History of Vaud J. - History

History of Vaud J. - History

Vaud J.

Vaud J.

(MB: t. 63 (gross); 1. 101'0"; b. 19'8"; dr. 4'6" (mean); s. 8.6 k.; cpl. 8; a. none)

Prior to World War I, Vaud J.—a wooden-hulled cabin motor launch built in 1907 at Wildwood, N.J., by Thomas Johnson-was owned by A. L. Dunn, of Govans, Md. The Navy inspected the motor boat on 8 April 1917 and deemed her "not suitable for either Army or Navy use." Apparently, the Navy later revised its appraisal since it again inspected the craft on 23 September 1918 at Bear Creek, near Baltimore, Md.

Acquired by the Navy soon thereafter, Vaud J. was taken Over by the Navy on 27 September but not commissioned. Designated SP-3361, Vaud J. was assigned to the Bureau of Ordnance and towed to the Naval Proving Ground at Indian Bead, Md., by the tug Tioga and operated there in connection with range construction work into the spring of 1919.

Sold on 30 June 1919 and simultaneously struck from the Navy list, Vaud J. became the property of the Chesapeake Water Supply Co. She was carried on lists of American merchant vessels into the early 1920's, but her owner was not listed. From 1924 to 1929, the craft was owned by Hurley Booye of Cape May, N.J., until either late 1929 or early 1930 when she was purchased by Harry Mogok of Cape May. Vaud J. operated until 1932, when her name disappears from the mercantile listings.

USS Vaud J. (SP-3361)

USS Vaud J. (SP-3361) was a United States Navy patrol vessel in service from 1918 to 1919.

Vaud J. was built in 1907 as a private motorboat of the same name by Thomas Johnson at Wildwood, New Jersey. She was the property of A. L. Dunn of Govans, Maryland, on 23 April 1917 when the U.S. Navy inspected her for possible World War I service as a section patrol boat but deemed her unsuitable for use by either the Navy or the United States Army. On 23 [3] September 1918, however, the Navy reinspected Vaud J. at Bear Creek near Baltimore, Maryland, and apparently found her acceptable, because it took control of her on 27 September 1918 and assigned her the section patrol number 3361.

Although Vaud J. never was commissioned, she was assigned to the Bureau of Ordnance and towed by the tug USS Tioga (1916) to the Naval Proving Ground at Indian Head, Maryland, where she operated in connection with range construction work into the spring of 1919.

Vaud J. was stricken from the Navy List on 30 June 1919 and simultaneously sold to the Chesapeake Water Supply Company. She was carried on lists of American merchant vessels into the early 1920s, but her owner was not listed. From 1924 to 1929, she was the property of Hurley Booye of Cape May, New Jersey, until either late 1929 or early 1930 when Harry Mogok of Cape May purchased her. Vaud J. operated until 1932, when she apparently was discarded and her name disappears from the mercantile listings.

History of oncolytic viruses: genesis to genetic engineering

Since the turn of the nineteenth century, when their existence was first recognized, viruses have attracted considerable interest as possible agents of tumor destruction. Early case reports emphasized regression of cancers during naturally acquired virus infections, providing the basis for clinical trials where body fluids containing human or animal viruses were used to transmit infections to cancer patients. Most often the viruses were arrested by the host immune system and failed to impact tumor growth, but sometimes, in immunosuppressed patients, infection persisted and tumors regressed, although morbidity as a result of the infection of normal tissues was unacceptable. With the advent of rodent models and new methods for virus propagation, there were numerous attempts through the 1950s and 1960s to force the evolution of viruses with greater tumor specificity, but success was limited and many researchers abandoned the field. Technology employing reverse genetics later brought about a renewal of interest in virotherapy that allowed the generation of more potent, tumor-specific oncolytics. Here, examination of early oncolytic virotherapy before genetic engineering serves to highlight tremendous advances, yet also hints at ways to penetrate host immune defenses, a significant remaining challenge in modern virotherapy research.

History of Vaud J. - History

Eddy County is located in Southeastern New Mexico bordered to the West by Otero County, the North by Chaves County, the East by Lea County and to the South, by the State of Texas. The county was named for cattle rancher Charles B. Eddy.

Long before Charles Eddy came along, the area was home to other groups and tribes of people. Around 25,000 BC, the people living in the area of Eddy County were relatives of "Sandia Man". Nomadic hunters wandered the area, hunting buffalo and other game, over the next several thousand years.

In the 1300's, a more sedentary group of people called "Basket Makers" settled in the caves around Eddy County and in pit houses, West of the Pecos River. In the early 1500's, Spanish Explorers Alvar Nunez, Cabeza de Vaca, Antonio Espéjo and Castaño de Sosa, traveled through present day Eddy County, following the life giving Pecos.

In 1866, Charles Goodnight and Oliver Loving drove vast herds of cattle along the Pecos and set up "cow camps" in Seven Rivers and what is present day Carlsbad. John Chisum soon joined them and brought an estimated 100,000 head of cattle of his own through the Pecos Valley.

In 1881, Charles B. Eddy came to the area, and with his brother, John, and partner Amos Bissell, developed the Eddy-Bissell Cattle Company. In 1884 the Eddy brothers and Bissell broke ground on the Halagueno Ranch which encompassed an area from Seven Rivers to La Huerta (a suburb of Carlsbad). In 1887, Eddy built the Halagueno diversion ditch on the Pecos, 3 miles above the site of the Avalon Dam (which was completed in 1890) and incorporated the venture, calling it the Pecos Valley Land and Ditch Company. Eddy was looking to entice Europeans to settle the area and with the new Halagueno Ranch and the Pecos Valley Land and Ditch Company established, he sought funds from a Swiss bank to help attract them to the clean air and sunny climate.

During the 1890s, development was fueled by the arrival of colonies of immigrants from England, Switzerland, France and Italy. The original settlement bore the name of Charles B. Eddy, co-owner of the Eddy-Bissell Livestock Company. The cattleman recognized the value of diverting water from the Pecos River to the grazing lands on his Halagueno Ranch, which included present-day Carlsbad.

In 1888, Eddy arranged for the careful layout of streets in the new town and planted young cottonwood trees to line them.

When the territorial legislature set the boundaries of Eddy County, in 1889, Seven Rivers was named the county seat. (In 1889, New Mexico was not a state yet. Statehood was granted in 1911.) In 1890, Eddy was now a competitor for county seat. During an election that year for new county commissioners, a referendum was on the ballot to change the seat from Seven Rivers to Eddy. The referendum passed by a vote of 331 to 83. In that year, the census said Eddy had only 278 people and they cast 241 of the winning votes. The referendum also included the building of a courthouse. Charles Eddy donated the land which consisted of an entire town block. The county commissioners authorized a contract for $30,000 to build a brick courthouse. It was constructed in the Victorian style of the day. The courthouse was enlarged in 1914 (East Wing added) and again in 1939, when it was also remodeled in the stucco covered, Pueblo Style, which it is today. In 1899, the town of Eddy decided to change the name to Carlsbad, after the famous European health resort, Karlsbad, Bohemia (now the Czech Republic), as both towns had identical, mineral rich, springs. By 1892, the newspaper reported that the town company had planted 12,000 trees.

Lots were sold for $50 to $400 each. Because the town’s benefactor was determined to create a model temperance community, restrictions against the manufacture or sale of alcoholic beverages were inserted into the deeds of each lot. A small satellite community of saloons and prostitutes flourished for a while in what was known as “Phenix,” south of the tee-totaling Eddy Township.

Former Lincoln County Sheriff Pat Garrett (famous for gunning down Billy the Kid in 1881) first envisioned an ambitious development project to harness the valley’s water resources with a series of dams and canals for irrigation. He brought promoter Charles W. Greene to the Halagueno Ranch to meet Eddy, who soon recognized that more capital was needed for such a venture. Later, Robert W. Tansill introduced Eddy to millionaire James J. Hagerman, who became a principal investor in the Pecos Irrigation and Improvement Company. Unfortunately, Garrett was edged out of the new partnership.

Eddy, known as the "Pearl of the Pecos," began as a company town for the massive irrigation and real estate development business. Hagerman and his partners soon formed their own corporation and took over the enterprise. Key to the growth of the area were special excursion trains that brought visitors from the east at reduced fares. Even before the railroad was completed from Pecos in 1891, travel parties were met at the railroad station in Toyah, Texas and driven by buggy 90 miles over a rough, dusty road to this small but growing settlement on the banks of the Pecos River.

By March 1893, the newspaper reported that there were eleven visiting millionaires in Eddy. All were attracted here by the prospect of highly profitable investments. Soon after the town of Eddy was incorporated in 1893, a disastrous flood swept away the Avalon and Tansill dams, the original wooden irrigation flume, and the Greene Street bridge. The irrigation system was promptly rebuilt, but the town's boom period had ended. By 1899, residents voted to change the town’s name from Eddy to Carlsbad, after the Karlsbad Spa in Czechoslovakia. The inspiration for the renaming was a large spring near the flume which reportedly had mineral qualities similar to the famous European health resort.

The town constructed a first-class hotel to provide lodging for the wealthy visitors arriving by train. The Hagerman Hotel, a two-story, 60-room lodging house, was located on the southwest corner of Canyon and Mermod streets, facing the courthouse square.

In 1918 Carlsbad officially became a city when New Mexico Governor W. E. Lindsay granted the town permission to incorporate, since the population had surpassed 2,000. Today, Carlsbad owes its world fame to Carlsbad Caverns National Park, which lies 20 miles to the southwest.

Loving, New Mexico is a farming and ranching community 10 miles South East of Carlsbad. It was first named Vaud in 1893 by a group of Swiss Settlers who imported Italian Laborers to work on theri farms.

January 21, 1911 New Mexico voters went to the polls and approved a Constitution for statehood, the vote was in favor 31,742 to 13,399 .
February 24, 1911 President Taft asked for Congress to approve the Constitution for statehood. The House passed it but the Sentate would take until August to approve the constitution by a vote of 53 -18 November 7, 1911 The State of New Mexico holds an election to elect the first officials.
January 6, 1912 President William Howard Taft signed the proclamation making New Mexico the 47th State of the Union.
[Source: New Mexico Blue Book, New Mexico Struggle for Statehood, LBradford Prince,Report of the Governor of New Mexico to the Secretary of the Interior By New Mexico. Governor, United States. Dept. of the Interior, Laws passed by the General Assembly of the Territory of New Mexico, A concise history of New Mexico By Le Baron Bradford Prince.]

Since 1891 the officers of Eddy county have been as follows :

1891-2: Probate judge, clerk, Thomas Fennessey sheriff, David L. Kemp treasurer, W. F. Cochran assessor, J. D. Walker : county commissioners, Daniel H. Lucas (chairman), Bart T. Whitaker (Harry S. Church appointed to succeed Whitaker in May, 1891), C. H. McLenathan.

