Bushnell AS-2 - History

Bushnell AS-2 - History

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David Bushnell was born in Saybrook, Conn., about 1742. A graduate of Yale University in 1775, he managed to explode gunpowder underwater which is thought to have suggested to him the idea of a submarine mine or torpedo. In 1775 he completed a man-propelled, wooden submarine boat, on the outside of which was attached a Powder magazine with clock mechanism enclosed for igniting it. Bushnell's vessel was unsuccessful in her attempts to blow up British vessels in 1776-77. Bushnell commanded the Corps of Engineers at West Point in 1783: later became the head of a private school in Georgia; and then practiced medicine until his death in 1824 at Warrenton, Ga.


(AS-2: dp. 3142; 1. 350'6" ; b. 45'8" ; dr. 19'6"; s. 14 k.:
cpl. 151; a. 45", 2 21" TT.)

The first Bushnell (AS-2) was launched 9 February 1915 by Seattle Construction and Dry Dock Co., Seattle, Wash.; sponsored by Miss Esculine Warwick Bushnell, great-grandnieee of David Bushnell; and commissioned 24 November 1915, Lieutenant D. F. Boyd in command.

She was assigned to the Submarine Flotilla, Atlantic Fleet, as tender to "L" class submarines in January 1916 and arrived on the east coast in February. Early in 1917 she escorted submarines to the Azores and in December accompanied Submarine Division 5 to Ireland, arriving at Queenstown 27 January 1918. Bushnell acted as tender for submarines operating off Queenstown until the end of World War 1. She later escorted captured German submarines to England, Canada, and the United States.

In September 1920 she assisted in salvage operations on the submarine S-5 sunk off the Delaware Capes and, until August 1931, cruised with various Submarine Divi

sions on the Atlantic coast, in the Caribbean, on the west coast, and to the Hawaiian Islands. Bushnell arrived at San Diego 3 September 1931 and reported for duty with the Submarine Force, Pacific Fleet, with whom she operated until 1937. She towed the frigate Constitution from San Diego to the Canal Zone during March and April 1934 and in February 1935 assisted in the search for survivors of the dirigible Macon which crashed off San Diego.

In December 1937 she was transferred to duty with the Hydrographic Survey and carried out her operations on the coasts of Colombia, Venezuela, Trinidad, British Guiana, and Samoa until September 1941. On 25 July 1940 her designation was changed to AG-32 and on 23 August she was renamed Sumner. Sumner sailed from Norfolk 20 October 1941; joined the Base Force, Pacific Fleet, at San Diego; and arrived 25 November at the Submarine Base, Pearl Harbor.

On 7 December 1941 Sumner was moored at the Submarine Base, Pearl Harbor, and took an active part in the defense of the Islands against the Japanese attack. After the attack she assisted the stricken ships in the area. On 12 January 1942 she set sall for Tongatabu and thence to Nandi Island and Samoa for surveying. After transporting Marines to Wallis Island in May, she made a survey of local harbors. During the ensuing months she conducted surveys at Noumea, New Caledonia; Nukualofa, Tonga Island; Vita Harbor and Espiritu Santo, New Hebrides; and Tulagi, Solomon Islands.

Sumner weighed anchor for Sydney, Australia, 28 January 1943. In March she sailed to the Deboyne Islands to make a survey. She subsequently surveyed Stanley, Pitts, and Milne Bays in New Guinea. On 5 August she commenced a survey of Nukufetau, Ellice Islands. These operations were hampered throughout August and September by enemy air attacks. On 1 December 1943 her classification was changed to AGS-5.

Between 5 December 1943 and 13 February 1944 Sumner participated in the occupation of Tarawa and conducted a survey of the newly acquired area. She sailed to Kwajalein in February 1944 where she was engaged in improving the harbor facilities until 11 April. The ship then stood out for San Francisco, via Pearl Harbor, arriving 7 May. Repairs completed, Sumner returned to the Hawaiian Islands in August. In September she steamed to Ulithi where until February 1945 she conducted survey operations. On 1 February she sailed for Guam where she remained until the 27th. On 4 March she arrived at Iwo Jima and commenced surveying operations under very adverse conditions. On 8 March she was hit by an enemy shell which killed one of her crew and injured three others. The shell failed to explode and material damage was light. Sumner continued surveying the area until 3 May when she departed for Guam. She remained at Guam until 17 June when she sailed to Leyte Gulf, Philippine Islands.

