886 OPS in 116 games) finished third in AL Rookie of the Year voting, while Lindor ended ninth in MVP balloting. Third baseman Jose Ramirez and Kluber also received votes in MVP voting. From June 17-July 1, the Indians enjoyed a club-record 14-game winning streak, beating the 13-game runs in 1951 and 1942. For the 14th win, Cleveland out-lasted Toronto, 2-1, in a 19-inning game north of the border. In that win, the Indians tied a team record with 13 shutout innings from their bullpen. The 14-game streak was the longest in the Majors since 2013 and the longest in the AL since 2002. The Indians also ended the season as the only team in the Majors to not have a losing streak consisting of more than three games. Salazar (June) and Kluber (August) each earned an AL Pitcher of the Month Award, while Naquin (June and July) was twice named the AL&aposs Rookie of the Month. On Aug. 19, Naquin provided one of the signature moments of the season with a walk-off, inside-the-park home run against Toronto. It marked one of the MLB-leading 11 walk-off wins that the Indians had during the season. First baseman Mike Napoli, who was signed to a one-year contract on Jan. 5, led the Indians with 101 RBIs and tied for the team lead in homers (34) with Carlos Santana. Lindor led the Indians in hits (182) and runs (99), and earned a Gold Glove Award and Platinum Glove Award for his work in the field. Ramirez led Cleveland in doubles (46) and Santana paced the team in walks (99). Veteran Rajai Davis led the AL with 43 stolen bases, helping the Indians lead the AL with 134 thefts as a team. Kluber led the team in wins, innings (215) and strikeouts (227), while Cody Allen ended the year with a team-leading 32 saves. Miller, who was acquired from the Yankees for four prospects before the July 31 non-waiver Trade Deadline, posted a 1.55 ERA with 46 strikeouts and two walks in 29 innings for Cleveland. Overall, Miller became the first pitcher in baseball history to have 120-plus strikeouts and fewer than 10 walks in a single season. Miller then set single-postseason relief records for innings (19 1/3), strikeouts (30) and multi-inning appearances (10). During the season, Cleveland also traded for outfielders Brandon Guyer (Aug. 1) and Coco Crisp (Aug. 31). Guyer posted a .907 OPS in 38 games for the Tribe and Crisp belted home runs in Cleveland&aposs division-clinching win, as well as in the clinching playoff wins over the Red Sox and Blue Jays. During the season, the Indians overcame injuries to Michael Brantley, Yan Gomes, Carlos Carrasco, Salazar and others to reach the postseason. Cleveland took a 3-1 lead over Chicago in the World Series, but lost Game 7, 8-7, in 10 innings. Within that defeat, however, Davis provided one of the great home runs in team history when he belted a game-tying, two-run shot in the eighth inning. After the season, the Indians picked up both of Francona&aposs team options, keeping him under control through the 2020 campaign.