1893-4: Judge, James A. Tomlinson clerk, Thomas Fennessey sheriff, David L. Kemp assessor, John D. Walker treasurer, Harry P. Brown commissoners, William A. Finley (chairman), Thomas Gardner, George W. Witt.

1895-6: Judge, Ananias Green clerk, W. R. Owen: sheriff, J. D. Walker assessor, W. F. Cochran treasurer, S. T. Bitting commissioners, R. S. Cameron (chairman resigned in October, 1895), U. S. Batcman (appointed to succeed Cameron elected chairman), Frank Reinholdt. George M. Monroe.

1897-8: Judge, Ananias Green clerk, W. R. Owen sheriff, J. L. Dow assessor, W. F. Cochran treasurer, S. T. Bitting commissioners, N. Cunningham (chairman), Frank Reinholdt, George M. Monroe,

1899-1900: Judge, Ananias Green clerk, W. R. Owen: sheriff, M. C. Stewart assessor, W. F. Cochran : treasurer. John F. Matheson commissioners, N. Cunningham ( chairman), George Wilcox, N. W. Weaver.

1901-2: Judge, Ananias Green clerk, W. R. Owen sheriff, M. C. Stewart assessor, Joseph T. Fanning treasurer, J. D. Walker commissioners, J. H. James (chairman), George Wilcox, N. W. Weaver.

1903-4: Judge, Ananias Green clerk, W. R. Owen sheriff, N. C. Stewart assessor, John O. McKeen treasurer, J. D. Walker commissioners, J. H. James (chairman), George Wilcox, N. W. Weaver.

1905-6: Judge, Ananias Green clerk, W. R. Owen sheriff, M. C. Stewart, assessor, J. L. Emerson treasurer, J. D. Walker commissioners, Allen C. Heard (chairman),- George Wilcox, N. W. Weaver.

The principal towns of the county lie in the rich valley of the Pecos, on the line of the Pecos Valley and Northeastern Railroad, and in the midst of a productive agricultural district. In fact, it is doubtful whether there is a finer agricultural country in the Territory than about Carlsbad (formerly Eddy), the county seat Lake View, Dayton, Lakewood and the valleys of Black, Seven and Penasco rivers generally. Carlsbad is a well built and regulated town of about 1,500 people, its site being a rolling mesa. It contains substantial business blocks, graded streets, mile upon mile of shade trees and irrigation ditches, and a model court house, costing $30,000. When the town site company laid out the place the first pressing business was the location and building of school houses, and its several commodious structures devoted to the cause of public education indicate that practical interest in this municipal department has not flagged. Perhaps the greatest source of pride, after its irrigation and public school systems, is in the matter of shade trees. Seven Rivers, the oldest town in the county, was moved to McMillan, at the mouth of Seven rivers, in 1894. Later McMillan was rechristened Lakewood, which is also called the White Town. Among other attractions which it presents to visitors is a large artificial lake to the east, formed by damning the Pecos river, which abounds in fish, although its primary object is to irrigate the adjacent lands. About four miles from Lakewood is the old town and settlement of Seven Rivers, which was established in 1878. Seven Rivers is noted in the history of the Territory because of the Indian fights which occurred there in 1882-83, also of its connection with the notorious outlaw, "Billy the Kid." The raids of both parties were a great disturbance to the peace of this part of the country at that time. A militia company was formed for protection against them, and the ruins may yet be seen of the old adobe house which they used for a fort and for the storage of guns and ammunition. Three members of the company still live in the vicinity of Lakewood. Eight miles south of Artesia, near the confluence of the Penasco with the Pecos and on the line of the railroad, is the rapidly growing little city of Dayton. Although it was only three years ago that J. C. Day filed upon the tract of government land which is now the town site, the place has two churches, a public school, a good hotel, a weekly newspaper, and all the business and social accessories of a flourishing community. It is in the artesian belt, but the surrounding farms are not dependent upon its wells for irrigation, as the waters of the Penasco are already "ditched" and systematically utilized.

The first record of settlement here is that of a man of the name of J. T. Truitt, who was a Union soldier and had a homestead embracing the present town site. He proved up after a year's residence here and sold the property to Frank Rheinboldt, who afterward sold it to Mrs. Robert on the 18th of January, 1900. In 1901 Messrs. Richer, Hamilton Maddox and J. Mack Smith purchased eighty acres from J. R. Ray and later laid out the town of Artesia in January, 1903. The land was platted and the work of building the town and securing immigration was begun. There was an old siding on the railroad called Miller and the post office, when established, was named Stegman, but the town was called Artesia and later all took the last name. Mr. Richey was president of the company, suggested the name and is called "the father of Artesia." The newly organized company was known as the Artesia Town Site Company, with Mr. Richey as president, Harry Hamilton as treasurer and J. Mack Smith secretary. A short time after the organization of this company another company bought one hundred and sixty acres west of this property, operating under the name of the Artesia Improvement Company, the incorporators being E. A. Clayton, John Hodges, J. A. Cottingham and S. P. Denning. These two companies together drilled the first well of the town site, it being completed in July, 1903. This gave life to the town, which has steadily grown from that time forward until there is now a population of about fourteen hundred. Drilling for water was purely an experiment at that time and has proved not only a great boon to Artesia, but to the surrounding country as well, showing that water could be obtained in that way in this district.

A company known as the El Verde Grande Improvement Company, of which John Richey was president, had drilled a well in 1901 on Dr. fireman's land, seven miles northeast of Artesia. A large flow was obtained. A good portion of this flow was lost by losing the tools in the well. This well demonstrated that a large flow could be obtained in that portion of the valley. This well was nine hundred and seventy-two feet deep. The town of Artesia was incorporated in January, 1905, and the first town board elected was A. V. Logan, chairman, who later resigned and was succeeded by Mr. Richey J. C. Gage, George P. Cleveland and E. B. Kemp. This board was first appointed and in April, 1905, the election was held and the above named were chosen by regular ballot. The election of April. 1906, resulted in the choice of J. C. Beckham as chairman, while Messrs. Crandall, Enfield, McBride and Baskom became trustees. As has been indicated, Mr. Richey has been closely associated with the development and improvement of the town from its inception. He is president of the Pecos Valley Immigration Company, with offices in Artesia, which has done much for the building. of the town by setting forth the natural resources and advantages of the district and inducing immigrants to locate here. He has brought over twelve hundred people to the town on excursions since the fall of 1905 and is laboring earnestly and effectively toward making the country known, that settlers may be induced to locate here and develop its rich agricultural and horticultural resources and reclaim the once wild district for the uses of civilization.

H. W. Hamilton was one of the owners of the original town site of Artesia of eighty acres, having individually thirty acres, while John Richey owned ten acres and J. Mack Smith forty acres. On the 15th of January, 1903, these three gentlemen laid out the town of Artesia and before the plat had been completed they had sold lots to the value of one thousand dollars. Mr. Hamilton had previously been in Colorado as manager for the Carnegie Phipps works at Alamosa, where he spent nine years, and in 1896 he made his way to Carlsbad, New Mexico, to look at the country and determine upon its attractiveness as a place of location and investment. He settled at Roswell on the Cunningham farm, which was later purchased by George M. Slaughter, and in 1897 he invested near the present site of Artesia on what was then known, as the Miller switch. Ten men pooled interests and together sent to Chicago, purchasing a $3,500 well rig. They put down a well on Dr. Breeman's claim, got water, and after that the well rig continued to drill in the vicinity. Being assured of the artesian belt from indications already found, Mr. Hamilton and his associates determined to build a town here and organized the Artesia Town Site Company, with Mr. Hamilton as its president, John Richey vice-president, and J. Mack Smith secretary and treasurer. The Artesia Town Site Companv combined with the Artesia Improvement Company, which owned all of the city west of Rose avenue, in putting down the town well in 1903, and together they organized the Artesia Water, Power and Light Company. Mr. Hamilton acted as president of this company for some time, or until recently, when he sold his interest therein and became a leading stockholder in the Artesia Telephone Company, which was organized by the two town site companies and has the following officers: H. W. Hamilton, president D. W. Runyan, vice-president and Floy Richey Hamilton, secretary and treasurer. The company has established a system throughout die city with one hundred and sixty 'phones and long distance connections with Carlsbad and Roswell. They also own a line to Hope, to be extended to Cloudcroft for El Paso connections. Mr. Hamilton was manager of the Slaughter ranch, near Roswell, for seven years, but since November, 1904, has resided in Artesia and has brought to bear the forces of an enterprising, progressive nature in the development of the town into which he and his associates are introducing every modern improvement and equipment, until the town vies in its conveniences and advantages with the old towns of the east. and. in fact, is in many respects superior to municipalities of long standing. Mr. Hamilton was married April 15, 1896, at Roswell to Miss Floy Richey, daughter of John Richey. Their children are : William R., Harry B., John C. and a baby.

John R. Hodges, secretary and treasurer of the Artesia Improvement Company, has been an important factor in the work of general improvement and in Artesia and various localities are seen tangible evidences of his life of activity and the results of his business discernment and enterprise. In the fall of 1897 he came from Texas to New Mexico, settling at Roswell, where he entered the employ of R. L. Moss, a druggist, with' whom he continued for a year as a clerk, when he purchased the store and there developed a good business, which he conducted until 1903, when he sold to Daniel Brothers. He was graduated from the University of Texas in the pharmaceutical department in 18ij6. and was thus well qualified for his mercantile operations. On selling his store he became connected with the Artesia Improvement Company, which was organized July 25, 1903, and incorporated under the laws of the Territory. This company purchased one hundred and sixty acres of land, constituting the former homestead of John F. Boyle, lying west of Ross avenue. After securing this land the company laid it off as a town site in conjunction with the similar work of the Artesia Town Site Company. They first subdivided forty acres into town lots, called the. Clayton and Stegman addition, but the rapid growth of the town caused them soon to lay off the one hundred and twenty acres as the Artesia Improvement Company addition. The officers of this company are : J. A. Cottingham, president S. P. Denning, vice-president John R. Hodges, secretary and treasurer and E. A. Clayton, manager. They were all Roswell people, who came to Artesia when they saw the advantages of the country and recognized its possibilities for development. The two land companies in Artesia organized a company known as the Artesia Water, Power and Light Company and put down the town well, which was the second well put down in this part of the valley, which was a great boon to the entire countryside.

There was little promise for rapid or substantial development in the town before water was struck, but this gave great impetus to its growth. People flocked in here in great numbers and the town has enjoyed a rapid and substantial advancement. At the present time Mr. Hodges is engaged in developing Lake Arthur, a town nine miles north of Artesia. He went to that locality in the fall of 1904 and was one of the organizers of the town. The Lake Arthur Town Site Company was formed by Mr. Hodges, C. L. Higday, E. C. Cook, J. S. Venable, J. R. Blair and H. H. Sigman the present members of the company are H. H. Sigman, Elizabeth Hodges and John R. Hodges. The work has been carried on at Lake Arthur in the same manner as it was in Artesia in. the early days of this town. The company first put down a town well, going down ten hundred and twenty-four feet for water. The town site was the original desert entry of Tillman Furr. Mr. Hodges is now successfully engaged in disposing of town lots in Lake Arthur, and as a promoter has done effective and far-reaching work for the Territory. He is also the secretary, treasurer and manager of the Artesia Water, Power and Light Company, of which J. Mack Smith is president and S. P. Denning vice-president. Mr. Hodges has made a close study of town building, has thoroughly acquainted himself with the natural resources of the country and its possibilities and his efforts have been directed along practical lines, producing excellent results.

