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George Bradshaw

George Bradshaw



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George Bradshaw was born in Pendleton, Lancashire in 1801. He moved to Manchester where he found work as an engraver. In 1830 Bradshaw had the task of producing maps of British canals, rivers and railways. This gave him the idea of forming a company to publish railway timetables. The first issue of Bradshaw's Monthly Railway Guide appeared in 1838. Bradshaw also published the Continental Railway Guide, the Railway Manual and the Railway Shareholders' Guide.

Bradshaw was a Quaker and was involved in several of the movement's campaigns. George Bradshaw died of cholera while visiting Oslo in 1853.


George Bradshaw - Bradshaw's Railway Timetables - Later History

Bradshaw became less necessary from 1923, when more than 100 surviving companies were "grouped" into the Big Four. This change reduced dramatically the range and number of individual timetables produced by the companies themselves. They now published a much smaller number of substantial compilations which between them covered the country. Ironically, between 1923 and 1939 three of the Big Four transferred their timetable production to Bradshaw's publisher Henry Blacklock & Co., and most of the official company timetables therefore became reprints of the relevant pages from Bradshaw. Only the Great Western Railway retained its own format.

Between the two world wars, the verb 'to Bradshaw' was a derogatory term used in the Royal Air Force to refer to pilots who could not navigate well, perhaps related to a perceived lack of ability shown by those who navigated by following railway lines.

Regrettably, the 20th century brought about no improvement to the cramped Victorian typography of the earlier issues and a certain inertia became apparent. By the 1950s Bradshaw looked distinctly old-fashioned, although the information was as good as ever.

When the railways were nationalised in 1948, five of the six British Railways Regions had followed the companies' example by using Henry Blacklock & Co to produce their own timetable books, but production was eventually moved to other publishers. This change must have reduced Henry Blacklock & Co's revenue substantially. Parts of Bradshaw began to be reset in the newer British Railways style from 1955, but modernisation of the whole volume was never completed. By 1961 a single Bradshaw cost 12s 6d (62½p), although a complete set of BR Regional timetables could be bought for 6s (30p).

The conclusion was inevitable, and the last edition, No. 1521, was dated May 1961. The Railway Magazine of that month printed a valedictory article by Charles E. Lee.

Reprints of various past Bradshaws have been produced.

Famous quotes containing the word history :

&ldquo Philosophy of science without history of science is empty history of science without philosophy of science is blind. &rdquo
&mdashImre Lakatos (1922�)

&ldquo What we call National-Socialism is the poisonous perversion of ideas which have a long history in German intellectual life. &rdquo
&mdashThomas Mann (1875�)


Over sixty years ago , the world was a very different place. Disneyland had just opened its doors to the public, Elvis appeared on the entertainment scene and immediately captured national interest, and Warner Brothers unveiled its first television studio in Burbank. Although these are often noted as the great developments of that time, perhaps someday we will discover that one of the most significant contributions began with much less fanfare. It all started in the heart of a man who strongly believed that a new technology—television—could be used to powerfully proclaim Christ’s love to the world.

That man, Pastor George Vandeman, saw his plans come to fruition when It Is Written, the first Christian television program to broadcast in color, hit the airwaves on 13 stations in the spring of 1956.

Over the next half-century, It Is Written grew exponentially. Today, years later, bold plans for evangelism and fervent prayer continue to drive the ministry. Under President John Bradshaw It Is Written is blazing a trail in four primary areas of evangelism: television, public evangelism, spiritual resources, and online.

Although many social changes have taken place since Pastor Vandeman first appeared on television, It Is Written’s message of hope through Jesus has remained the same.

Sharing Hope Around the Globe

Under Pastor Vandeman’s direction, It Is Written entered many new evangelism arenas. His live “Revelation Seminars” attracted tens of thousands of eager visitors, and the telecast entered millions of homes in numerous countries.

In 1991, Pastor Vandeman retired and Pastor Mark Finley accepted the position as the ministry’s new speaker/director. He also shared Pastor Vandeman’s vision for evangelism, and in 1995 made history with a satellite evangelistic series called NET 󈨣.