2017 The Indians did not meet their goal of returning to the World Series in 2017, but Cleveland still enjoyed one of the greatest seasons in franchise history. The Indians won 102 games (second only to the 111-win Tribe of 1954 in club history) and captured the American League Central crown for the second straight year. The 102 wins were the most by a team in the history of the AL Central, dating back to 1994. Cleveland powered its way to the division title with the help of a 22-game winning streak from Aug. 24-Sept. 14, marking the longest run in AL history and the second-longest streak in recorded baseball history. The 1916 New York Giants (26 wins in a row) hold the record. Ace Corey Kluber spun a shutout for win No. 20, which tied the 2002 A&aposs for the AL record. Win No. 22 was delivered via a walk-off hit in the 10th inning by Jay Bruce against the Royals. Kluber picked up his second career AL Cy Young Award, becoming the first multi-winner in club history and one of 19 pitchers in history to have more than one. The right-hander went 18-4 with 265 strikeouts and an MLB-low 2.25 ERA. After returning from a back injury on June 1, Kluber went 15-2 with a 1.62 ERA to lead Cleveland&aposs talented rotation. Carlos Carrasco (18-6) and Trevor Bauer (17-9) gave the Indians three pitchers with 17 or more wins in the same year for the first time since 1956. The Indians&apos pitching staff as a whole led the Majors with a 3.30 ERA, among a variety of other categories, and set single-season MLB records for strikeouts (1,614), strikeouts per nine innings (10.1) and WAR (31.7, per Fangraphs). Kluber set the tone and picked up AL Pitcher of the Month awards for June, August and September. He was also named the Best Pitcher via the Esurance MLB Awards. Kluber was joined by Jose Ramirez, Francisco Lindor, Andrew Miller and Michael Brantley at the All-Star Game in Miami, giving the Tribe its most All-Stars since 2004. Ramirez was voted as the starter at third base, making him the first Indians player to win the fan vote since 2001. Indians bench coach Brad Mills managed the AL to a 2-1 victory, filling in for manager Terry Francona, who was recovering from a heart procedure at the time. Ramirez picked up an AL Silver Slugger for third base and finished third in voting for AL Most Valuable Player after hitting .318 with 29 homers, 56 doubles, 83 RBIs, 107 runs and a .957 OPS. His 56 doubles were the third-most in a season in team history, while his 91 extra-base hits were tied for the MLB lead and were the second-most all-time for a switch hitter. Lindor, who set the Indians&apos single-season record for home runs (33) by a middle infielder, won the AL Silver Slugger for shortstop. Before the 2017 season began, the Indians&apos handed the largest free-agent contract in team history to slugger Edwin Encarnacion, who signed a three-year, $60-million pact to suit up for Cleveland. In his first year with the Tribe, Encarnacion hit .258 with 38 home runs, 96 runs, 104 walks, 107 RBIs and an .881 OPS. Francona, who has guided the Indians to an AL-leading 454 wins in his five years at the helm, finished as the runner-up in voting for AL Manager of the Year. Cleveland has posted a winning record in each season under Francona, marking the longest such run for the franchise since eight straight from 1994-2001. For all the success in the regular season, though, the Indians lost in five games to the Yankees in the AL Division Series.

2018 In terms of milestones and accomplishments both for the Indians and plenty of their players, the 2018 season could be viewed as a successful campaign. Cleveland won its third consecutive American League Central title, posted its sixth straight winning season and sent six players to the All-Star Game. All the regular-season success did not translate into a deep October run, though. The Indians were swept in the AL Division Series by the Astros, marking a second first-round exit in a row after reaching the World Series in &apos16.

The Indians ended the season 91-71, giving manager Terry Francona an AL-leading 545 victories during his time at the helm (2013-18). The Tribe made the postseason for the fourth time in six years and won at least three division crowns in a row for only the second time in franchise history. Along the way, the club saw a star-laden lineup and rotation turn in remarkable individual seasons.

Cleveland became the first team in MLB history to have four pitchers (Corey Kluber, Carlos Carrasco, Trevor Bauer and Mike Clevinger) notch at least 200 strikeouts in the same season. Kluber went 20-7 with a 2.89 ERA and finished third in voting for the AL Cy Young Award. He also became the first Indians pitcher to reach 20 wins since Cliff Lee in 2008 and the first Cleveland righty to achieve the feat since Gaylord Perry in 1974. Carrasco (17-10, 3.38 ERA, 231 strikeouts), Bauer (12-6, 2.21 ERA, 221 strikeouts) and Clevinger (13-8, 3.02 ERA, 207 strikeouts) also had standout campaigns. Rookie Shane Bieber (11-5, 4.55 ERA, 118 strikeouts vs. 23 walks) also turned into a reliable part of the starting staff.

Jose Ramirez compiled another outstanding campaign, finishing third in voting for the AL MVP Award. The third baseman joined Kluber, Bauer, Francisco Lindor, Michael Brantley and Yan Gomes at the All-Star Game and was the only one in that group to be part of the starting lineup. Ramirez hit .270 with 39 homers, 38 doubles, 34 steals, 105 RBIs, 106 walks and 110 runs scored. He joined Joe Carter (1987) and Grady Sizemore (2008) as the only players in Tribe history to have a 30/30 season. Ramirez joined Barry Bonds, Jeff Bagwell and Bobby Abreu as the only players in MLB history to have a season with at least 30 homers, 30 steals, 100 RBIs, 100 walks and 100 runs. Ramirez picked up a Silver Slugger Award for his work.