George P. Cleveland, whose advent in the Territory dates from 1869, in that year drove to New Mexico a bunch of cattle from Blanco county, Texas, after which he returned to the Lone Star state. In 1893 he again came to the valley from Coleman countv, Texas, but found no sufficient water supply and so returned to Texas but in 1900, after the artesian belt had been assured, he came again and located at Roswell. He was engaged in business in that vicinity until October 16. 1902, when he located at Artesia, one mile east of where the town now stands. He took up three hundred and twenty acres of land and began improvements there. In March, 1903, he established a real estate business under the name of the Cleveland Land Agency, and has since devoted his energies to the purchase and sale of property, negotiating many important realty transfers. He has five hundred and sixty acres of land six miles south of Artesia, which he is actively engaged in improving, and has already transformed it into a productive property, which is constantly appreciating in value. He has made a careful study of the artesian supply from a geological standpoint and has prepared an article showing the result of his studies, which is found on another page of this work.

Among Artesia's residents is numbered J. A. Bruce, who came to the Territory in 1898, locating first at Roswell, but soon afterward he removed to his present place, two miles east of the town of Artesia. On the 1st of May, 1901, he began drilling a well and struck water on the I3th of September, 1902. This was the first deep well in the Artesia country and was a visible demonstration to people of the fact that the artesian belt crossed this locality. After this well was found people began to flock in large numbers to the district and the country became thickly settled. When the well was struck there was only one little store and a house in Artesia, but now it is a thriving and rapidly growing town. Previous to that time Mr. Bruce had used the surrounding country as a range for his cattle and he killed antelopes as late as 1899 on the town site of Artesia. His wife and mother-in-law also took up eight hundred acres of land, two miles east of Artesia, and the family still own all of this property. At the time the artesian well was demonstrated to be a success Mr. Bruce ceased to engage in stock-raising and turned his attention to farming. He has seventy acres in orchards and sixty acres in alfalfa, while altogether he has two hundred acres under cultivation. It required seventeen months to drill the well, but no other element has proven so valuable a factor in the settlement and building of this district, and Mr. Bruce certainly deserves the gratitude of his fellow townsmen, proving that water could be obtained here and thus making possible the irrigation and fertilization of the arid soil.The many prosperous sites now found in the Pecos valley are the result of pioneering. Water was found beneath the surface in ample quantities, and then quickly followed a blossoming of the land with all the fruits of the clime. But the preliminary work involved sacrifice and toil, and the results of the present are the actual monuments commemorating what those still living labored hard to produce. It is of especial interest to find one of the so-called weaker sex among the hardy pioneer class.

But in the history of the beginning and development of Artesia a singular record of tribute must be paid to Mrs. Sallie L. Robert, who was one of the first to reside on the town site of Artesia. She is a daughter of James Chisum and the niece of John Chisum, names well known in the Territory and inseparably connected with its annals. The first settler upon the land which she later owned was John Truitt, a Federal soldier. He sold it to Frank Rheinboldt, who sold eighty acres to J. R. Ray and eighty acres to Mrs. Sallie Robert on the 18th of January, 1896. On January 3Oth, in 1890, she filed on the homestead, which is now within the corporation limits of Artesia. In the fall of 1890 Mrs. Robert put down an artesian well one hundred and twenty-four feet deep. This was the second well in the entire valley and the first one in this part of the valley. She resided upon the place as her homestead property from 1890, and, as she prospered in her undertakings, bought much land in this vicinity. She was for some time engaged in entertaining travelers, as the old stage line from Carlsbad to Roswell passed by her home. In 1894 there was a cloudburst just west of her home and in a few moments her place was under water, the adobe house and all of its contents being destroyed. With great energy and determination — traits which have ever been characteristic of the Chisum family — she sent to Carlsbad for material and rebuilt her home on the same spot. In those days she had nothing to depend upon but her stock interests, but eventually she acquired property interests and is today disposing of her land in city lots and also selling farm property for one hundred and twenty-five dollars per acre, her realty interests having greatly appreciated in value, so that she is now reaping a very gratifying financial return as the reward of her earlier labors and close application. She has lived to see a good town spring up here and has benefited by the rapid development of the district.

James Chisum, who is extensively engaged in raising goats, which has become one of the important industries of the southwest, is located at Artesia, Eddy county. He was born in Hardeman county, Tennessee, September 25, 1827, and for many years was closely connected with business interests with his brother, John S. Chisum, one of the distinguished pioneer settlers and stock-raisers of the Territory, now deceased. John S. Chisum, however, preceded his brother to New Mexico. James Chisum has devoted his entire life to farming and live-stock interests and in 1877 came to New Mexico at the request of his brother. He and his two sons remained on the ranch of John Chisum until the latter's death and then continued in charge of the ranch until 1892. In that year they disposed of the cattle raising interests and James Chisum turned his attention to sheep raising industry, from which he eventually worked into the business of raising goats, which has become an important business enterprise of the Territory in recent years. He has made his home continuously at Artesia, Eddy county, since 1892. and is regarded as one of the prominent and representative stock raisers and dealers in this part of the country. He has lived here from pioneer times and has not only been a witness but a participant in many events which have had direct and important bearing upon the history of the Territory, its development and progress. His daughter, Mrs. Sallie L. Robert, now lives with him.
James Chisum was married to Miss Ara Josephine Wright, who was born in Hardeman county, Tennessee, and with her parents came to New Mexico in the year which witnessed the arrival of the Chisums. Her father, Dr. Wright, was of a very prominent and wealthy family. Mrs. Chisum died March I1, 1875. The children of this marriage arc: Mary Branch, who died in 1873 Sallie L., who is the widow of William Robert and resides with her father Walter P.. a fariner of Roswell and William J., who is engaged in the real estate business at Roswell.

Walter P. Chisum, the elder son, was born in Denton county. Texas, September 25, 1861, and throughout his entire life has been engaged in ranching and farming, which pursuit has proved to be a profitable one. He came with his parents to Texas and for a number of years resided upon the ranch owned by his uncle, John Chisum, but now makes his home in Roswell. On the 15th of November. 1887. Walter P. Chisum was married at Dodge City, Kansas, to Miss Inez V. Simpson, and their children are: Jamie W., born February 28, 1889: and Ara B. and Oscar W., twins, born June 9. 1892. Walter Chisum is a stalwart Democrat, active and influential in the councils of his party, and has served as county commissioner of Chaves county. He is a prominent Mason, belonging to the Blue lodge, chapter and commandery at Roswell. to the Mystic Shrine at Albuquerque and to the Consistory of Wichita, Kansas, in which he has attained the thirty-second degree. His wife is prominent in the Eastern Star and for two years was matron of Roswell chapter, while from October, 1904, until October, 1905, she was grand matron of the grand chapter of New Mexico and was also a delegate to the general grand chapter at St. Louis. Missouri. William J. Chisum, the second son of James Chisum, is engaged in the real estate business in Roswell. He was born in Denton county, Texas, August 7, 1864, and is one of the most active of the second generation of pioneers in the Pecos valley, doing even-thing possible to develop the resources of the country and make the valley prosperous and a desirable place of residence as well. He belongs to that class who have followed those who have blazed the trail and have exploited the resources and riches of the district to its vast renown and their own profit, having the ability to plan and perform and to co-ordinate powers until success has been achieved and his position in real estate circles is one of prominence. On the 3rd of July, 1887, William J. Chisum was married in Dodge City, Kansas, to Lina Tucker, a daughter of Robert Tucker, now of Stillwater, Oklahoma, who served in the Mexican war. They have one daughter, Josephine Branch, born July 25. 1889.

J. C.Gage came to New Mexico in the spring of 1887, locating in the Sacramento mountains, with post office at lower Penasco. He came from Texas for the benefit of his wife's health, but shortly afterward was put in charge of church work as a circuit rider, preaching from White Oaks to El Paso in various school houses and churches throughout the mountainous district. He has traveled altogether for fifteen years in the Territory. He spent four years at James Canyon, one year at Weed and in 1892 located at Hope, where he continued his ministerial labors as a preacher of the Methodist church for ten years. He has been a most valued and important factor in the moral growth and progress of the Territory, especially in its southern section, and has planted the seeds of truth in many a desolate district. In 1902 he purchased a farm seven miles south of Artesia and in 1904 removed to the town. In 1905 he engaged in ministerial work there and at the same time became a factor in its business activity, purchasing the Artesia Hotel, which he conducted for some time. He was also one of the organizers of the Bank of Artesia, with a capital stock of thirty thousand dollars, and became its president, whatever he undertakes he carries forward to successful completion, utilizing the means at hand and bringing to his labors untiring industry, enterprise and determination. Mr. Gage was elected one of the aldermen of Artesia on the organization of the town and held the office until April 19, 1906. He belongs to Artesia Lodge No. 21, A. F. & A. M., also to Artesia Lodge No. 11. L O. O. F.. of which he is vice grand. During the early years of his residence in the Territory he devoted his time to preaching the gospel as a representative of the Methodist denomination throughout the eastern part of the Territory, and in later years has done effective service for his fellow men by planting the seeds of civilization and promoting progress in various localities. He is most highly respected and is loved by all who know him.

David W Runyan, of Artesia, was born in Indiana, left home when thirteen years of age and went to Texas with Buffalo hunters, undergoing the usual experiences of such a life on the plains. He came to the Territory from Mason county, Texas, in the fall of 1885 with the firm of Shriner & Light, owners of large cattle interests. He drove cattle to New Mexico and continued with the company for several years. This was the first firm to locate on the Penasco, the date being the fall of 1886, at which time they filed the first land on this stream, where the town of Hope now stands. Prior to this period the Penasco did not flow through to the Pecos river, but since that year, 1886, because of the cattle tramping down the bed of the stream, the Penasco has flowed on until it has reached the larger body of water. About 1890 Mr. Runyan engaged in the cattle business on his own account on the Penasco near Hope and has been thus engaged to the present time, covering a period of sixteen years. He located three and a half miles below the present town site of Artesia in 1895 and had cattle all over the country. He now makes his headquarters at Hope, twenty miles southwest of Artesia, and his old ranch, which cost him eighteen hundred dollars and which was located three and a half miles south of his present location, he sold for ten thousand dollars. He has today two hundred and eighty acres of land adjoining the town of Hope, which he owns in connection with J. C. Gage and which constitutes a splendidly improved farm. He is a very popular and prosperous stock man, thoroughly familiar with the development of his section of the Territory, and his business activity and energy have been resultant factors in making him one of the prosperous citizens of this locality. This is an era of town building in New Mexico and with marvelous rapidity the unsettled districts of a few years ago have been transformed into populous villages and cities and thriving agricultural or horticultural communities. With this work E. A. Clayton has been associated in recent years. He came to the Territory in 1899 and located at Roswell, whence he removed to Artesia, October 6, 1903. He then purchased one hundred and sixty acres from John Boyles, who had homesteaded and commuted from the government this land, all lying west of Rose avenue. It was first owned by Clayton & Company and later the Artesia Improvement Company was organized with J. A.' Cottingham as president, S. P. Denning secretary and treasurer and E. A. Clayton as manager.