Survey operations in the Philippines were completed 28 August and Sumnerstood out for Jinsen, Korea, arriving 9 September 1945. She continued her survey operations in the Korea-China area until sailing for Pearl Harbor 19 December 1945.

Sumner underwent a yard period at Pearl Harbor and then sailed to Bikini Atoll to conduct surveys in preparation for the coming atomic bomb tests before returning to California 24 May 1946. On 9 July she departed the west coast and proceeded to Norfolk where she reported for inactivation. She was decommissioned 13 September 1946 and transferred to the Maritinie Commission six days later.

Sumner received three battle stars for her World War II service.

The table below contains the names of sailors who served aboard the USS Bushnell (AS 15). Please keep in mind that this list does only include records of people who submitted their information for publication on this website. If you also served aboard and you remember one of the people below you can click on the name to send an email to the respective sailor. Would you like to have such a crew list on your website?

Looking for US Navy memorabilia? Try the Ship's Store.

There are 178 crew members registered for the USS Bushnell (AS 15).

Select the period (starting by the reporting year): precomm &ndash 1958 | 1959 &ndash 1962 | 1963 &ndash 1966 | 1967 &ndash now

Plumb, JohnDC-21967 &ndash 1969ships repair
Wise, DonEN21967 &ndash Jan 30, 1970EngineroomServed in the forward and aft engineroom ,as well as the boat shop.Love to hear from shipmates. Currently operate an alpaca farm in Kentucky and semi-retired.Anyone I served with ,I would love to chat with.
Lallak, RaymondSFP21967 &ndash 1970R-1 Div
Curlin, Maurice (Fat Jack)TM21967 &ndash 1969W - 1
Boden, Don / Big DEO11967 &ndash 1969enginering
Tosten, EdwardEm31967 &ndash 1969Motor repair
Neff, Chess TM31967 &ndashWeaponsWorked forward weapons, stores, and on the picker. Stayed with to ol gal until she was being decommissioned. Retired from engineering and etc. Try to keep up with a few of the Guys I knew.
Sonnenblick, Steve IC 21967 &ndash Jul 1, 1970IC
Antol, PhilSFM-21967 &ndash 1969R-1Worked in weld shop under Chief Towel.The Navy prepared me for the rest of my life.I trained welders from 1974-2004 when I retired.
Zanoni, Don (Zee)FTG2Apr 1967 &ndash Apr 1969WeaponsWhere are all of the FT's abord at this time
Tuttle, Andrew JSFP2Sep 1967 &ndash Sep 1968R1I worked in shipfitter shop with Coles ,Hertier,Menchl ,and Qunell. Also Davidson,Williams and Landon to name a few. I had served with Joe Wirth a Molder on the USS Canopus AS 34 in Spain.We were very good friends.
Duray, William PEN3Dec 10, 1967 &ndash Jan 1, 1970EngineeringI worked in the aft engineroom, with Roy Russel,Don Wise,Jimmy Greer,Frank DeBellis,Simpson,Buskirk,Mayo.We all got along great. Our Chief was Chief Sterns.
Deutermann, ThomasSN1968 &ndash 1969Deck DepartmentI was the Deck Force's yeoman working under and for the Ship's Bosun and First Lieutenant and who rode that crazy ride to Pilottown on Hurricane Camille!
Olinger, William (Bill)ETN3Feb 1968 &ndash Apr 1969ElectronicsCame aboard from A school as ETN3 and into a division of 51 guys, all of whom were rated. Consequently, I did most of my time mess cooking, compartment cleaning, mess cooking again and finally as division clerk.
Cody, RoyBM3Mar 1968 &ndash Mar 1970Boatswain MateWorked the deck crew and occasionally operated the 40' utility boats.
Burrell, JohnET1Jun 1968 &ndash Dec 8, 1969 I was in charge of Radio II and sometimes worked in R1 electronics repair. I also installed crypto machines in the subs and on the Penguin ASR. Spent most of my time in Radio One as they had the best doughnuts and coffee.
Lang, FrankRM2Aug 1968 &ndash Jun 30, 1970Operations-CommunicationsWorked in Radio Central from 8/68 until decommissioning in 70. Eventually became a communications watch supervisor. Had 3 good trips to NOLA including Mardi Gras in 70. Worked with a lot of good people during that time.
Gantzer, BobETR2Aug 16, 1968 &ndash Jun 30, 1970R4
Line, DavidIM-31969 &ndash 1970R-2Liked the bush and Key West so much I went to the Gilmore when it came down
Brady, Thomas ME31969 &ndashdeckassign as legal Yeoman at Key West FL. on the BURNING BUSH. AS 15 loved this mighty ship
Lyons, JohnE-5Jan 8, 1969 &ndash Nov 11, 1971R2Did my time in the optical shop on the burning bush then onto the Simon Lake in Bremerton when we decomissioned the Bush
Salito, VinceSK2Feb 24, 1969 &ndash Jun 1970S1S1 Division-Issue Control & OPTAR Records.Got 2 free trips home, one in Aug ཱྀ (while in port Hurricane Camille hit) the next was the Feb ྂ Mardi Gras trip.Transferred to the H. W. Gilmore AS-16 in June "70.
Castronovo, PeterE5Mar 1969 &ndashR
Dilley, AlDP2Apr 1969 &ndash Jan 1970S6Attached to supply division as a Data Processing Technician.
Craw, BillSH2May 1969 &ndash Jun 1970S3Great tour, until decom, transfer to Gilmore
Chabot, DickDC3Jun 1969 &ndash Jul 1970DC
Dale, KennethETR3Jul 1969 &ndash Jun 1970Electronics
Mann, RogerTMT2Aug 1969 &ndash Jun 30, 1970w1my great uncle was a plank owner of the bush. While on a fire watch I noticed a fuel leak in a void under the subroc compartment that lead to the decomisioning od the bush
Driver, NelsonYNSNSep 1969 &ndash Aug 1970WEAPONSServed as Weapons Department Yeoman. I had a great time in Key West serving with all the insane Torpedo men. What happened to Lingle, Iacobacci, Wally, and the rest of the "snake ranch" crew?
Brothers, LeonardFNSep 1, 1969 &ndash Jun 25, 1970E DivisionStationed there after boot camp, enjoyed the time on the Bushnell. Lots for friends remembered. Was involved in the DECOM.
Dumas, DonFMOct 1969 &ndash 1970IC shop
Brunow, DickICFNNov 16, 1969 &ndash Jun 30, 1970R3Worked in Gyro shop. Decommissioned Bush then onto Gilmore. Had many fun times especially R&R cruise to Mardi Gras where I got my 1st tatoo and lead my 1st parade with Jim Belnome down Bourbon St. Still working and waiting for retirement.
Dixson, Joe L.SH1Mar 10, 1972 &ndashS-3Live in Norfolk, Va now. Any ship's serviceman or supply personnel give me a yell