Lindor set a single-season club record for homers by a shortstop with 38 and ended tied for the MLB lead in runs (129). Ramirez and Lindor were the first MLB teammates to each collect at least 80 extra-base hits in two consecutive seasons since Joe DiMaggio and Lou Gehrig achieved the feat with the Yankees across the 1936-37 tours. Lindor also won a Silver Slugger Award and was sixth in voting for the AL MVP.

Prior to the July 31 non-waiver Trade Deadline, the Indians acquired All-Star closer Brad Hand and reliever Adam Cimber from the Padres in exchange for catcher Francisco Mejia. Hand posted a 2.28 ERA with 41 strikeouts in 27 2/3 innings to help shore up a bullpen that struggled throughout the season. Cleveland also swung a trade with the Blue Jays for former MVP Josh Donaldson in August and he posted a .920 OPS in 16 games for the Tribe.

By the end of the season, Cody Allen established Cleveland&aposs new career saves record with 149. When the offseason arrived, Allen, Brantley, Donaldson, Lonnie Chisenhall, Andrew Miller and long-time Indians pitcher Josh Tomlin were among the players to reach free agency.

2019 It was a season of overcoming obstacles for the Indians, falling just short of their playoff hopes for the first time since 2015. The Tribe got off to a historically slow offensive start, hitting .224 as a team through May 22, which was the lowest average at that point in the season since Cleveland hit .215 through 48 games in 1910. But the entire perspective of the club was about to turn around. On June 4, starter Carlos Carrasco called his teammates into their home clubhouse at Progressive Field before a game against the first-place Twins. Carrasco had to break the news that he had been diagnosed with leukemia, which explained why he was having inconsistent outings and losing velocity after just a few innings on the mound. The Indians were 11 1/2 games out of the American League Central after taking home the division title for the previous three seasons. But in that moment, each player said that their perspectives changed and they realized that they should just be having fun on the field when their teammate is dealing with something much more serious. From that point through the end of August, the Indians posted an American-League best 50-27 record. At the end of that stretch, Carrasco had come back from his two-month hiatus in which he addressed his health and began a rehab assignment as a reliever to assure that he had enough time to build himself back up to reach the big league mound again in 2019.

On Sept. 1, Carrasco made his emotional comeback in his first appearance since May at Tropicana Field against the Rays. His team had clawed its way back to erase an 11 ½ game deficit in the division in just 70 days on a go-ahead grand slam by Carlos Santana in the top of the 10th against the Twins at Target Field on Aug. 11. The bullpen had posted the lowest ERA in the Majors through the end of August (3.51) and José Ramírez rediscovered his swing, hitting .313 with a 1.003 OPS from June 14 until he broke his hamate bone on Aug. 24. But in a season where the Tribe was forced to overcome Carrasco’s battle with cancer, Mike Clevinger’s two-month stint in the injured list with an upper back strain, Corey Kluber’s fractured forearm that caused him to miss the last five months of the season, trading away Trevor Bauer and Francisco Lindor’s ankle sprain that prompted a 20-game late start to the year, the team ran out of gas. The Indians relied on two Double-A starters, Zach Plesac and Aaron Civale, to help carry the dominant rotation over the hurdles, but the month of September slipped away from them, ending the season with five straight losses. They entered that final week of the year just one-half of a game out of the AL Wild Card race, but fell to three games out of the second slot and eight games behind the Twins in the AL Central before the season’s end.


Abraham Lincoln's Cabinet

On March 4, 1861, Abraham Lincoln took the oath of office and became the sixteenth President of the United States. While he had no way of knowing the extent challenges ahead, a pall hung over the celebrations as the nation hovered on the brink of civil war. To lead the nation during the looming crisis, Lincoln appointed a group of opinionated, stubborn, and powerful secretaries, which became known as his “team of rivals.” Captured beautifully by historian Doris Kearns Goodwin and then featured in the film Lincoln, Lincoln’s cabinet is one of the best known in American history.