NET 󈨤 followed one year later, and whereas NET 󈨣 had targeted North America, NET 󈨤 reached the world with messages in 13 languages. It is estimated that 2,200 churches from 45 countries participated in at least one of the NETs, and more than 30,000 people were baptized at the conclusion of the meetings.

The next major It Is Written satellite effort took place from 1999 through 2001 with ACTS 2000, when the ministry covered the entire globe with multiple satellite meetings. Pastor Finley conducted a total of 10 series to a combined audience of 3 million people.

By this time, the program’s reach had expanded by leaps and bounds. Although hundreds of other Christian broadcasts had flooded the airwaves, It Is Written maintained its rank as one of the top 10 religious programs in North America, and received more than 30 awards for excellence in programming. Today, the weekly broadcast is produced in a total of 12 languages, and can be seen in nearly every country of the world.

Next step


It Is Written entered a new era in January 2005 as Pastor Shawn Boonstra became the third speaker/director. Finley, who is now a general vice president for the General Conference of the Seventh-day Adventist Church, passed the mantle to Boonstra with his blessing.

Pastor Boonstra came to the It Is Written headquarters from It Is Written Canada, where he had served as speaker/director for four years. As someone who joined the Adventist Church after attending an It Is Written evangelistic series, Pastor Boonstra passionately believes in the mission of the ministry.

The next 5 years were a whirlwind of outreach via technology and public evangelism. Pastor Boonstra’s Revelation Speaks Peace evangelistic series in cities like Phoenix, Portland, Los Angeles, India and Rome energized attendees and church members alike with the hope in Christ that is revealed through the final book of the Bible.

Today

In January 2011, Pastor John Bradshaw was named new speaker/director for It Is Written.

In May 2011, Bradshaw conducted a short series live from Las Vegas called Babylon Rising. This effort was broadcast worldwide via satellite and the Internet. Following the success of the Babylon Rising series, Bradshaw presented a month-long series called Revelation Today live from the Cashman Center in Las Vegas in January 2012. He followed this series with meetings in Paris, Dayton, Southern Mexico, Costa Rica, Prague, New York, Charlotte and more.

Other ongoing projects include Escrito Está, It Is Written’s worldwide Spanish-language outreach the weekly It Is Written television program, seen in more than 143 countries and now available on the Discovery Channel in the United States (Sundays at 7 a.m. Pacific and Eastern) Bradshaw’s weekly From the Bible radio broadcast the My Place With Jesus Bible study website for kids and the Eyes for India humanitarian project.

Please keep checking this website for the latest news about future projects. We praise the Lord for these opportunities, and invite you to partner with us in continuing to reach the world for Christ. Thank you for your support and prayers!

Short satellite series such as The Appearing, The Presence, Out of Thin Air, and NET 2006 (Revelation Speaks Peace: Unlocking the Signs) explored the topics of the second coming, the sanctuary, the creation/evolution debate and Bible prophecy. Thousands of churches participated in these events.

It Is Written’s weekly program—the longest continuously running religious program in the world—expanded even further around the world. Since its debut in Australia, It has become the #1 religious program in that country.

The ministry’s overseas projects have taken the gospel to some of the most remote places on Earth. In recent years, the team has traveled to:

• The Arctic—to deliver Inuktituk Bibles to Inuit tribes
• The Kalahari Desert—to install solar-powered water wells and solar-powered audio Bibles
• The Democratic Republic of Congo—to work among the Pygmies
• Vanuatu—to provide mosquito nets for children living in malaria-plagued villages
• India—to sponsor life-changing eye surgeries that are restoring sight
• Mongolia—to provide medical and spiritual help to the people of Ulaanbaatar
…just to name a few!


Abn397

The original Bradshaw started by George Bradshaw in Britain in 1839 lasted up to the early 1960s. The Indian Bradshaw was apparently not connected to the original one and apparently started publication in around 1868. A copy from 2003 mentions �th year of publication”.