Select the period (starting by the reporting year): precomm &ndash 1958 | 1959 &ndash 1962 | 1963 &ndash 1966 | 1967 &ndash now

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You've only scratched the surface of Bushnell family history.

Between 1944 and 2004, in the United States, Bushnell life expectancy was at its lowest point in 1944, and highest in 1986. The average life expectancy for Bushnell in 1944 was 40, and 70 in 2004.

An unusually short lifespan might indicate that your Bushnell ancestors lived in harsh conditions. A short lifespan might also indicate health problems that were once prevalent in your family. The SSDI is a searchable database of more than 70 million names. You can find birthdates, death dates, addresses and more.

The City of Bushnell is one of Florida's hidden treasures. Its history is rich with fascinating events, some of which played a major role in Florida's history. And Bushnell today seems to have achieved that rare and priceless commodity - balance. Bushnell is a treasure chest laden with interesting people, a concerned local government and a professionally run electric utility. Incorporated in 1911, its history dates back to 1885, when the changes occurring in Florida were reminiscent of those in the Old West. The Civil War was over, and pioneer towns were springing up across the state. Most of the conflicts with Florida's native Indian tribes had been settled, and people from northern climates were moving south in increasing numbers. Perhaps most importantly, the railroad was laying new tracks in Florida, making the state's central and southern regions much more accessible.