President Lincoln carefully selected his department secretaries to bring diverse skills and perspectives into his cabinet. He recognized that cabinet appointments offered a valuable opportunity to build coalitions and strengthen tenuous bonds between factions remaining in the Union. First, Lincoln selected former Republican Party rivals for three of the most important cabinet positions: Senator William H. Seward of New York became the secretary of state, Governor Salmon P. Chase of Ohio became secretary of treasury, and Missouri’s elder statesman Edward Bates became the attorney general. These appointments also extended representation to crucial states from the northeast, old northwest, and border states. Next, Lincoln appointed former Democrats to build bipartisan support: Secretary of the Navy Gideon Welles, Postmaster General Montgomery Blair, and Secretary of War Edwin Stanton. All six were more educated, better known, and had more government experience than Lincoln himself. They also brought gravitas to the new administration. While they initially resented Lincoln for his success, they grew to respect his political savvy. Bates even admitted that the president was “very near being a perfect man.” 1

Floorplan of the second floor of the White House during Abraham Lincoln’s presidency.

Created by Dr. Lindsay M. Chervinsky, 2020.

The secretaries were familiar faces at the White House. They visited several times a day to deliver news, discuss an issue with the president, or attend a meeting. They usually walked up the back stairs, through the waiting room at the center of the hall, and into Lincoln’s office. The eastern side of the Second Floor contained the executive work spaces. On the north side of the hall, Lincoln’s secretaries, John George Nicolay and John Hay shared a bedroom, and Hay shared an office with the third secretary, William Stoddard. On the south side, a vestibule and Nicolay’s office flanked the president’s office, which also served as the cabinet room.

The workspaces were worn and outfitted with tattered furniture. The waiting room had old-fashioned horsehair sofas and chairs for callers, dusty busts of former presidents, old prints of founding fathers, and a faded copy of the Declaration of Independence in a cheap frame. The carpet on the floor was a varnished oilcloth that was bare and soiled in spots around the spittoons. 2 Both of the clerks’ offices had dark mahogany doors, marble mantels, and paneled wainscoting that harkened back to the 1830s. The floors had fraying carpets and dull green curtains that had been faded by the sun.

This photo depicts the stairs and doorway Lincoln used to access the family’s private rooms.

Hay and Stoddard’s office offered a bit of a reprieve for Lincoln—a place where he could go relax for a few minutes, enjoy the company of his clerks, and take his mind off work. Bookcases with law books lined the walls, two upright desks stood in the corners, and wax figurines stood guard on the fireplace mantel. Stoddard spread out on a large table covered by an ink-stained green cloth. The legs of the table bore the distinct markings of Tad and Willie Lincoln’s handiwork after they received pocketknives as gifts and used the table to test the knives’ effectiveness. From his desk in the corner, Hay sat in his swivel chair and regaled visitors with stories. When he needed a break, Lincoln would recline in Andrew Jackson’s old leather chair and listen to his secretaries’ banter. 3

Lincoln welcomed most guests in the president’s office, including the department secretaries. He referred to his office as “the shop” and this room was primarily a work space. 4 The office featured old, hand-me-down furniture from former presidents, as Lincoln was not about to spend important government funds on an office renovation during the war. The most prominent feature was a long, wooden table in the middle of the room. This table was likely acquired sometime during the presidency of either John Quincy Adams or Andrew Jackson. 5 A few maps and bundles of papers bound by rubber bands were usually spread across the table, pertaining to appointments, officer ranks, or troop movements. When the daily mail delivery arrived, the clerk poured out the contents of a large canvas sack on the table—often leaving thousands of letters for Nicolay, Hay, and Stoddard to sift through and sort.

This photograph of President Abraham Lincoln is by Anthony Berger, of photographer Mathew Brady's studio, and was taken on April 26, 1864. In the photograph, Lincoln stands tall in the Cabinet Room, which also served as President Lincoln's office. Lloyd Ostendorf is credited with retouching the image.

Collection of Lloyd Ostendorf

Lincoln’s primary workspace was a mahogany upright desk that stood by the middle window. Some presidents, like Franklin D. Roosevelt, cover their workspaces with trinkets and gifts that symbolize important relationships or happy memories. Lincoln preferred little clutter or unnecessary things. His desk usually held additional bundles of papers and the most current or relevant maps with color-coded pins that he used to track Union generals and armies. Lincoln’s desk obscured a small doorway and staircase that opened into a private passage, which offered the president a path to the family’s quarters without interacting with the callers lingering in the waiting room.