The company first laid out forty acres in town lots and after the town well was completed people came in such large numbers that the remainder of the tract was subdivided into lots. At this time Mr. Clayton is engaged in locating people on the government land around Artesia and the country is becoming rapidly settled. He has a farm two miles south of Artesia, where he has one hundred acres planted to alfalfa and forty acres in orchards. He is president of the Upton Lake Town Site Company, developing a town fifty-five miles north of Roswell, the district having been platted and the town laid out. Mr. Clayton is a very successful and vigorous promoter, towns springing up under his guidance as the corn springs from the fields which have been cultivated by the farmer. His labors are of a most practical nature and always accomplish results. Moreover he is a public-spirited citizen, and while promoting individual success also advances the general welfare. The town of Lakewood was originally known as McMillan. It was just a siding placed at the time the railroad ,was built through in 1894. At that time or shortly afterward a store was established by T. J. Scott. The next building was a saloon put up by L. W. Holt and G. M. Hogg. This was followed by a drug store, the property of Dr. Shedloski. The post office was removed from Seven Rivers to McMillan. In 1905 a town site company was organized, purchased the land from J. M. Coburn and E. C. Cook, and the town was laid out, being called Lakewood. The discovery of artesian water here was the motive factor in laying out the town. D. H. Burditt came to the Territory iii 1884, located at Seven Rivers and was connected with business firms in that historic old town for two years. He then turned his attention to the stock business in this valley, in which he continued until 1904, when he located in Lakewood and engaged in the real estate business. He bought out and has since conducted the Seven Rivers Real Estate Company. He is engaged in immigration work from the middle states and has been largely instrumental in securing many families to establish homes in this part of the Territory, his efforts being not only a source of income to himself but of direct and permanent benefit to this section. In addition to his realty operations he is also engaged in the stock business.

M. W. Fanning, who came to the Territory from Texas in October, 1879, and served for four years as a Texas ranger in the employ of the Lone Star state. In 1880, with Peter Corn, he located a place in the Seven Rivers country and started to improve property there. They began business together and both have since figured in the material development and progress of this portion of the Territory. Mr. Fanning has six hundred and forty acres of good land near Lakewood, where he is engaged in the raising of cattle, sheep and horses. He is one of the oldest of the pioneer settlers of the Pecos valley and has remained in the Seven Rivers country since coming to the Territory more than a quarter of a century ago. He is now well known as an extensive stockman of large and profitable business interests. Peter Corn, of Lakewood, who came to the Territory in the fall of 1879, located a place two and a half miles southwest of the old town of Seven Rivers in the spring of 1880, at which time there were but four families living there, and this was the only settlement between Roswell and the Texas line on the west side of the Pecos river. In 1882 Mr. Corn engaged in the sheep business, in which he continued until the spring of 1888, when he removed to Hope. There he resided until 1896 and was connected with stock-raising interests until 1903, when he began farming here. He has five hundred and sixty acres of rich and productive land and his labors are demonstrating the possibilities of the locality for successful farming operations. Mr. Corn is well known as a pioneer settler and one highly respected.

W. P. B. Willburn has been closely associated with the history of the Territory and deserves mention by reason of the fact that he and his brother. Frank Willburn. brought one of the first droves of cattle to this country in 1867. Mr. Willburn returned in 1872 and with his brother located on a ranch where the town of Roswell now stands. They had an old adobe dwelling, a storehouse and shops across from the present location of the court house and they remained here in the cattle business until 1878. when the "Lincoln county war" was waged, when they left the Territory and returned to Texas. In the days of their early residence in the Territory there was not a ranch between Roswell and St. Angelo, Texas. In 1895 W. P. B. Willburn returned to the Territory from Texas and located near Hope, where he now lives, his place being about four miles east of the town. He has a good property, which he has brought under a high state of cultivation and improved with many modern equipments and good buildings.

"Linn" J. C. Richards came to New Mexico in 1898 from Texas and located in Hope settlement below the town of Hope, where he engaged in the stock business. In 1903 he removed to his present place, a mile and a half west of Hope. Here he has an excellent farm property, owning altogether five hundred and sixty acres of valuable land, which responds readily to cultivation. He has ninety acres devoted to various crops and in addition fifteen acres is planted to alfalfa, while a fine orchard covers twenty- four acres. Mr. Richards, Mr. Riley and Mr. Read were the first men to ship apples by car-load from Hope, making the first shipment in 1904, and in 1905 the shipment reached fourteen car loads. Mr. Richards is doing much to demonstrate the possibilities of this locality as a fruit-producing center and is thus contributing to his own success and at the same time leading the way that others may follow and enjoy the benefits of horticultural development and progress in this part of the country. Joseph T. Fanning, one of the oldest and most substantial citizens of the Territory, now farming near Hope with a property embracing three hundred and twenty acres of land, came to New Mexico from Texas in 1880 and located at Seven Rivers. He engaged in business there for about fifteen years and was also prominent and influential in community affairs. He was serving as deputy sheriff under Pat Garrett at the time when Billy the Kid was leading his band of lawless followers in many depredations, only to be ultimately apprehended by Garrett.

In 1900 Mr. Fanning came to the Hope settlement and located at his present place, which he purchased of W. F. Daugherity. He has three hundred and twenty acres of land, which he is bringing under a high state of cultivation. While in Texas he served for two years as a Texas Ranger. He was county assessor of Eddy county in 1901-02, and is one of the oldest and most substantial citizens of the Territory, working toward those ends which are of permanent benefit in the Territory's development. W. P. Riley came to the Territory in the fall of 1887 and spent the winter at La Luz. In the fall of that year the Penasco went through to the Pecos, and in 1888 the first ditch was taken out of Penasco by John A. Beckett.

It was also in the fall of 1888 that Mr. Riley filed on his present place, two and a quarter miles west of Hope. He has four hundred acres here, including a large orchard and fine fields of alfalfa. The orchard covers fifteen acres and he produces some excellent fruit. He has raised some pears weighing two pounds each. Mr. Riley is a very progressive citizen, constantly seeking out new methods for improvement and advancement, and is one the prominent and influential men of the community. Recently he has established an automobile line from Artesia to Hope, with two machines. He is in touch with modern advancement and has conducted his interests along lines of improvement which make him a leader in the movements.

Robert Weems Tansill, who was very active and prominent as a promoter of the Pecos valley, his business enterprise, capacity and diligence contributing in substantial measure to its development and settlement, made his home at Carlsbad, where he passed away December 29, 1902. He was born August 2O, 1844, in Prince William county, Virginia, and was the only child of Robert and Fanny (Weems) Tansill. In the maternal line he was a direct descendant of Mason Lock Weems, a well-known historian of the Revolution and the author of the Life of Washington. It was he who wrote the hatchet story. He was also an Episcopalian clergyman, having charge of the church at Alexandria, Virginia, near Mount Vernon, of which General Washington was a communicant. Robert W. Tansill was educated at Alexandria, Virginia, and in Georgetown University, at Georgetown, District of Columbia. In the spring of 1861 he accompanied his maternal grandparents to Illinois, and shortly afterward went into business at Clayton, engaging in the confectionery trade and the jobbing of cigars. On the list of January, 1867, he was united in marriage to Miss Mary E. Motter, and in 1868 they removed to Chicago, where he continued successfully in business until the disastrous fire which swept over the city in October, 1871. He lost everything but his determination and enterprise, and he soon afterward resumed business, confining his attention exclusively to the cigar trade. Shortly afterward he originated the "Punch" cigar, which won him fame and fortune. It proved to be a ready seller and the demand for it was so great that he had to increase his working forces in order to meet the call of the trade. He was the originator of the premium method of advertising. Through the conduct of his cigar business he accumulated a large fortune, but overwork and an inherited tendency to pulmonary disease undermined his health, so that he had to retire from business in 1887.
He visited the most celebrated health resorts of America and of Europe, and in 1888, while in Colorado Springs, he met C. W. Greene, of Chicago, and through him became interested in the Pecos valley. He was one of a large number of Chicago people Mr. Greene piloted to the valley in September, 1888, and from this visit resulted the original Pecos Irrigation and Improvement Company. It was Mr. Tansill who first interested J. J. Hagerman in the Pecos valley. When the money shortage of 1893 to 1897 irretrievably embarrassed the old irrigation company, Mr. Tansill was appointed receiver, July 19, 1898, and it was almost wholly due to his efforts that the affairs of the company were straightened out successfully and put upon a paying basis. In 1888, when the party of Chicagoans arrived in this country, there was nothing here but prairie dogs, jack rabbits and wild, open country. The party camped at the Eddy Brothers' ranch, the- rock house, which was located about two miles north of Carlsbad.

At that time C. R. Eddy, who afterward became a promoter of this country, was engaged in the cattle business. While talking to Mrs. Tansill he told her that it was the intention of several people of the locality to start a town, and she suggested that the proposed village be called Eddy. This was done, but in later years Mrs. Tansill suggested that the town be called Carlsbad, from the fact that some springs had been discovered near the town, and they were called Carlsbad from the famous springs of Germany. Mrs. Tansill agitated this change until it was finally adopted by a vote of the people. A circular, " To the Citizens of Eddy," by R. W. Tansill, furnishes the following historical facts and arguments: named 'Eddy.' The desirability of changing the name has been discussed ever since the curative properties of our springs have been demonstrated. " About a year ago the name of 'Carlsbad' was proposed for our city. It struck me at once as being not only appropriate, but suggestive as well, op to that time our celebrated 'Carlsbad Springs' had been known as 'Tansill Springs.' No, I will not say known, for as 'Tansill Springs' no one ever gave them a second thought. I suggested applying the name of 'Carlsbad' to the springs, owing to the resemblance of the waters to those of their German namesake. It was done, and the effect has been electrical. I certainly meant no reflection upon the name of Tansill by removing it from the springs, to which it did not apply, any more than do I mean any reflection upon the name of Eddy by favoring the name of Carlsbad vs. Eddy. But before forming a definite opinion I tested the name of 'Carlsbad,' as explained, and the results have thoroughly convinced me that the name of Tansill as applied to the springs was as great a mistake as it would be, in the light of experience, to continue the name of Eddy for our city. " What has been our experience? Briefly stated, since September, 1888, more than $10,000,000 have been invested here, approximately as follows : Over $5,000,000 in the railroad, over $2.500,000 in the P. I. & I. Company, and the remainder in other companies and by private individuals.
Give us people and our prosperity is assured. If any one will tell me how we can secure them, except through united effort and advertising, I shall be glad to learn. Since our town was named, the curative properties of these springs have been demonstrated. I believe this fact to be worth millions of dollars to this town and valley, if properly advertised. Such a boon rarely falls to the lot of any community, and certainly no people inheriting such a valuable curative agent should, for one moment, hesitate about giving it the widest publicity possible. With these facts before us, I ask, do you consider it wise to continue for our town a name that has neither meaning or significance, and one which we do not and can not advantageously advertise? Personally, I would distinctly say no. The major portion of my life has been devoted to practical advertising, and after a most thorough and exhaustive investigation I am convinced that the proposed change of name will bring with it inestimable benefits and support which will greatly stimulate every business interest of this town and valley." Since the death of Mr. Tansill his wife has conducted the business affairs left by him, and has continued in the work which her husband began of promoting the Carlsbad country, inducing immigration and advancing its interests through the development of its material resources.