The Railroad and Bushnell

Bushnell is a city shaped by the railroad. Just as train tracks run through the middle of Bushnell today, so its very existence emerged from a railroad station built in the late 19th century. The city is even named in honor of the young chief engineer, John W. Bushnell, who worked for the Florida Railway and Navigation Company survey crew that laid the right-of-way for the railroad from Lake Panasoffkee to Bushnell.
The community of Bushnell officially came into existence with the establishment of the post office on Oct. 28, 1885. Early records show that five or six families resided in the area at that time, with some families having lived there since the area was first settled in 1870. The railroad's extension into the area served as a catalyst for Bushnell's growth. Regular train service began in early 1885, with a depot and passenger shelter built the same year.
Early residents of Bushnell had no way to receive storm warnings. After regular train service was established, six long blasts of the engine whistle told the people stormy weather was coming.
Early Bushnell was a town of sandy, unpaved roads, outdoor privies, no electricity or running water. The railroad was the means for people to travel to other towns. A morning and afternoon train enabled one to travel as far north as Ocala to shop and return the same day.
The city of Bushnell was incorporated on Dec. 14, 1911. The construction of the Sumter County Courthouse in 1913-14 spurred the second expansion and continued growth of Bushnell. It was during this time that the city's first water and electric systems were constructed.
1914, the city of Bushnell had quite a few established businesses - including a grocery store and bank, several churches of different denominations, its own doctor, and a privately owned water system that served the business section and a few residents.

Bushnell powers up as Electric Utility in 1919

The first electric system was constructed sometime around 1914, according to local records. It was constructed by Holt E. Wey, who later sold the system to the City of Bushnell. On July 18, 1918, Bushnell records show that a $10,000 bond was used for establishing and equipping the lighting system in the city of Bushnell, and connecting the same with the electric grid. On April 28, 1919, the city of Bushnell purchased the "Bushnell Electric Company" from Holt E. Wey for the sum of $3,000.
At first the only time electric lights were available was between sundown and 11:00 o&rsquoclock at night. The plant was located on the site now occupied by the former Bushnell City Hall on Market Street and contained a diesel-powered generator. Sometime about 1919, the City of Bushnell connected to the electric grid lines near Camp Grove.

Bushnell AS-2 - History

USS Bushnell (Submarine Tender No. 2) circa 1918
Click on this photograph for links to larger images of this class.

Class: BUSHNELL (AS-2)
Design Navy AS-2
Displacement (tons): 3,142 light, 3,580 full
Dimensions (feet): 350.5' oa, 300.0' pp x 45.7' wl x 15.0' mn and mx
Original Armament: 4-5"/51
Later armaments: none (1938)
1-5"/51 4-3"/23 (1941) 1-5"/51 4-3"/23 2-20mm (1943)
1-5"/38 4-3"/50 8-20mm (1944)
Complement 246 (1929)
Speed (kts.): 14.15
Propulsion (HP): 2,617
Machinery: Parsons geared turbine, 1 screw


AS Name Ord. Builder Keel Launch Commiss.
2 BUSHNELL 30 Jun 13 Seattle Const. & DD 3 Jan 14 9 Feb 15 24 Nov 15

AS Name Decomm. Strike Disposal Fate MA Sale
2 BUSHNELL 13 Sep 46 29 Oct 46 19 Sep 46 MC/D 21 Jan 48

Class Notes:
FY 1913 (Act of 22 Aug 12). BUSHNELL (Submarine Tender No. 2) was essentially the tender that the Navy had wanted when it purchased FULTON (Submarine Tender No. 1). The Bureau of Construction and Repair had designed Submarine Tender No. 1 to characteristics forwarded by the General Board on 25 Jun 10 but the Congressional limit of $500,000 caused the Bureau's design to be reduced from 3,500 to 2,200 tons and use of a private design then brought it down to 1,260 tons. During this time, on 18 Jul 11, the General Board forwarded new characteristics for submarine tenders that retained all the items in the 25 Jun 10 specifications along with the 14-knot Diesel main propulsion plant that the Board had recommended for Submarine Tender No. 1 on 22 Mar 11 and increased the steaming radius of the ship from 3,000 to 5,000 miles at 11 knots. Over a year later, on 29 Jul 12, the Bureaus informed SecNav's Division of Material that they were proceeding with preliminary designs for the proposed submarine tender for the 1913 building program based on the characteristics of 18 Jul 11 but recommended using a single screw reciprocating steam engine propulsion plant instead of the internal combustion engines in the characteristics. The FY 1913 bill included $1,000,000 for the tender, for which the Bureau estimated it could buy a 2,500-ton twin-screw diesel ship or a 4,000-ton single-screw steam one. With the 4,000-ton ship the Bureau felt it could obtain practically all of the characteristics recommended by the General Board but with the 2,500-ton ship it would be necessary to reduce or eliminate some of them, notably the 5,000-mile 11-knot steaming radius. The General Board strongly endorsed this recommendation on 7 Aug 12, stating that it was essential to include as many of the prescribed characteristics as possible and that the advantages resulting from the use of an oil engine did not warrant a sacrifice of 1,500 tons in displacement. On 20 Aug 12 the Bureau of Steam Engineering recommended deleting the word "reciprocating" to make it possible to use turbines. BuC&R submitted the preliminary design for Submarine Tender No. 2 on 28 Aug 12 which provided for a 3,600 ton turbine-propelled ship that met essentially all of the General Board's requirements and closely resembled the ship as built except that its dimensions were a bit larger (371' oa, 320' pp x 47'). The ship was completed with one torpedo tube on deck for testing, adjusting, and tuning up torpedoes, but it was found unsatisfactory and was removed prior to February 1918.