The room was quite literally covered with maps, often obscuring the dark green and gold star wall paper. On the east side of the room, an old sofa leaned against the wall beneath a large spring roller with more maps. In the northwest corner, a standing rack held additional map rollers, and folios of maps were scattered across the floor, blanketing the dark green carpet with a buff diamond pattern. 6

A few additional items remained from Lincoln’s predecessors. A bell rope dangled next to the fireplace to summon the staff, courtesy of James Buchanan. An old bust of Franklin Pierce loomed over the room and the brick arch underneath the mantel bore the marks of Jackson’s feet. A gas chandelier hung from the ceiling with a rubber hose that fed a lamp below, providing light for the table at night. 7

This October 1864 ink and paper sketch by C. K. Stellwagen depicts President Abraham Lincoln's office on the Second Floor of the White House. Courtesy of Western Reserve Historical Society, Cleveland, Ohio.

Western Reserve Historical Society, Cleveland, Ohio

The room’s best feature was the view. Outside the south-facing windows, visitors observed the Potomac River, General Robert E. Lee’s former house atop Arlington Heights, soldiers and cows milling about on the mall, and the unfinished stump of the Washington Monument. 8

Much like the worn furnishings in the room, Lincoln frequently dressed in clothes that had seen better days. When in the office, Lincoln wore a black cravat and black broadcloth suit, which hung loosely on his tall, wiry frame. Sometimes he added a black or buff vest. His cuffs frequently wore out, which he rarely replaced, much to his wife’s dismay. On his feet, Lincoln wore blue socks, in need of darning, which showed when he kicked off his worn carpet slippers. If dignitaries showed up unexpectedly, Lincoln sometimes presented himself in a faded dressing gown, happy or perhaps unaware, of the surprise his appearance caused his guests. 9

The meeting space and culture reveals much about Lincoln’s leadership. Lincoln never adopted particularly stuffy or formal manners, but he actually allowed few people into his inner circle. The cabinet secretaries were among the chosen and they had almost instantaneous access to Lincoln. They could stroll into his office at any time, a privilege that Seward exercised multiple times per day. 10 Lincoln selected individuals he could trust, sought out their advice, and relied on their expertise. Although he reserved the final determination for himself, Lincoln’s secretaries were integral to his decision-making process.

This hand-colored wood engraving was published on April 6, 1861 during the early days of the Abraham Lincoln administration. The caption below the engraving describes a scene of office-seeking men gathered outside of the Cabinet Room waiting for a word with President Lincoln. The arched window and doorway of the East Sitting Hall, just outside of the Lincoln Bedroom, is depicted on the left.

White House Collection/ White House Historical Association

Unlike Thomas Jefferson, Lincoln didn’t require the secretaries to come to the White House for meetings. Every morning, after eating a light breakfast, Lincoln walked across the street to the War Department to consult with Secretary Stanton and read the latest cables. He returned to the White House by ten o’clock to greet office-seekers and visitors. If First Lady Mary Todd Lincoln was in town, Lincoln used the private passage to avoid the constant crowds and return to the family quarters to enjoy lunch with his family. After dinner, he returned to the War Department at nine or ten o’clock for about an hour before retreating to the White House. 11

Lincoln generally left the Treasury Department, attorney general, and State Department to function under the management of his secretaries. He didn’t know as much about financial matters and generally trusted Seward’s decades of experience to handle diplomacy. But from the very beginning, Lincoln treated the War Department as an extension of his own office and carefully monitored the war effort. He even consulted the other secretaries as a group when contemplating a major military decision. 12 In the summers, the first family moved to Soldier’s Home to escape the summer heat in the White House, but each morning Lincoln would ride on horseback into town to work in his office and visit the War Department. 13

This painting depicts a meeting in the White House in late 1862. On January 1, 1863, President Lincoln would sign the Emancipation Proclamation from the large wooden table seen in Waddell's depiction. In the painting, Lincoln meets with Livermore in his Cabinet Room and office, located on the Second Floor of the White House.