It has its place in Indian railway history as for many years it was the only consolidated source of information for the numerous railway companies all over the country-the big and the small, the railways owned by the Indian government, princely states and private companies. Many of these companies did bring out their own timetables but they would have had limited availability and would have been almost impossible to obtain outside their areas of operation. Hence the need for all-India coverage was filled by the Bradshaw which appears to have been published by W.Newman & Co of Calcutta for most of the time.

After Independence and regrouping in the 1950s, there was a regular publication called the All-India Railway Timetable which existed at least from the mid-60s and coexisted with the Indian Bradshaw. A typical page of the old Indian Bradshaw (this one from 1951):

And this one from the official All India Time Table of 1975 (though it did not always have advertisements on the cover):

This All India timetable appeared for the last time in 1976 and was replaced by “Trains at a Glance”, often referred to as TAAG by railfans. This covered only the reasonably important routes and the reasonably important stations on them.

The 9 zones of that time used to publish their own timetables which were generally available only in their own zones (though I remember a bookstall at Delhi Jn which used to have most of the zonal timetables). Once the All India Time Table ceased to exist the only reference for train timings all over the country (including the obscure branch lines) became the Bradshaw. It continued to be useful until the mid-2000s, when it still gave detailed coverage of the entire network (although the major suburban networks were never there). Here is one of the Bradshaws of that period:

Soon the publishers stopped covering the minor routes (and thus reduced it to a badly printed clone of TAAG). By 2005 the mess of 16 zones was addressed by the appearance of 5 zonal timetables which, between them, covered all the non-suburban services running in the country. Hard-core timetable fans concentrated on acquiring these. The networks like IRFCA had messages like “Wanted South Zone TT. Will send West Zone TT in return”.

By then, the original publishers seem to have lost interest in the Bradshaw and sold (or passed on) the brand name to other parties. This changed hands at least once more. As of today, the Indian Bradshaw is still published (but has not been seen by most railfans in recent years-not even in Kolkata).

In the mean time the Thomas Cook international timetables also ceased publication, leaving foreign tourists without a convenient source of detailed information.

Even railfans in Kolkata have had to take a lot of trouble to find a copy. Apparently the number printed is quite low now. Anyway, you can see proof of its existence below (along with the contact details of the distributors):

Note the prominent typo on the back cover. Nitpickers may also add that the Kolkata Metro is the 17th zone. One can also nitpick that the Konkan Railway is counted as a zone though it is not legally a part of Indian Railways (though operationally it certainly belongs to IR).

Is the present form of the Indian Bradshaw worth buying? Sadly, no. It does not seem to contain any information which is NOT contained in Trains at a Glance and costs more (particularly as the latter can be be easily downloaded for free, and detailed information is available from a variety of official and unofficial resources on the Net). And if you prefer hard copies, the 5 zonal timetables (plus separate suburban timetables for Mumbai, Chennai and Kolkata) are still around.

Thanks to Souroshanka Maji for taking the trouble to locate a copy of this 2016 edition.


George Bradshaw - History

The Bradshaw History Page

This page lists some of the ancestors and relatives of Isabel Bradshaw Savage (Hughes) (1895-1991), a descendant of James Bradshaw, who came from Derbyshire, England to Princetown, New York in 1775.

This was originally posted on November 23, 1998. It was slightly edited in 2002 and again on August 20, 2006, based on a corrected transcription of the family Bible. Watch for further additions and corrections.

James Bradshaw 1734-1813 Elizabeth Bullick 1744-1812

We have their names and these dates from the Bradshaw family Bible, which says that they were both born in Derbyshire, England, as were the first three of their ten children. Their son James Bradshaw, Jr., is shown in the bible as being born "on ocean" in 1775, and their remaining six children as being born in Princetown, in Schenectady County, New York. An online history of Princetown says that "The Bradshaw family came over from England in 1775," and lists the Turnbull family among the early Scot families of the town. Another online history (sorry, link broken as of 8/15/2006) of Princetown cites evidence of an Indian attack on the Bradshaw farm (perhaps in support of the Tories during the Revolution) and lists James Bradshaw as one of the Overseers of the Poor elected at the first town meeting in 1798. The Schenectady County Public Library has an excellent website with more county history.