Will H. Merchant, living in Carlsbad, is deputy county treasurer of Eddy county. He is a son of Clabourn W. Merchant, a pioneer cattleman of New Mexico and Arizona, who resides in Texas. The son was born in Denton county, Texas, November 1, 1874, and was reared in the Lone Star state. Having acquired his education, he spent five years in the cattle industry in the Indian Territory, and since February, 1897, has resided in Eddy county, save for the brief period of one year spent in ranching in North Dakota. In his political views Mr. Merchant is an earnest Democrat, and since February, 1904, has filled the office of county treasurer, in which position he is found to be prompt, methodical and reliable. He is a Mason, belonging to Carlsbad Lodge No. 21, A. F. & A. M., and in the community where he resides he has a wide and favorable social acquaintance.

W. F. Daugherity, engaged in farming, with three hundred and sixty acres of good farming land near Dayton, and also owning a half interest in a forty-acre addition to the town site, is prospering in both branches of his business. He came to the Territory in 1883 from Texas and located at Las Vegas, where he remained for a year. In 1884 he removed to Lincoln county, settling on Benito, near Fort Stanton, while in 1885 he removed to James canyon, on one of the heads of the Penasco. He was the first man to put a board roof on a house in that canyon. In 1892 he removed to Hope and built the third house in that settlement. Making his headquarters there, he had sheep over the valley and was successfully and extensively engaged in the sheep-raising industry until the fall of 1900, when he sold out. In 1901, however, he again engaged in the sheep business as a partner of George Beckett, with whom he continued until he disposed of his interests in January, 1905. In 1897 Mr. Daugherity took up his abode upon his present place near the town of Dayton and purchased the property in 1901. Since disposing of his sheep he has been engaged in farming here, having three hundred and sixty acres of cultivable land, from which he is now producing good crops. He is also interested in the Dayton town site, owning a half interest in a forty-acre addition thereto. His property is valuable and is being rapidly developed. He has great faith in the future of this country, and that his trust is well placed is indicated by the rapid rise in realty values and the substantial manner in which the work of agricultural and horticultural development and of stock-raising is being carried forward. [Source: History of New Mexico Pacific States Publishing Company, 1907 tr by GT host]

DG History

We've grown from a single wholesale store to the country's largest small-box retailer. A passionate commitment to serving our customers, employees and communities is the foundation of our growth.

How Our Story Began

James Luther (J.L.) Turner&rsquos father died in an accident in 1902 when J.L. was only 11. J.L. quit school so he could work on the family farm and help provide for his mother and siblings and never completed his education. J.L. knew his limited education demanded that he become a quick study of the world around him. After two unsuccessful attempts at retailing, J.L. became a traveling dry goods salesman for a Nashville wholesale grocer. J.L. left the sales job after 10 years and settled his family in Scottsville, Ky.

During the Depression, he began buying and liquidating bankrupt general stores. J.L.&rsquos only child, Cal Turner Sr., accompanied his father to these closeouts at a young age, gaining valuable business knowledge and skills. In October 1939, J.L. and Cal opened J.L. Turner and Son Wholesale with an initial investment of $5,000 each. Wholesaling quickly gave way to retailing &ndash J.L.&rsquos third and final attempt at retailing. The switch to retailing resulted in annual sales above $2 million by the early 1950s, and the rest is history.

The first Dollar General store opened in Springfield, Ky. on June 1, 1955, and the concept was simple &ndash no item in the store would cost more than one dollar. The idea became a huge success and other stores owned by J.L. Turner and his son Cal Turner Sr. were quickly converted. By 1957, annual sales of Dollar General&rsquos 29 stores were $5 million.
J.L. passed away in 1964. Four years later, the company he co-founded went public as Dollar General Corporation, posting annual sales of more than $40 million and net income in excess of $1.5 million. In 1977, Cal Turner Jr., who joined the company in 1965 as the third generation Turner, succeeded his father as president of Dollar General. Cal Turner Jr. led the company until his retirement in 2002. Under his leadership, the company grew to more than 6,000 stores and $6 billion in sales.

Today, the company is a leading discount retailer with more than 17,000 stores in 46 states. The company remains true to the humble ethic of hard work and friendly customer service embodied by the founding family.

The yellow Dollar General store sign is a popular symbol of value. Our convenient, everyday low prices model has survived and thrived through the decades. The company remains true to the humble ethic of hard work and friendly customer service embodied by the founding family. About a quarter of Dollar General's merchandise still sells for a dollar or less. The simplicity that defined our past is the engine that drives our success today.

Learn more about Dollar General's comprehensive history by clicking here.

History of watchmaking

After observing the natural rhythm of daylight and dark, civilisations around the world looked for ways to measure time, first with calendars then with instruments of increasing precision.

1284 to 1292


Clocks with weights, gears and regulators inspired devices, most often with no dial, that struck the important moments of community life.

In 1291, Prince Asulid of Yemen made a remarkable astrolabe.

World history

The Mongols invaded Central Asia and settled in the Russian steppe.

1291 End of the Crusades in the Holy Land.

Swiss history

1291. Foundation of the Helvetic Confederation by a perpetual pact - the "Eternal League" - between the three forest cantons or Waldstätten: Uri, Schwytz and Unterwald.

Art and Culture

In China, some 400,000 craftsmen were employed in the manufacture of luxurious porcelain, textiles and metalwork for the Emperor.

The dominant style in Central American arts and crafts was Mixteca-Puebla, with its colourful, geometric patterns.

World history

1302 . Philip the Fair convened the first Etats Généraux in France at which the three Estates were represented.

Swiss history

Fairs in Le Bourg du Four spread Geneva's fame throughout Europe.

Art and Culture

Giotto (1266-1337) began painting the frescoes in the Scrovegni Chapel in Padua, which he completed in 1305. His work expressed an awareness of volume and space that was characteristic of that era.

Construction of Siri, the second city of Delhi.


Giovanni de Dondi of Padua built his Astrarium : an astronomical clock considered to be the wonder of its age. Although the original has disappeared, a replica was made based on detailed descriptions left by its creator.

World history

Jean the Good of France died in London where he had been negotiating peace with Edward III of England. The conflict continued for a further one hundred years.

The first emperor of the Ming dynasty.

Art and Culture

Mixtec craftsmen produced goldware whose beauty and delicacy was admired throughout Central America.

Around 1410


Development of the mainspring. Combined with the fusee, this innovation made possible the truly portable domestic clock and, as components grew smaller, paved the way for the production of watches.

World history

1398. Timur (Tamerlane) conquered a large part pf northern India.

1415. Jean Hus, reformer of Bohemia, and Gerolamo da Prag were burned at the stake for their claim that it was against the morality of the Gospels for monks to possess material assets.

Swiss history

Between 1410 and 1450, goldsmiths were making enamelled jewellery in Geneva.

Art and Culture

A new style of art emerged in Italy with the early Renaissance or quattrocento, embracing classic styles and the importance of perspective.

Andrei Roublev (1360/70-ca. 1430) : master of Russian icon painting.

A flourishing period for Chinese decorative arts.

Work began on the construction of the Forbidden City.

World history

1431. Joan of Arc was burned at the stake.

1434. Gutenberg invented the printing press.

Art and Culture

1432. Jan Van Eyck completed the Ghent altarpiece, a masterful example of primitive Flemish painting.

In Mexico the Tenochtitlan temple was extended for the third time.

World history

The Aztec empire was at its height.

Constantinople fell to the Turks under Mehmed II.

Art and Culture

Construction of the Ryoanji temple in Tokyo, renowned for its rock gardens.

Botticelli (1445-1510).

Around 1492


The mechanical watch appeared simultaneously in Italy, Germany and France. Its principle remained dominant for almost five centuries, until the late 1970s and the advent of the electronic watch.

World history

Christopher Columbus discovered America

Art and Culture

Shen Zhou (1427-1509) and Wen Zhengming (1470-1559) were famed throughout China for their calligraphy.

Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519). Italian architects remodelled the Kremlin.

World history

1510 The Portuguese navigator Alfonso de Albuquerque captured Goa, 400 km south of Bombay. The city became the mainstay of Portugal's East Indian empire until it was returned to India under Nehru on December 12th, 1961.

Art and Culture

Michelangelo (1475-1564) began work on the Sistine Chapel ceiling. Work with precious metals developed using gold and silver imported from South America. Goldsmiths such as Cellini and Caradosso worked to designs by artists including Raphael, Romain and Dürer.


Watchmakers competed to produce smaller and smaller watches that could be easily carried.

In 1518, François I spent a fortune on two watches set in daggers.

World history

In North America, the fur trade developed into a major economic activity. The first Westerners arrived in China onboard a Portuguese ship.

The Ottomans conquered Syria and Egypt.

Martin Luther published his "95 theses" in which he denounced the selling of indulgences. This marked the beginning of the Reform.

Swiss history

1515. At the Battle of Marignan, near Milan, 20,000 Swiss were defeated by 30,000 French. Impressed nonetheless, François I proposed "perpetual peace" which guaranteed the Swiss their conquests south of the Alps, except for Ossola. The French were granted access to the first European mercenaries market.

From an episcopal-state, Geneva became a city-state.

World history

Henry VIII ordered the beheading of his wife, Anne Boleyn.

Swiss history

The Pays de Vaud was conquered by Bern, aided by the two Catholic cantons Fribourg and Valais, and forced to accept the Reformation.

Geneva became the main seat of Calvinism and later the capital of Protestantism.


Copernic (1473-1543) publie De Revolutionibus orbium caelestium, ouvrage qui place le soleil au centre du système solaire.

World history

Portuguese navigators became the first Europeans to touch land in Japan.

1547. Coronation of Ivan the Terrible.

Swiss history

1541. Calvin moved permanently to Geneva, which subsequently replaced Luther's Wittenberg as the spiritual capital of Protestantism and a place of refuge.