Peter Waddell for the White House Historical Association

Official cabinet meetings took place twice a week in the president’s office, but when Lincoln required a meeting on unscheduled days, he sent a note to Steward or instructed Hay to dispatch messengers. Stoddard wrote that “these meetings are wonderfully secret affairs. Only a private secretary may enter the room to so much as bring in a paper. No breath of any “Cabinet secret” will ever transpire, so faithfully is the seal of this room guarded.” 14

When the secretaries gathered, they were usually consumed with solemn matters, but the group also enjoyed each other’s company and often shared stories and laughter. Each cabinet secretary made themselves comfortable in their own way. Lincoln often paced or leaned against the mantel, while insisting his guests stay seated. The others stretched out on the sofa, propped their feet up on the table, or chomped on cigars. 15 In these positions, the cabinet played a crucial role in most of Lincoln’s most notable moments as president, from the decision to surrender Fort Sumter and Pickens without a fight in 1861, to the Emancipation Proclamation, to the final campaign that led to Lee’s surrender at Appomattox. 16


Early History of the Cleveland Family

According to Biblical tradition, Noah had three sons who advanced the lines from which all of the human race are descended. Shem, the oldest son, was a deep yellowish-red. His descendants were the Indians, Jews, and others of reddish-brown or yellow skin. The second son, Ham, was the first dark infant ever born. His descendants wandered from the land just south of Mount Ararat into Africa. Japheth, the third son, was the palest infant ever born. His descendants peopled Europe and some of Asia. One of Japheth's grandsons was part of the tribe that settled in Greece. From this tribe came the Celtics, who roamed northward, some settling in Gaul (now France) and others ranging even farther north into the area where Denmark, Sweden, and Norway are now.

There the Celtics joined forces with a tribe from Asia, also descendants of Japheth. One branch of this tribe came to be known as the Gadds, taking their name from Gadd, one of their "founding fathers." Gadd had an impressive genealogy: he was the great-grandson of Abraham and Sarah, the grandson of Isaac, and the son of Jacob. His people were among those whom Moses led out of Egypt and into Canaan, where they lived on the banks of the Jordan for many years before becoming involved in a war with a neighboring tribe. The Gadds werre subsequently defeated. Some of those who survived the battle were absorbed into the victorious tribe. Other Gadds fled north into Europe.

Eventually a branch of the escaping Gadd tribe reached the North Sea and settled there. Called "Northmen" or "Norsemen," these people became the great sea pirates who roved and plundered their way to England. A Northman chief and his tribe were, supposedly, the first inhabitants of England after landing and settling on the northeast coast of the island. The chief's name among the Celtics was "Cahevium," which the Romans changed to "Caluvium" and the Saxons changed to "Cleveland," so called because of the numerous cliffs or "cleaves" in that area. The original meaning of the name was, in fact, "one who came from Cleveland (the hilly district in Yorkshire)." Because of language barriers in those early days of invasion and conflict and because of the poor spelling and handwriting habits of our ancestors, the name has been variously spelled (sometimes within the space of a single document) as "Cliveland," "Clyveland," "Cleivland," "Clievland," "Cleiveland," "Cleaveland," and "Cleveland." ("Cleaveland" and "Cleveland" were the two spellings of popular choice once the line landed on American soil. "Cleaveland" was initially the preferred of the two, but sometime around 1700 "Cleveland" seemed to become more popular among the Southern Line. However, there are some Southern cousins who still use the "Cleaveland" spelling.)

The district of Cleveland and Cleveland Hills still exist in northern England near the historic town of Whitby. Thorkil de Cliveland, the first Cleveland of record, and his son Uctred, Earl of York in 1066, are credited with building the great Whitby Abbey and were, supposedly, buried under what was the front bay window. More recent information indicates that the structure may actually have been built in 657 or before and Thorkil and Uctred merely added to it. Some of the Whitby Abbey still stands today and is being dug up for archeological purposes. Breathtakingly magnificent scenery in this area is punctuated by moors, valleys, dales, groves of beech and pine, forests of oak, towering sea cliffs, and the ocean. This location also abounds in monuments of antiquity: abbeys, priories, hermitages, castles, fortifications, encampments, and relics of great and former families. Cleveland Hills is where Lady Godiva made her famous ride atop a white horse to protest high taxes.

Before the time of William the Conqueror, the Cleveland castle, sometimes referred to as Skelton Castle, was the seat of the main Cleveland family. In those ancient times, the family patriarch and his oldest son occupied the central castle. Daughters and some younger sons grew up there, married, and then moved to the castles or manors of the families into which they had married. However, as most of the younger sons married, they stayed on their fathers? estates in smaller castles.