The name Bullick is not entirely clear in the family Bible it could be Bullich .

Children of James and Elizabeth Bradshaw

The family bible lists these:
(born in Derbyshire)
John (1769), Helen (1771), Elizabeth (1773)
(born "on ocean")
James (1775)
(born in Princetown, NY)
George (1776), Thomas (1778), Robert (1780-1867), Benjamin (1782), Mary (1784), Joseph (1786)

The index to the records of the Schenectady Dutch Reform Church contains this entry:
"Joseph Bradshaw, born Nov. 17, bapt. Feb. 27, 1787, son of James Bradshaw and Elizabeth Bullock."
(I have copied this from a 1962 letter from the New York State Library. The dates and the spelling of "Bullock" are clear.)

Robert Bradshaw was born July 11, 1780, and died April 17, 1867. He married Hannah, born 1785. (Source?)

Children of Robert and Hannah Bradshaw

James Bullich Bradshaw 1810-1883 (middle name Bullock elsewhere)
Andrew 1812-1844
Elizabeth 1814-1839
William 1816
Barbary Ann 1818
George 1820
Robert 1823-1859
Hannah Ann 1825-1826
Helen 1827-1828

James Bullock Bradshaw was born October 17, 1810, in Rotterdam, NY, and died June 30, 1883. He married Agnes Turnbull, who was born 1814 in Princetown, NY and died October 21, 1881. (Sources?) The Turnbulls were among the early Scot families in Princetown, NY (see above).

Children of James Bullock Bradshaw and Agnes Turnbull Bradshaw

Robert 1835-1864
George 1836
Maria 1838
Hannah 1842
Andrew 1845-1876
John 1852

Robert Bradshaw 1835-1864

Robert Bradshaw was born March 21, 1885. He married Almira A. Sniffins on July 3, 1856, at the Presbyterian Church in Schenectady, NY, and they had one child, Walter M. Bradshaw, born March 10, 1857. They lived in Princetown.

He enlisted as a Private in Company E, 121st Regiment of NY Volunteers, commanded by Col. (later Gen.) Upton, and was present with the regiment during July and August, 1863. According to a government document sent to his widow in 1864, he was killed on May 10, 1864 in the battle of Spotsylvania Court House, Virginia. A conflicting entry in the family Bible says that he died of illness on Aug. 15, 1864, in Andersonville Prison, a notorious Confederate prisoner-of-war camp in Georgia.

Links to the fascinating history of the 121st New York Volunteers, which was part of the Army of the Potomac, are maintained by the Otsego County (NY) GENWEB site. I recommend especially the Delevan Bates Civil War Letters and West Point's page honoring General Upton. These sources do not mention Robert Bradshaw, who joined the Regiment after it was formed in August, 1862. (Sorry, all three of the links in this paragraph were broken as of 8/15/2006. I'll try to correct them.)

Almira Bradshaw later married Thomas O. Dorn of Duanesburgh (Schenectady County) on April 3, 1866, in the old Dutch Reformed Church.

George Turnbull Bradshaw 1836-1917 Delia Olivia Weld (Ida Bradshaw) 1838-1904

George Turnbull Bradshaw was born in Princetown on May 12, 1836. He graduated the Jonesville Seminary in Saratoga, NY, and attended Union College in Schenectady from 1860, leaving as a Junior in November, 1863. (He is listed in Union College alumni records with the class of 1864.)

Delia Olivia Weld was born about January 1, 1838, in New York state, and lived in Wells, in Hamilton County. Her parents were William Reynald Weld (b. Oct. 11, 1806, Charleton, NY) and Sarah Elizabeth Johnson (Weld) (b. 1813, Vermont). Her family is chronicled in the 1938 book Weld Collections by Charles Frederick Robinson, and more particularly in the 1939 supplement prepared by Lincoln H. Weld, both of which are available in genealogical libraries.