The type plans for AS-2, BUSHNELL, were completed and circular signed by Acting SecNav on 13 Mar 13 and issued to bidders on request thereafter. Bids were opened at the department on 19 May 13. The successful bid was from the Seattle Construction & Dry Dock Co. for the bidder's design of hull with steam turbines and reduction gears, with the vessel complete within 21 months (by 30 Mar 15) including machine tools and shop outfit furnished and installed by the contractor. Keel laying was commenced on 20 Nov 13 and finished on 10 Jan 14. The ship ran trials on 14 Sep 15 and made 14.15 knots against a required 14.0 knots. Preliminary acceptance (delivery) occurred on 20 Nov 15.

BUSHNELL was authorized in the same year as the seven submarines of the "L" class, and on 11 Dec 15 she was assigned to tend the first four Atlantic Fleet L-class subs, which measured 167.4 feet in length. She had 4-5"/51 guns on broadside mountings with unusually wide arcs of train, and in 1919 she asked to have the two after ones removed to make room for reserve ammunition for her subs and increase capacity for stores. Her request was disapproved because it was considered more important not to reduce her own fighting power. In 1920 BUSHNELL was considered capable of tending 3 of the larger (around 231' long) "S"-class subs, the limiting factors being berthing space for the subs' crews and stowage space for spare parts. In case of emergency she could tend 6 "S"-class subs if the crews lived in the boats and their living space on the tender was used for stowage. In 1936 she was rated as able to tend 6 submarines as both her normal and maximum capacity, although after 1931 she was used primarily as flagship for the Commander, Submarine Force, U.S. Fleet.

In December 1937 CNO designated BUSHNELL for survey duty to replace NOKOMIS (PY-6). The Department desired that this assignment be considered temporary and that the ship be maintained in a condition of readiness to resume the status of a submarine tender on short notice. On 19 Jul 40 CNO informed SecNav that consideration had been given as to whether BUSHNELL and ARGONNE (AS-10) should continue on their present duties (ARGONNE was in use as the flagship of the Base Force) or be returned to submarine tender duties. He concluded that "the realities of the situation point to the conclusion that the primary duties of ARGONNE and BUSHNELL are those now being performed by them" and recommended that their designation be changed from AS to AG. He also recommended that the name of the BUSHNELL be changed "in order that that name, which for so many years has been closely identified with submarines," might be made available for a future submarine tender. SecNav approved the change of designation on 25 Jul 40 and on 9 Aug 40 BuShips informed CNO that the numbers AG-31 and AG-32 had been assigned to the ships. On 5 Sep 40 SecNav approved the new name SUMNER for the former BUSHNELL in honor of Captain Thomas Hubbard Sumner, discoverer of the Sumner Line of Position.

The type symbol AGS (Surveying ship), which had existed since around 1935, was first used in April 1942 for three smaller vessels acquired from the Coast and Geodetic Survey. On 4 Nov 43 CNO noted to SecNav that the larger BOWDITCH (AG-30) and SUMNER (AG-32) were also surveying ships and recommended that they be reclassified AGS-4 and AGS-5 respectively effective 1 Dec 43. SecNav approved this recommendation on the same day.

One-dimensional pictures are those containing only one dimension. This is only possible when you're dealing with a line, as the only dimension you have is length, defined by a single figure. For example, you can easily find a spot when you know it's on the third inch from the left. However, a line is 1-D only on a theoretical level, as in real life, a line has a width just hundredths or thousandths of an inch.

One type of picture you can come across in real life is the two-dimensional one. The two dimensions depicted are length and width and the objects on the picture are flat. Examples of such pictures are ancient Egyptian wall paintings or images from video games before the PlayStation era, where visual artists did not want, or could not, give a realistic representation of space.