Despite the tradition of large families, the number of sons was not so numerous because of constant warring in those times. The Clevelands took part in almost all the early wars of the island but managed to hold their land even during the Roman invasion. During the war with William the Conqueror, however, the lord of Cleveland castle and his oldest son were killed, and the oldest grandson was subsequently placed in a lesser estate. William then placed one of his own men, Robert de Bruce, in the main castle. Although Robert de Bruce's descendants eventually ascended to the English throne in the Stewart line, the castle retained the Cleveland name and Robert called himself Lord of Cleaveland.

According to the legend, the Cleveland grandson who survived the invasion of William the Conqueror hid in the forest for months afterward, protected by members of his grandfather's family, who were afraid the Normans would assassinate the grandson (also named William) because he was the rightful claimant to the Cleveland castle. When William the Conqueror caught up with William the Cleveland, however, the man took pity on the boy and placed him on a lesser estate in Ipswich.

In the Domesday (sometimes called Doomsday) Book, the surviving census record of England made in 1085-1086 by order of William I (the Conqueror), the names of Thorkil de Cliveland and Uctred appear for Ipswich in Suffolk County. All American Clevelands are, supposedly, descended from the aforementioned Thorkil of Yorkshire. However, the exact relationship between the Yorkshire Thorkil and Uctred, the Ipswich Thorkil and Uctred, and the two Cleveland ancestors killed by William?s men in the 1066 invasion is uncertain. In any event, Thorkil and Uctred were large landed estate proprietors even in 1085, nearly twenty years after the Norman invasion. [Vikki's Note: One English historian believes the Cleveland name may actually predate the invasion of William. She writes, "I read the conclusion about the Cleveland and deCliveland name down through English history and found it to not be totally correct. It is really such a small thing, but let me explain what I mean. The deCliveland and Thorkil are quite wrong. The Thor bit does not come from the god Thor but from the Norse word 'Thorp,' meaning farm or settlement--there are many combinations of the 'Thorp' word in place names over here from the days of the Norsemen and the Scandinavian raids. They are numerous up along the northeast, like 'Grimethorpe' in Yorkshire meaning Grim's farm, 'Kettlethorpe' in Lincolnshire meaning Kettel's settlement, etc. Cleveland probably means Cleve's land, and 'Cleveland' used to be a district in its own right before it was merged into the country of Northumberland. The 'Thorkil' probably means something like 'Kel's thorpe of or in Cliveland.' Your family name could very likely be from even earlier than 1066 because the Viking raids were before and after the Conquest. Andover, England, used to pay Danegeld (Dane's gold) to a Viking king as 'protection money' to save it from being overrun by the invaders."]

As time passed and the feudal system faded, Clevelands were forced to take on "real jobs." Some entered the ministry or politics others became farmers or merchants. A William Cleveland, "citizen of York," served as sheriff of that community around 1456.

Early birth records in Ipswich show a William Cleveland born there in 1520. This William had a son named William. The two main Cleveland lines in the United States were supposedly descended from this William-William line.

One of these Williams moved to Hinckley in Leicestershire County, where he "was buried a very old man in 1630." Thomas Cleveland, the son of this Hinckley William, became Vicar of Hinckley and the father of John Cleveland, an English Cavalier poet. Born in 1613, John was the most popular poet of his time and well known for both his wit and his political satire. In fact, his satires were influential enough to earn him a three-month vacation in a Yarmouth jail. Although he stenuously and publicly opposed Oliver Cromwell, Cromwell was the one to grant John's eventual release. That much is history. A bit of genealogical gossip suggests that one of John's sisters was Cromwell's mistress and even bore his child. Such a relationship would certainly explain Cromwell's change of heart about a man who had condemned him so vehemently.