The couple were married on March 15, 1863. Later records refer to Mrs. Bradshaw as "Ida" or "Ida W. Bradshaw."

George was briefly principal of Canajoharie High School (in New York). The couple moved in about 1866 to Waupun, Wisconsin (near Ripon) where George was for two years principal of the South Ward School. He then clerked for a grain firm. Their daughter Marion Bradshaw was born October 4, 1868, and their son Charles W. Bradshaw was born two years later.

In 1871, the family joined the Northwestern Colony, a group organized in Ripon to establish a settlement on the frontier. Cutler's History of Kansas (published in 1883 by Andreas) tells how the colony arrived at what was then called Fossil Station in Kansas on April 19, 1871, and how they lived in four borrowed railroad cards (there being only two small buildings in the county at the time) while they built what is now the city of Russell. By March 8, 1974, there was a Congregational Church for the Bradshaws to join. George helped to found a flour mill and a trading firm, and traveled frequently to both the east and west coasts.

(Cutler's History is maintained on the web by the Kansas Collections. For the introductory page to the history, click here. The history includes a brief biography of George T. Bradshaw).

Sometime after 1883 (and probably after their daughter's marriage in 1893) George and Ida moved to Hemet, California, where George became manager of the Hemet Milling and Power Company. Ida Bradshaw died in Hemet of a stroke on May 30, 1904 (aged 66 years, 5 months, according to the death certificate). Her death was reported in the Hemet County News on June 3.

George T. Bradshaw returned to Schenectady County in 1906. In 1909 he married Margaret Rodger of Schenectady. She died in July, 1917, and he died after a brief illness on October 28, 1917. His funeral was at the home of his brother-in-law, James Barhydt, and he was buried in Vale Cemetery.

John A. Bradshaw (b. 1852) Ada Bradshaw (b. May, 1883)

Mr. and Mrs. John A. Bradshaw joined the Congregational Church in Russell, Kansas, on June 21, 1891, and received a letter of dismissal (presumably to join another church) on May 1, 1901.

Their daughter Ada Bradshaw joined the Congregational Church on February 4, 1900. At the time of the 1900 Census she was living in Russell with the family of Marion Bradshaw Savage (George Turnbull Bradshaw's daughter). She married Frank Winslow in 1903. When he was killed in a railroad accident she moved to California, where she married William Booth and taught in the Oxnard, California schools for 29 years. She died in 1958.


Dictionary of National Biography, 1885-1900/Bradshaw, George

BRADSHAW, GEORGE (1801–1853), originator of railway guides, only son of Thomas Bradshaw, by his wife, Mary Rogers, was born at Windsor Bridge, Pendleton, Salford, on 29 July 1801. His parents taxed their limited means to give a good education to their only child by placing him under the care of Mr. Coward, a Swedenborgian minister thence he removed to a school kept by Mr. Scott at Overton, Lancashire. On leaving school he was apprenticed to Mr. J. Beale, an engraver, who had acquired some reputation by the execution of the plates of 'The Art of Penmanship Improved,' by Duncan Smith, 1817. In 1820 he accompanied his parents to Belfast, and there established himself as an engraver and printer, but, not finding adequate occupation, returned to Manchester in the following year. His attention had been for some time directed to the engraving of maps, and in 1827 he determined to devote himself more especially to that branch of art. The first map projected, engraved, and published by him was one of Lancashire, his native county. This was followed in 1830 by his map of the canals of Lancashire, Yorkshire, &c. This map eventually became one of a set of three known as 'Bradshaw's Maps of Inland Navigation.' Soon after the commencement of the railway system, Bradshaw, the originator of railway guides, produced 'Bradshaw's Railway Time Tables' in 1839, a small 18mo book, bound in cloth, price 6d. In 1840 the name was changed to 'Bradshaw's Railway Companion,' which contained more matter, with sectional maps, and was sold at 1s. It was not published periodically, but appeared ​ occasionally, and was supplemented by a monthly time-sheet. The agent in London for the sale of this work was Mr. William Jones Adams, who, it would appear, was the first to suggest the idea of a regular monthly book at a lower price, as an improvement on 'The Companion.' This idea was taken up by Bradshaw, and the result was the appearance in December 1841 of No. 1 of 'Bradshaw's Monthly Railway Guide,' in the well-known yellow wrapper, a work which has gained for itself a world-wide fame. Another undertaking was 'Bradshaw's Railway Map,' produced in 1838. Among his other publications may be mentioned 'Bradshaw's Continental Railway Guide,' printed in Manchester, but of which the first number was published in Paris in June 1847 and 'Bradshaw's General Railway Directory and Shareholder's Guide,' which first appeared in 1849.