The Genevan reformer adopted a conservative view in numerous areas: he believed the Earth was the centre of the universe, and judged women "a part and accessory" of man, as Eve had been created from Adam's rib.


Frenchman Thomas Bayard became the first "orologier" (watchmaker) in Geneva, followed notably by Martin Duboule at the end of the sixteenth century.

World history

Trade in coffee brought prosperity to the Arabian peninsula.

Ambroise Paré became the first surgeon to ligate arteries prior to amputation.

Swiss history

Geneva gave refuge to Protestants from France and Italy.

Archive documents (apprenticeship contracts) attest to the presence of watchmakers in Geneva. Most were of French origin, exiled for religious reasons.

Art and Culture

Bernard Palissy (1510-1589) perfected ceramic glazing techniques and developed a style unique to the Fontainebleau School.


Goldsmiths in Calvinist Geneva were forbidden from making jewellery and objects of idolatry, hence they turned their attention to the manufacturing of watch cases instead.

World history

1558. Elizabeth I acceded to the throne. She is reputed to have worn a ring-watch with an "alarm", a small protrusion that would scratch her finger.

Art and Culture

The La Pléiade literary movement was formed around poets Ronsard and Du Bellay.

World history

The first Inquisition trials.

Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre.

Swiss history

Protestants flooded into Geneva, seeking refuge.

Art and Culture

1564. Birth of Shakespeare.


The Jesuit Matteo Ricci (1522-1610) arrived in Macao. He introduced horology to the Chinese Emperor's court.

World history

On October 15th, Pope Gregory XIII reformed the Julian calendar. It was introduced in Rome, deleting ten days for the seasons.

Art and Culture

1580. Publication of Montaigne's Essays.

Miniature painting developed in India.


Foundation of the Genevan Corporation of Watchmakers. After a minimum five-year apprenticeship, candidates for the title of master had to make "a small clock with an alarm to wear around the neck and a square clock on two levels to stand on a table."

World history

1600. Henri IV married his second wife, Marie de Médicis, daughter of the Grand Duke of Tuscany and the Archduchess of Austria. She brought with her a dowry of 600,000 ecus and the guarantee of stronger ties between France and Italy.

Swiss history

1600. After living in Geneva, Giordano Bruno was condemned for heresy and burned at the stake in Rome. He had claimed that the Sun was just another star, described the universe as "infinite", and held that life forms existed elsewhere in this universe than on Earth.

1602. The "Escalade" when Geneva repelled an attack by the Duke of Savoy.

Art and Culture

Instauration of the Grand Tour, where artists would travel through Europe, in particular to Italy, to complete their education. Gold crafting developed with the increased wearing of jewellery (enamelled medallions).

1603. Birth of Japanese Kabuki theatre.

1605. Publication by Cervantes of the first part of Don Quichotte, an immediate success.

Around 1630


The celebrated French enameller Pierre Huaud (1612-1680) was granted residency of Geneva.

Frenchman Jean Toutin invented the technique of painting on enamel for cases and dials (1632).

World history

1633. Galileo was put on trial for challenging Ptolemy's geocentric theory, and forced to retract.

1636. Japan cut off all foreign contact.

1639. All foreigners were expulsed from Japan and Christianity was banned.

Art and Culture

1624. Construction began on Château de Versailles.

1632. Construction began on the Taj Mahal in Agra (India). Birth of Jan Vermeer.

1636. Foundation of Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Around 1650


The philosopher and mathematician Blaise Pascal was reputed to wear his watch on his wrist.

World history

1644. The last emperor of the Ming dynasty committed suicide inside the Forbidden City in Peking. The new Qing dynasty would reign until 1911.

1651. Cromwell passed the Navigation Act.

Swiss history

1648. The Treaty of Westphalia brought an end to the Thirty Years' War. Basel, Schaffouse, Appenzel and St-Gall were released from imperial jurisdiction. Europe recognised Switzerland as a fully independent nation.

1652. Michée Chauderon was the last woman to be burned as a witch in Geneva.

Art and Culture

Rembrandt was at the summit of his glory when he painted his Night Watch in 1642.

Louis XIV (1638-1715): his influence on the arts would spread throughout Europe. Nikon, patriarch of the Russian Orthodox Church, laid down new architectural rules for churches, including five domes.

1656 to 1657


Continuing early work by Galileo, Christian Huygens adapted the pendulum to the clock and in doing so considerably increased its accuracy.

World history

1658. Aurangzeb became ruler of the Mughal Empire.

Swiss history

Bern and Zurich were defeated by five Catholic cantons.

Art and Culture

1656. Excommunication of Spinoza by the Amsterdam synagogue.


Christian Huygens invented the spiral balance spring for watches, thereby significantly improving their accuracy.

English watchmakers Edward Barlow (Booth), Daniel Quare and Thomas Tompion developed systems for a quarter-repeater watch.

World history

1666. Great Fire of London.

1675. Foundation of the Royal Observatory in Greenwich.

Art and Culture

1672. Isaac Newton presented his theory of colour to the Royal Society in London then demonstrated the separation of light by a prism.

1673. Molière died on stage during the fourth performance of The Imaginary Invalid.

1675. Leibniz discovered calculus, for which a theory had also been put forward by Newton.


Revocation of the Edict of Nantes by Louis XIV. As Huguenots, the majority of French watchmakers emigrated, in particular to England and Switzerland (Geneva) which stood out as the watchmaking capitals of Europe.

Swiss history

Second influx of Protestant refugees to Switzerland.

Art and Culture

In China, workshops again began to manufacture high-quality porcelain.

1687. In his major work Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy, Isaac Newton set out the principles of time, force and motion, and formulated his law of gravitation.

Haiku poems by the Japanese monk Basho.


The half-quarter repeater watch appeared in England.

Art and Culture

1694. Publication of the first dictionary of the Académie Française.


The first watch with jewels was produced by the French watchmaker de Beaufré using a drilling method invented circa 1700 by the Genevan astronomer and optician Nicolas Fatio de Duillier (1664-1752). De Beaufré worked in England, and for the next century his invention gave English watches a substantial advantage over their European rivals.

World history

1702. Revenge of the 47 Ronins in Japan.

1703. Peter the Great founded the city of Saint Petersburg on marshland in the Gulf of Finland.

Swiss history

The economy, which was generally thriving, was dominated by watchmaking and related professions.

Watches were crafted in small workshops, under a master (maître). These workshops were given the collective name of the "Fabrique". Most of them were in Saint Gervais, on the top floor of houses where there was the most natural light.

They were known as "cabinets" and their occupants sometimes referred to as "cabinotiers".

The Fabrique employed people in two main categories: master watchmakers ("maîtres horloger") and "maîtres marchand" or "établisseurs" who bought and assembled watch parts.

Art and Culture

1703. Antonio Vivaldi (1678 - 1741) was ordained as a priest, and joined the Ospedale della Pietà orphanage as a violin teacher.

Lambert History, Family Crest & Coats of Arms

The prominent surname lambert originated in France, a country which has been a dominant presence in world affairs for centuries.The earliest forms of hereditary surnames in France were the patronymic surnames, which are derived from the father's given name, and metronymic surnames, which are derived from the mother's given name.

The patronyms were derived from a variety of given names that were of many different origins. The surname Lambert is derived from a Germanic personal name composed of the elements "land", which means "land" or "homeland", and "berht", which means "illustrious". [1]

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Early Origins of the lambert family

The surname lambert was first found in Dauphiny (French: Dauphiné or Dauphiné Viennois), a former province in southeastern France, where this renowned family held a family seat since ancient times.

By the 12th century, this family was quite important in the Dauphiné and had formed seven branches. Amongst these were the branches of Lambert of Pouget, of Ozon, of Bruyère in Valentinois, of Saint-Christophe in the county of Vaud, Switzerland. Lambert gave its name to La Rochelambert or "Roche of Lambert" and in Velay, Pierre Lambert, Knight, was the Lord of la Rochelambert in 1164. From another branch of this noble family in Languedoc, Raymond and Bernard are mentioned in 1196. [2]

Eustache Lambert, born in 1618, married Marie Laurence, born in 1628, in France. They travelled together to the New World and settled in Quebec where Eustache worked as a merchant in Sainte-Marie. They remained there together until his death on 6th July 1673. [3]

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Early History of the lambert family

This web page shows only a small excerpt of our lambert research. Another 244 words (17 lines of text) covering the years 1216, 1366, 1500, 1518, 1569, 1589, 1593, 1594, 1620, 1635, 1698, 1736, 1756, 1789, 1624, 1679, 1610, 1696 and 1600 are included under the topic Early lambert History in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.

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Lambert Spelling Variations

Spelling variations of this family name include: Lambert, Lamberre, Lambere, Lambaire, Lambair, Lamberc, Lembert, Lemberre, Lembere, Lembaire, Lembair, Lemberc, Lanbert, Lanberre, Lanbere, Lanbaire, Lanbair, L'Ambert, Ambert, Lambert, Amberd, Amberde, Lamberd, Lamberde, Ambart and many more.

Early Notables of the lambert family (pre 1700)

Notable amongst the family at this time was Pierre Lambert de la Motte (1624-1679), a French bishop, founding member of the Paris Foreign Missions Society and became.
Another 27 words (2 lines of text) are included under the topic Early lambert Notables in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.

Lambert migration +

Some of the first settlers of this family name were:

Lambert Settlers in United States in the 17th Century
  • Charles Lambert, aged 23, settled in Barbados in 1635
  • Charles Lambert, who settled in Barbados in 1635
  • Charles Lambert, aged 23, who landed in Barbados in 1635 [4]
  • Richard Lambert, who landed in Salem, Massachusetts in 1637 [4]
  • Francis Lambert, who arrived in Rowley, Massachusetts in 1640 [4]
  • . (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)
Lambert Settlers in United States in the 18th Century
  • Simon Lambert, who arrived in Virginia in 1703 [4]
  • Tho Lambert, who landed in Virginia in 1704 [4]
  • William Lambert, who arrived in Virginia in 1714 [4]
  • Johanah Lambert, who arrived in Virginia in 1714 [4]
  • Jacques Lambert, aged 24, who landed in Louisiana in 1719 [4]
  • . (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)
Lambert Settlers in United States in the 19th Century
  • George Lambert, who landed in New York in 1804 [4]
  • Robert Lambert, who arrived in America in 1806 [4]
  • Anne Lambert, who landed in New York, NY in 1815 [4]
  • Juan Santiago Lambert, who landed in Puerto Rico in 1816 [4]
  • Margaret Lambert, who landed in New York, NY in 1816 [4]
  • . (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)
Lambert Settlers in United States in the 20th Century
  • Bridget Mary Lambert, who landed in Alabama in 1927 [4]
  • Mary Mechtelds Lambert, who arrived in Alabama in 1927 [4]

Lambert migration to Canada +

Some of the first settlers of this family name were:

Lambert Settlers in Canada in the 17th Century
  • Pierre Lambert, who arrived in Canada in 1663
  • Eustache Lambert, son of Eustache and Marie, who married Marie Vanneck in Contrecoeur, Quebec on 31st January 1682 [5]
Lambert Settlers in Canada in the 18th Century
  • François Lambert, son of Aubin and Elisabeth, who married Thérèse Bonhomme, daughter of Nicolas and Louise, in Saint-Foy, Quebec on㺝th August 1724 [5]
  • Aubin Lambert, son of Jean and Anne, who married Marguerite Demers, daughter of Joseph and Thérese, in Saint-Nicolas on㺏th February 1751 [5]
  • Mr. John Lambert U.E. born in New Jersey, USA who settled in Parr Town, Saint John, New Brunswick c. 1784 he served in the New Jersey Volunteers [6]
  • Corpl. Cornelius Lambert U.E. (b. 1757) born in New Jersey, USA who settled in Home District, [Niagara], Ontario c. 1786 he served in Butler's Rangers, married to Elizabeth Matthews having 9 children, he died in 1818 [6]
  • Mr. David Lambert U.E. who settled in Fredericksburgh [Greater Napanee], Ontario c. 1786 [6]
Lambert Settlers in Canada in the 19th Century
  • Francis Lambert, aged 23, who arrived in Saint John, New Brunswick in 1833 aboard the brig "Thomas Hanford" from Cork, Ireland
  • Jane Lambert, aged 21, who arrived in Saint John, New Brunswick in 1833 aboard the brig "Thomas Hanford" from Cork, Ireland
  • Patrick Lambert, aged 25, a labourer, who arrived in Saint John, New Brunswick in 1834 aboard the brig "Lady Douglas" from New Ross
  • Ms. Alice Lambert, aged 21 who immigrated to Canada, arriving at the Grosse Isle Quarantine Station in Quebec aboard the ship "Lady Flora Hastings" departing from the port of Cork, Ireland but died on Grosse Isle in July 1847 [7]
  • Miss. Mary Lambert, aged 18 who immigrated to Canada, arriving at the Grosse Isle Quarantine Station in Quebec aboard the ship "Lady Flora Hastings" departing from the port of Cork, Ireland but died on Grosse Isle in July 1847 [7]
  • . (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

Lambert migration to Australia +

Emigration to Australia followed the First Fleets of convicts, tradespeople and early settlers. Early immigrants include:

Lambert Settlers in Australia in the 19th Century
  • Mr. Alexander Lambert, (b. 1812), aged 15, British Labourer who was convicted in Surrey, England for life for attempted murder, transported aboard the "Asia" on 19th November 1827, settling in New South Wales, Australia[8]
  • Thomas Lambert, English convict from Wiltshire, who was transported aboard the "Argyle" on March 5th, 1831, settling in Van Diemen's Land, Australia[9]
  • Mr. Edward Lambert, English convict who was convicted in West Riding, Yorkshire, England for 7 years, transported aboard the "Atlas" on 27th April 1833, arriving in Tasmania ( Van Diemen's Land) [10]
  • Thomas Lambert, English convict from York, who was transported aboard the "Arab" on February 22, 1834, settling in Van Diemen's Land, Australia[11]
  • Benjamin Lambert, who arrived in Adelaide, Australia aboard the ship "Buckinghamshire" in 1839 [12]
  • . (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

Lambert migration to New Zealand +

Emigration to New Zealand followed in the footsteps of the European explorers, such as Captain Cook (1769-70): first came sealers, whalers, missionaries, and traders. By 1838, the British New Zealand Company had begun buying land from the Maori tribes, and selling it to settlers, and, after the Treaty of Waitangi in 1840, many British families set out on the arduous six month journey from Britain to Aotearoa to start a new life. Early immigrants include:

History of Vaud J. - History


Synod in the Waldensian Valleys

The Old Vine seems Dying—New Life—The Reformation—Tidings Reach the Waldenses—They Send Deputies into Germany and Switzerland to Inquire—Joy of OEcolampadius—His Admonitory Letter—Waldensian Deputies at Strasburg—The Two Churches a Wonder to each other—Martyrdom of One of the Deputies, Resolution to Call a Synod in the Valleys—Its Catholic Character—Spot where it Met—Confession of Faith framed—The Spirit of the Vaudois Revives—They Rebuild their Churches, &c.—Journey of Farel and Saunier to the Synod.

The Duke of Savoy was sincere in the promise that the Vaudois should not be disturbed, but fully to make it good was not altogether in his power. He could take care that such armies of crusaders as that which mustered under the standard of Cataneo should not invade their Valleys, but he could not guard them from the secret machinations of the priesthood. In the absence of the armed crusader, the missionary and the inquisitor assailed them. Some were seduced, others were kidnapped, and carried off to the Holy Office. To these annoyances was added the yet greater evil of a decaying piety. A desire for repose made many conform outwardly to the Romish Church. "In order to be shielded from all interruption in their journeys on business, they obtained from the priests, who were settled in the Valleys, certificates or testimonials of their being Papists" [Monastier, Hist. of the Vaudois, p. 138]. To obtain this credential it was necessary to attend the Romish chapel, to confess, to go to mass, and to have their children baptised by the priests. For this shameful and criminal dissimulation they fancied they made amends by muttering to themselves when they entered the Romish temples, "Cave of robbers, may God confound thee!" [Monastier, Hist. of the Vaudois, p. 138]. At the same time they continued to attend the preaching of the Vaudois pastors, and to submit themselves to their censures. But beyond all question the men who practised these deceits, and the Church that tolerated them, had greatly declined. That old vine seemed to be dying. A little while and it would disappear from off those mountains which it had so long covered with the shadow of its boughs.

But He who had planted it "looked down from heaven and visited it." It was now that the Reformation broke out. The river of the Water of Life was opened a second time, and began to flow through Christendom. The old and dying stock in the Alps, drinking of the celestial stream, lived anew its boughs began to be covered with blossoms and fruit as of old.

The Reformation had begun its career, and had already stirred most of the countries of Europe to their depths before tidings of the mighty change reached these secluded mountains. When at last the great news was announced, the Vaudois "were as men who dreamed." Eager to have them confirmed, and to know to what extent the yoke of Rome had been cast off by the nations of Europe, they sent forth Pastor Martin, of the valley of Lucerna, on a mission of inquiry. In 1526 he returned with the amazing intelligence that the light of the old Evangel had broken on Germany, on Switzerland, on France, and that every day was adding to the number of those who openly professed the same doctrines to which the Vaudois had borne witness from ancient times. To attest what he said, he produced the books he had received in Germany containing the views of the Reformers [Gilles, p. 30. Monastier, p. 141].

The remnant of the Vaudois on the north of the Alps also sent out men to collect information respecting that great spiritual revolution which had so surprised and gladdened them. In 1530 the Churches of Provence and Dauphine commissioned George Morel, of Merindol, and Pierre Masson, of Bergundy, to visit the Reformers of Switzerland and Germany, and bring them word touching their doctrine and manner of life. The deputies met in conference with the members of the Protestant Churches of Neuchatel, Morat, and Bern. They had also interviews with Berthold Haller and William Farel. Going on to Basle they presented to OEcolampadius, in October, 1530, a document in Latin, containing a complete account of their ecclesiastical discipline, worship, doctrine, and manners. They begged in return that EOcolampadius would say whether he approved of the order and doctrine of their Church, and if he held it to be defective, to specify in what points, and to what extent. The elder Church submitted itself to the younger.

The visit of these two pastors of this ancient Church gave unspeakable joy to the Reformer of Basle. He heard in them the voice of the primitive and apostolic Church speaking to the Christians of the sixteenth century, and bidding them welcome within the gates of the City of God. What a miracle was before him! For ages had this Church been in the fires, yet she had not been consumed. Was not this encouragement to those who were just entering into persecutions not less terrific? "We render thanks," said OEcolampadius in his letter, October 13th, 1530, to the Churches of Provence, "to our most gracious Father that he has called you into such marvellous light, during ages in which such thick darkness has covered almost the whole world under the empire of Antichrist. We love you as brethren."

But his affection for them did not blind him to their declensions, nor make him withhold those admonitions which he saw to be needed. "As we approve of many things among you," he wrote, "so there are several which we wish to see amended. We are informed that the fear of persecution has caused you to dissemble and to conceal your faith . There is no concord between Christ and Belial. You commune with unbelievers you take part in their abominable masses, in which the death and passion of Christ are blasphemed. . I know your weakness, but it becomes those who have been redeemed by the blood of Christ to be more courageous. It is better for us to die than to be overcome by temptation." It was thus that OEcolampadius, speaking in the name of the Church of the Reformation, repaid the Church of the Alps for the services she had rendered to the world in former ages. By sharp, faithful, brotherly rebuke, he sought to restore to her the purity and glory which she had lost.

Having finished with OEcolampadius, the deputies went on to Strasburg. There they had interviews with Bucer and Capito. A similar statement of their faith to the Reformers of that city drew forth similar congratulations and counsels. In the clear light of her morning the Reformation Church saw many things which had grown dim in the evening of the Vaudois Church and the Reformers willingly permitted their elder sister the benefit of their own wider views. If the men of the sixteenth century recognised the voice of primitive Christianity speaking in the Vaudois, the latter heard the voice of the Bible, or rather of God himself, speaking in the Reformers, and submitted themselves with modesty and docility to their reproofs. The last had become first.

A manifold interest belongs to the meeting of these two Churches. Each is a miracle to the other. The preservation of the Vaudois Church for so many ages, amid the fires of persecution, made her a wonder to the Church of the sixteenth century. The bringing up of the latter from the dead made her a yet greater wonder to the Church of the first century. These two Churches compare their respective beliefs: they find that their creeds are not twain, but one. They compare the sources of their knowledge: they find that they have both of them drawn their doctrine from the Word of God they are not two Churches, they are one. They are the elder and younger members of the same glorious family, the children of the same Father. What a magnificent monument of the true antiquity and genuine catholicity of Protestantism!

Only one of the two Provence deputies returned from their visit to the Reformers of Switzerland. On their way back, at Dijon, suspicion, from some cause or other, fell on Pierre Masson. He was thrown into prison, and ultimately condemned and burned. His fellow-deputy was allowed to go on his way. George Morel, bearing the answers of the Reformers, and especially the letters of OEcolampadius, happily arrived in safety in Provence.

The documents he brought with him were much canvassed. Their contents caused these two ancient Churches mingled joy and sorrow the former, however, greatly predominating. The news touching the numerous body of Christians, now appearing in many lands, so full of knowledge, and faith, and courage, was literally astounding. The confessors of the Alps thought that they were alone in the world every successive century saw their numbers thinning, and their spirit growing less resolute their ancient enemy, on the the other hand, was steadfastly widening her dominion and strengthening her sway. A little longer, they imagined, and all public faithful profession of the Gospel would cease. It was at that moment they were told that a new army of champions had arisen to maintain the old battle. This announcement explained and justified the past to them, for now they beheld the fruits of their fathers’ blood. They who had fought the battle were not to have the honour of the victory. That was reserved for combatants who had newly come into the field. They had forfeited this reward, they painfully felt, by their defections hence the regret that mingled with their joy.