According to the rumor, there was in the time of Charles I a court beauty by the name of Elizabeth Cleveland. (Some say she was the daughter of Thomas Cleveland, Vicar of Hinckley. Others claim she was the daughter of an officer of the palace of Hampton Court.) When Elizabeth attracted the attention of her sovereign, a love affair resulted. Eventually Charles I was murdered and replaced by Oliver Cromwell, Lord Protector of England. Oliver, too, was supposedly smitten by Elizabeth's beauty. He wooed and won her, and soon a son was born to them. Elizabeth eventually retired from the public eye and married an exceedingly understanding man named Bridge. When Elizabeth and Oliver's son grew up, he took his mother's maiden name, calling himself William Cleveland. William revealed his ancestry in his four-volume biography, The Life and Adventures of William Cleveland, Natural Son of Oliver Cromwell, published after the author's death, with the consent of his son, first in 1731, again as a French translation in 1741, and a third and final time in 1760.

Historical scholars scoff at the notion of Cromwellian blood flowing in Cleveland veins. Most cite Cromwell's Puritanical personna as reason enough why Cromwell would never have an extra-marital fling. (So how do we explain Jim Bakker and Jimmy Swaggert?) In truth, there is no documentation for such a claim. Colonel Benjamin Cleveland, who would become a hero in the fight liberating America from England, was especially proud of his supposed link with the English "Lord Protector." (However, neither of his sons was named Oliver Cromwell.)

Interestingly, in 1635 Oliver Cromwell, using William as an alias, was about to set sail for Virginia, but he was stopped. Also in 1635, Samuel Cleaveland, a brother of John the poet, did manage to leave for the colonies. Some researchers think this Samuel was really the Moses Cleveland who founded the Northern line of Clevelands, from which President Grover Cleveland was descended.

There has been a tremendous amount of debate over who was the original immigrant for the Southern line of Clevelands. Cleveland genealogists are fairly well split between Roger Cleveland and Alexander Cleveland. The only detail on which both sides do agree is that Roger-or-Alexander was either a brother or first cousin of the Northern-line Moses, for the Clevelands back home in England were all closely related and there was, apparently, strong family resemblances between the two lines. Unfortunately, to date there has been no documentary proof established. Nor is there any entry information for Cleveland immigrants during these early colonial times. President Cleveland evidently accepted the notion of a blood tie between the two lines and sent a letter of recognition to the ceremonies dedicating a monument to Colonel Benjamin Cleveland.

Information from the three-volume Cleveland genealogy, published in 1899 by Edmund Janes Cleveland and Horace Gillette Cleveland, claims the following descent from Thorkil:

THORKIL (the Saxon), b. prior to 1066. He was a land owner and had his seat at Giseburne, now Guisborough, Cleveland, North Riding of Yorkshire, England. Here he assumed the surname, calling himself Thorkil de Cliveland, probably previous to 1119 when he was well along in years. He and his son Uctred assumed the name at the same time.

UCTRED DE CLIVELAND, b. prior to 1066. He was the owner of considerable landed property, being ten manors, and other possessions mentioned in the Domesday Book. Skelton Castle, Skelton parish, from the Domesday Book, was before the Conquest held held by Uctred and afterward was part of the fee of Robert de Brus (Bruce), a Norman knight who landed in England with the Conqueror and called himself Lord of Cleaveland. He died in 1114 and is buried at the Priory. His tomb still remains below a window in the rear wall--nearly all that is left of the Priory, now a part of the Chaloner estate. Uctred gave land to the Priory of Guisborough, abbey, cathedral, and monastery. Of Whitby Abbey nothing is now left standing but the ruins of the church on a high cliff about a quarter of a mile from the sea. The Priory of Guisborough was in the archdeaconry of Cleveland.

ROBERT DE CLEIVELAND lived at Ormesby, England, in Ebor County. He gave land to Whitby Abbey and a meadow to Gusiborough Priory. He had three children: Peter, Henry (the first to drop the "de" from the name), and Ralph.

JOHN granted lands and tenements to Guisborough Priory in Ormsby.

JOHN dropped the "de" from his name. He was a citizen of York, Yorkshire, England.

WILLIAM was the Sheriff of York in 1456.

WILLIAM moved from North Riding, Yorkshire, to Hinckley, Leicestershire, dying there 15 January 1630, an aged man. He had at least two sons: John and Samuel.

SAMUEL had at least two sons: Alexander and Moses, who emigrated from England to America.

(NOTE: This line of descent is not documented and may conflict with other equally speculatory lines of English descent.)

c1993 by Vikki L. Jeanne Cleveland and Cleveland Family Chronicles
All rights reserved.



Comments:

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  2. Gasida

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