Bradshaw when a young man joined the Society of Friends, and was an active co-adjutor of Cobden, Pease, Sturge, Scoble, Elihu Burritt, and others in holding peace conferences, in the attempts to establish an ocean penny postage, and other philanthropic labours. Part of his time he devoted to the establishment of schools for the poorer classes. Bradshaw joined the Institution of Civil Engineers as an associate in February 1842. In August 1853 he went to Norway on a tour combining business and recreation, and on 6 Sept., while on a visit to a friend in the neighbourhood of Christiania, he was seized by Asiatic cholera, and died in a few hours. He was buried in the cemetery belonging to the cathedral of Christiania.

He married, on 16 May 1839, Martha, daughter of William Darbyshire of Stretton, near Warrington, and left a son, Christopher.

[Manchester Guardian, 17 Sept. 1853, p. 7 Minutes of Proceedings of Institution of Civil Engineers (1854), xiii. 145-9 Athenæum, 27 Dec. 1873, p. 872, 17 Jan. 1874, p. 95, 24 Jan. p. 126 Notes and Queries, 6th ser., viii. 45, 92, 338, xi, 15.]


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Gilder Lehrman Collection #: GLC06452.01 Author/Creator: Bradshaw, Wesley (1837-1927) Place Written: s.l. Type: Broadside Date: circa November 1861 Pagination: 1 p. 44.6 x 23.6 cm.

Relates a dream McClellan supposedly had, in which George Washington reveals Confederate plans to him. Story claims that McClellan, shortly after taking command, had a dream where George Washington revealed to him that there was a traitor in his midst, and also showed him where all the Confederate forces were massed, which would allow him to easily win the war. This version was printed a few months after the original publication of the story. The printers are "unable to vouch for the truthfulness" of the dream, and it was most likely either apocryphal or completely fabricated by the author. Wesley Bradshaw was a pen-name for Charles Wesley Alexander (1837-1927), a Philadelphia publisher. He also used the pen name to write "George Washington's vision" a similar story about a vision Washington had during the American Revolution.

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George Bradshaw is in Windsor Bridge, Pendleton naby Salford, Lancashire gebore. Ná die voltooiing van sy skoolloopbaan het hy 'n leerjongenskap by 'n graveerder in Manchester begin en in 1820 sy eie ateljee in Belfast geopen. In 1822 het hy na Manchester teruggekeer waar hy as graveerder en drukker veral kaarte vervaardig het. [1]

Bradshaw was 'n godsdienstige man. Alhoewel sy ouers allesbehalwe welvarend was, het hulle nogtans vir hom lesse betaal by 'n predikant en aanhanger van Emanuel Swedenborg. Hy het tot die Godsdiensgenootskap van Vriende (Kwakers) toegetree en baie van sy tyd aan filantropiese werk bestee. So het hy met radikale hervormers soos Richard Cobden saamgewerk om vredeskonferensies te organiseer en skoolgeriewe en sopkombuise aan arm inwoners van Manchester te verskaf.

Volgens oorlewering het Bradshaw vanweë sy Kwakergeloof in die vroeë uitgawes van sy reisgidse nooit die maandname gebruik wat van Romeinse godhede afgelei is nie aangesien hierdie praktyk as "heidens" beskou is. Kwakers het destyds na Januarie as "eerste maand", na Februarie as "tweede maand" ensovoort verwys. Dieselfde reël is op dagname toegepas – so is Sondag gewoonlik die "eerste dag" genoem, ensovoorts.