They proceeded to discuss the answers that should be made to the Churches of the Protestant faith, considering especially whether they should adopt the reforms urged upon them in the communications which their deputies had brought back from the Swiss and German Reformers. The great majority of the Vaudois barbes were of opinion that they ought. A small minority, however, were opposed to this, because they thought that it did not become the new disciples to dictate to the old, or because they themselves were secretly inclined to the Roman superstitions. They went back again to the Reformers for advice and, after repeated interchange of views, it was finally resolved to convene a synod in the Valleys, at which all the questions between the two Churches might be debated, and the relations which they were to sustain towards each other in time to come, determined. If the Church of the Alps was to continue apart, as before the Reformation, she felt that she must justify her position by proving the existence of great and substantial differences in doctrine between herself and the newly-arisen Church. But if no such differences existed, she would not, and dared not, remain separate and alone she must unite with the Church of the Reformation.

It was resolved that the coming synod should be a truly oecumenical one—a general assembly of all the children of the Protestant faith. A hearty invitation was sent forth, and it was cordially and generally responded to. All the Waldensian Churches in the bosom of the Alps were represented in this synod. The Albigensian communities on the north of the chain, and the Vaudois Churches in Calabria, sent deputies to it. The Churches of French Switzerland chose William Farel and Anthony Saunier to attend it [Ruchat, tom. iii., pp. 176,557.] From even more distant lands, as Bohemia, came men to deliberate and vote in this famous convention.

The representatives assembled on the 12th of October, 1532. Two years earlier the Augsburg Confession had been given to the world, marking the culmination of the German Reformation. A year before, Zwingle had died on the field of Cappel. In France, the Reformation was beginning to be illustrated by the heroic deaths of its children. Calvin had not taken his prominent place at Geneva, but he was already enrolled under the Protestant banner. The princes of the Schmalkald League were standing at bay in the presence of Charles V. It was a critical yet glorious era in the annals of Protestantism which saw this assembly convened. It met at the town of Chamforans, in the heart of the Valley of Angrogna. There are few grander or stronger positions in all that valley than the site occupied by this little town. The approach to it was defended by the heights of Rocomaneot and La Serre, and by defiles which now contract, now widen, but are everywhere overhung by great rocks and mighty chestnut trees, behind and above which rise the taller peaks, some of them snow-clad. A little beyond La Serre is the plateau on which the town stood, overlooking the grassy bosom of the valley, which is watered by the crystal torrent, dotted by numerous chalets, and runs on for about two miles, till shut in by the steep, naked precipices of the Barricade, which, stretching from side to side of Angrogna, leaves only the long, dark chasm we have already described, as the pathway to the Pra del Tor, whose majestic mountains here rise on the sight and suggest to the traveller the idea that he is drawing nigh some city of celestial magnificence. The town of Chamforans does not now exist its only representative at this day is a solitary farmhouse.

The synod sat for six consecutive days. All the points raised in the communications received from the Protestant Churches were freely discussed by the assembled barbes and elders. Their findings were embodied in a "Short Confession of Faith," which Monastier says "may be considered as a supplement to the ancient Confession of Faith of the year 1120, which it does not contradict in any point" [Hist. of the Vaud., p. 146.] It consists of seventeen articles,** the chief of which are the Moral inability of man election to eternal life the will of God, as made known in the Bible, the only rule of duty and the doctrine of two Sacraments only, Baptism and the Lord’s Supper. [It is entitled, says Leger, "A Brief Confession of Faith made by the Pastors and Heads of the Families of the Valleys of Piedmont." "It is preserved," he adds, "with other documents in the Library of the University of Cambridge." (Hist. des Vaud., livr. i., p. 95.)]

The lamp which had been on the point of expiring began, after this synod, to burn with its former brightness. The ancient spirit of the Waldenses revived. They no longer practised these dissimulations and cowardly concealments to which they had had recourse to avoid persecution. They no longer feared to confess their faith. Henceforward they were never seen at mass, or in the Popish churches. They refused to recognise the priests of Rome as ministers of Christ, and under no circumstances would they receive any spiritual benefit or service at their hands.

Another sign ofhe new life that now animated the Vaudois was their setting about the work of rebuilding their churches. For fifty years before, public worship may be said to have ceased in their Valleys. Their churches had been razed by the persecutor, and the Vaudois feared to rebuild them lest they should draw down upon themselves a new storm of violence and blood. A cave would serve at times as a place of meeting. In more peaceful years the house of their barbe, or of some of their chief men, would be converted into a church and when the weather was fine, they would assemble on the mountain side, under the great boughs of their ancestral trees. But their old sanctuaries they dared not raise from the ruins into which the persecutor had cast them. They might say with the ancient Jews, "The holy and beautiful house in which our fathers praised Thee is burned with fire, and all our pleasant things are laid waste." but now, strengthened by the fellowship and counsels of their Protestant brethren, churches arose, and the worship of God was reinstituted. Hard by the place where the synod met, at Lorenzo, namely, was the first of these post-Reformation churches set up others speedily followed in the other valleys pastors were multiplied crowds flocked to their preaching, and not a few came from the plains of Piedmont, and from remote parts of their valleys, to drink of these living waters again flowing in their land.

Yet another token did this old Church give of the vigorous life that was now flowing in her veins. This was a translation of the Scriptures into the French tongue. At the synod, the resolution was taken to translate and print both the Old and New Testaments, and, as this was to be done at the sole charge of the Vaudois, it was considered as their gift to the Churches of the Reformation. A most appropriate and noble gift! That Book which the Waldenses had recieved from the primitive Church—which their fathers had preserved with their blood—which their barbes had laboriously transcribed and circulated—they now put into the hands of the Reformers, constituting them along with themselves the custodians of this, the ark of the world’s hopes. Robert Olivetan, a near relative of Calvin, was asked to undertake the translation, and he executed it with the help of his great kinsman, it is believed. It was printed in folio, in black letter, at Neuchatel, in the year 1535, by Pierre de Wingle, commonly called Picard. The entire expense was defrayed by the Waldenses, who collected for this object 1,500 crowns of gold, a large sum for so poor a people. Thus did the Waldensian Church emphatically proclaim, at the commencement of this new era in her existence, that the Word of God was her one sole foundation.

As has been already mentioned, a commission to attend the synod had been given by the Churches of French Switzerland to Farel and Saunier. Its fulfilment necessarily involved great toil and peril. One crosses the Alps at this day so easily, that it is difficult to conceive the toil and danger that attended the journey then. The deputies could not take the ordinary tracks across the mountains for fear of pursuit they were compelled to travel by unfrequented paths. The way often led by the edge of precipices and abysses, up steep and dangerous ascents, and across fields of frozen snow. Nor were their pursuers the only dangers they had to fear they were exposed to death from the blinding drifts and tempests of the hills. Nevertheless, they arrived in safety in the Valleys, and added by their presence and their counsels to the dignity of this the first great ecclesiastical assembly of modern times. Of this we have a somewhat remarkable proof. Three years thereafter, a Vaudois, Jean Peyrel, of Angrogna, being cast into prison, deposed on his trial that "he had kept guard for the ministers who taught the good law, who were assembled in the town of Chamforans, in the centre of Angrogna and that amongst others present there was one called Farel, who had a red beard, and a beautiful white horse and two others accompanied him, one of whom had a horse, almost black, and the other was very tall, and rather lame" [Gilles, p. 40. Monastier, p. 146].

AFNOR, 1992. Essais des eaux — Détermination de l'indice biologique global normalisé (IBGN). Association française de normalisation, Paris. 9 pp.

Aubert, J., 1984. L'atlas des Plécoptères de Suisse — Influence de la pollution. Annls Limnol. 20:17–20.

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Генеалогия и история семьи Matthee

The Gallic region of Champagne was occupied by the Romans along with most of the rest of France in the 1st century B.C. The name Matthee is believed to have originated in this area.

ANCIENT HISTORY Champagne comprised the regions of Aube, La Marne, Haute Marne, the Ardennes, and the Yonne. In the 10th century Champagne was given to the House of Vernandois which was elevated to a Duchy by Charlemagne for his son Pepin, King of Italy. Philippe August re-united the Vernandois with the French Crown in 1191. The Counts of Champagne became the Kings of Navarre, and lost much of their interest in their country. They were integrated in the Kingdom of France by the marriage of Philippe Le Bel with Jeanne de Champagne. The family name Matthee was found in 𠇌hampagne”, where the family goes back in time during the period when it was the Countship of Champaign which includes Blois and Chartres. Later known as as the Countship of Champaign Brie. The family surname grew in prominence and made important contributions to this early society. The Matthee family has been a prominent family for centuries, and held family seat with lands and manor. The family were well established in the region of Ardennes/Marne and several members of the family distinguished themselves through their contributions towards the community in which they lived and were rewarded with lands, titles and letters patent confirming their nobility. They branched into Aragon, Franche Compté, Langue D’Oc, Nuremberg and Neufchatel.

EARLY NOTABLES Notable amongst the family during this period was Jean Baptiste Mathey (1630-1696), a French architect and painter born in Dijon.

SPELLING VARIATIONS Throughout the course of history most surnames have undergone change for many reasons. Some variations in the Matthee name are, Matey, Mateu, Mathy, Mathay, Mathey, Mathei, Mattei, Mathez and Mattheybutt.

THE GREAT MIGRATIONS In the early 16th century French culture and society became the model for all Europe. In an expanding awareness of leadership, New World exploration became a challenge to all European countries. Jacques Cartier made the first of three voyages to New France in 1534. The Alps were unable to accommodate the growing population and since early times many young Swiss had to find their living abroad. Mostly the men served as mercenary soldiers in foreign armies they were renowned for their military prowess and much sought after. Those not martially inclined sought work on farms, in households and in industry.

ARRIVAL IN SOUTH AFRICA In the 143 years from 1652 to 1795 a total of 453 Swiss were recorded, not including the members of the Swiss Regiment Meuron brought to the Cape in 1783. Canton Berne which then included the Cantons of Vaud, Aargau and Jura, supplied the major portion of mercenaries for the Swiss regiments in Dutch service, and has the strongest representation amongst the Company servants, making up 36,8%. Only four Swiss successfully applied to the Company for grants of land: Alexander Blanck of Schaffhausen near Klapmuts in 1681, Jan Margra of Lutry VD near Stellenbosch in 1686, Hendrik Muller of Basel in the Franschhoek Valley in about 1691, and Abraham Matthee of Tramelan BE near Pearly Beach in 1750. Abraham Matthee may not have been a successful agriculturist. He had to supplement his income by working as a blacksmith, but he is the only one of the four whose name lives on through numerous descendants.

Watch the video: History of Sagnari Naa Yakubu Ŋɔmbɛkpalim by Bagurunaa (January 2022).