Railroads and Shipyards Bring Fortune and Fame

Sketch of the USS Monitor

Bushnell made powerful acquaintances in both the Connecticut state legislature and in the U. S. Congress during his successful efforts to obtain a statute that would secure equal treatment for the Shore Line Railroad against railroad giants such as the New York, New Haven, and Hartford Railroad and the New York Central Railroad. Before Bushnell’s fight for his railroad’s rights, these corporations held exclusive contracts with out-of-state corporations for through-trip services and refused to permit any railroad to write through-trip tickets that utilized the Shore Line.

Successful in his struggle against the larger railroads in Connecticut, Bushnell took his fight to Washington and secured contracts from the U.S. Postal Service for through-mail shipments on his railroad. These contacts with Washington, D.C., officials in 1860 led to the most famous event of his life: his support of and investment in John Ericsson’s ironclad warship, the USS Monitor. According to research compiled in 1899 by William S. Wells, second assistant engineer of the U. S. Navy, Bushnell “was an extraordinary man…comprehending great things.”

The Schooner C. C. Colgate, West Haven, CT, 1867

By the time of the outbreak of the Civil War, Bushnell had established a shipyard in the Fair Haven section of New Haven, at which he employed Samuel Pook, a scientific naval constructor from Boston, with whom Bushnell intended to build ships for the federal navy. His interest and skills in this arena seem unsurprising given his family history: his relative David Bushnell enjoyed some fame as the builder of the American Turtle—an odd-looking wooden vessel designed for submarine navigation—and other family members, in particular his Scranton relatives, had ties to both shipping and the steel and iron industries. According to The Story of the Monitor and the Merrimac, written by Bushnell’s son, the Reverend Samuel C. Bushnell, Cornelius placed the resources of his shipyard “at the disposition of the government and began building vessels for the navy.”

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Horace Bushnell

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Horace Bushnell, (born April 14, 1802, Bantam, Connecticut, U.S.—died February 17, 1876, Hartford, Connecticut), Congregational minister and controversial theologian, sometimes called “the father of American religious liberalism.” He grew up in the rural surroundings of New Preston, Connecticut, joined the Congregational Church in 1821, and in 1823 entered Yale with plans to become a minister. After his graduation in 1827, however, he taught school briefly, served as associate editor of the New York Journal of Commerce, and studied law at Yale. Not until 1831, after he had qualified for the bar, did his religious doubts diminish sufficiently for him to begin his theological education. He entered Yale Divinity School and in 1833 was ordained minister of the North Congregational Church in Hartford, where he served for more than 20 years until ill health forced his resignation.

A major figure in American intellectual history, Bushnell stood between the orthodox tradition of Puritan New England and the new romantic impulses represented by Ralph Waldo Emerson, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, and especially Friedrich Schleiermacher. His first significant publication, Christian Nurture (1847), was a thorough critique of the prevailing emphasis placed on the conversion experience by revivalists. In God in Christ (1849), published in the year of his mystical experience that illumined the gospel for him, Bushnell challenged the traditional, substitutionary view of the atonement (i.e., that the death of Christ was the substitute for man’s punishment for sin) and considered problems of language, emphasizing the social, symbolic, and evocative nature of language as related to religious faith and the mysteries of God. Christ in Theology (1851) amplified and defended his attitude toward theological language, giving special attention to metaphoric language and to an instrumental view of the Trinity. In Nature and the Supernatural (1858) he viewed the twin elements of the title as constituting the one “system of God” and sought to defend from skeptical attack the Christian position on sin, miracles, incarnation, revelation, and Christ’s divinity.

Bushnell’s views were bitterly attacked, and in 1852 North Church withdrew from the local “consociation” in order to preclude an ecclesiastical heresy trial. Despite such opposition, however, his ability to assemble and present coherent arguments guaranteed the impact and influence of his interpretation of Christianity. Among his numerous works are The Vicarious Sacrifice (1866), Forgiveness and Law (1874), and six volumes of essays and sermons. An essay on “ Science and Religion” (1868) shows his resistance to Darwinian evolutionary theory. His moderate and cautious views on social issues are recorded in A Discourse on the Slavery Question (1839) The Census and Slavery (1860) and Women’s Suffrage: The Reform Against Nature (1869).

This article was most recently revised and updated by Amy Tikkanen, Corrections Manager.

Watch the video: Nolan Bushnell Clip 2: Founder of Atari u0026 Chuck E Cheese, Steve Jobs Only Boss - How to Innovate (May 2022).


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