In 1841 het hy 'n gehalte-weekblad in die lewe geroep, Bradshaw's Manchester Journal, met George Falkner as redakteur. Dit was volgens 'n destydse beskrywing "'n baie veelsydige weekblad met 16 bladsye met 'n fokus op kuns, wetenskap en literatuur wat teen 'n lae prys van 1/½ pennie per week verkoop is". Ses maande later is die weekblad se naam gewysig tot Bradshaw’s Journal: A Miscellany of Literature, Science and Art, en dit is vervolgens in Londen uitgegee. Die publikasie is reeds in 1843 gestaak. [2]

Op 15 Mei 1839 het Bradshaw in die huwelik getree. Tydens 'n reis deur Noorweë het hy in 1853 cholera opgedoen en is nog in September van dieselfde jaar daar in die ouderdom van 52 jaar oorlede nadat hy nie meer in staat was om na Engeland terug te keer nie. Bradshaw is in die begraafplaas langs die katedraal van Oslo ter ruste gelê.

Vroeë geskiedenis Wysig

Bradshaw het al bekend gestaan as uitgewer van Bradshaw's Maps of Inland Navigation ("Bradshaw se Binnelandse Navigasiekaarte") met kaarte en beskrywings van kanale in Lancashire en Yorkshire toe sy Manchester-gebaseerde uitgewery op 19 Oktober 1830, kort ná die opening van die eerste spoorweë, die wêreld se eerste spoorwegrooster gepubliseer het. Dié linnegebonde boek het onder die titel Bradshaw's Railway Time Tables and Assistant to Railway Travelling ("Bradshaw se Spoorwegroosters en Gids vir Spoorwegreise") verskyn. Die gids is verkoop teen sikspens (2½p).

In 1840 is die titel gewysig na Bradshaw's Railway Companion ("Bradshaw se Spoorweggids") en die prys verhoog tot een sjieling. Nuwe uitgawes het op onreëlmatige intervalle verskyn, terwyl bylaes met opdaterings van tyd tot tyd gepubliseer is. Die oorspronklike Bradshaw-publikasies het nog voor die beperkte invoering van die Spoorweg-standaardtyd in November 1840 en sy geleidelike ontwikkeling tot 'n algemene standaardtyd verskyn.

In Desember 1841 het Bradshaw die prys volgens 'n voorstel van sy Londense agent, William Jones Adams, weer tot die oorspronklike sikspens verlaag. Die gidse is nou maandeliks onder die titel Bradshaw's Monthly Railway Guide gepubliseer. Baie spoorwegmaatskappye was ontevrede met Bradshaw se spoorwegrooster, maar hy het dié kritiek omseil met sy besluit om self 'n aandeelhouer van spoorwegmaatskappye te word en sy saak by aandeelhouers se vergaderings te stel.

Bradshaw se spoorweggids, wat tradisioneel met 'n geel omslag verskyn het, het gaandeweg sinoniem met sy uitgewer geword. So het Victoriane en Edwardiane na enige spoorwegrooster gewoon as a Bradshaw verwys, ongeag die spoorwegmaatskappy wat dit gepubliseer het, en sonder om daarop te let of Bradshaw werklik die uitgewer daarvan was of nie.

Terwyl die 1841-uitgawe nog 'n skrale agt bladsye beslaan het, het dié van 1845 reeds 32 beslaan. Die gids het mettertyd steeds omvangryker geword en in 1898 946 bladsye beslaan, en was intussen ook voorsien van kaarte, afbeeldings en beskrywings van die belangrikste toeriste-aantreklikhede en historiese geboue in nedersettings wat deur treine bedien is. Interessant genoeg het die gids se uitgawenommer in April 1845 skielik van 40 tot 141 gespring. Volgens die uitgewer was dit net 'n onskuldige fout, maar daar was spekulasies dat die nommer weens kommersiële redes verander is. As 'n skynbaar lank gevestigde publikasie was die gids moontlik aantrekliker vir adverteerders. In elk geval het die uitgewer die fout in die volgende uitgawe nie reggemaak nie sodat dit as nommer 142 verskyn het.

Toe die satiriese tydskrif Punch in 1865 sy lof vir Bradshaw se publikasies uitgespreek het, het dit opgemerk dat "die mens se reusagtige intellek selde vir 'n werk van groter gebruikswaarde ingespan is". Een van Bradshaw se groot prestasies was om uiteindelik orde in die chaos te bring wat deur sowat 150 verskillende spoorwegmaatskappye, treinroetes dwarsdeur die land en 'n nouliks gekoördineerde netwerk geskep is. Enige wysiging is deur Bradshaw noukeurig gelys sodat die gids tot in die 20ste eeu as standaardwerk vir treinreinigers gevestig is.

In 1918 is die gids teen twee sjieling (10p) verkoop. Die prys het gestyg tot 'n halfkroon (12½p) in 1937. Alhoewel historiese geldwaardes moeilik is om te bereken, het dié prys gelykgestaan aan ruim £6.00 in huidige geldwaarde.

Latere geskiedenis Wysig

Vanaf 1923 was Bradshaw se gidse minder noodsaaklik vir treinreisigers nadat meer as 100 oorlewende spoorwegmaatskappye saamgesmelt is om die "Groot Vier" (Big Four) te vorm. Die getal spoorwegroosters, wat deur treinmaatskappye self uitgegee is, het dramaties afgeneem. Die maatskappye het nou 'n klein aantal omvattende roosters gepubliseer wat elkeen 'n deel van die land gedek het. Drie van die vier groot spoorwegmaatskappye het die produksie van hul roosters tussen 1923 en 1939 aan Bradshaw se uitgewery, Henry Blacklock & Co., oorgedra. Die meeste amptelike spoorwegroosters het sodoende as herdrukte uitgawes van die ooreenstemmende bladsye in Bradshaw-gidse verskyn. Slegs Great Western Railway het voortgegaan om hul eie formaat te publiseer.

In die tydperk tussen die twee wêreldoorloë is die werkwoord to Bradshaw in die Britse Koninklike Lugmag (Royal Air Force) as 'n neerhalende term vir vlieëniers gebruik wat nie regtig kon navigeer nie. Dié uitdrukking is moontlik gevorm om na diegene vlieëniers te verwys wat spoorweë as hul navigasielyne gebruik het.

Toe die Britse spoorweë in 1948 genasionaliseer is, het vyf van die ses nuwe British Railways-streke aanvanklik die voorbeeld van voor-oorlogse treinmaatskappye gevolg en hul spoorwegroosters deur Blacklock te laat vervaardig. Die produksie is uiteindelik aan ander uitgewers oorgedra. Hierdie besluit het Blacklock se bedryfsinkomste merkbaar laat daal. Dele van Bradshaw se gids is vanaf 1955 in British Railways (BR) se nuwer styl gepubliseer, maar die hele uitgawe se modernisering is nooit voltooi nie. In 1961 is Bradshaw se gids teen 12s 6d (62½p volgens die desimale stelsel) verkoop, in vergelyking met 6s (30p) vir 'n stel van BR se streeksroosters.

Vir Bradshaw-gidse was die einde onvermydelik. Die laaste uitgawe het as nommer 1521 in Mei 1961 verskyn. Die Britse spoorwegtydskrif The Railway Magazine het in dieselfde maand afskeidsartikel van Charles E. Lee gepubliseer. Herdrukte uitgawes van verskillende Bradshaw-gidse is sedertdien gepubliseer, insluitende e-boekuitgawes.

Bradshaw's Continental Railway Guide Wysig

In Junie 1847 het die eerste uitgawe van Bradshaw's Continental Railway Guide verskyn wat die roosters van spoorwegmaatskappye op die Europese vasteland verskaf het. Die gids het gaandeweg sterk in omvang gegroei en uiteindelik meer as 1 000 bladsye beslaan, insluitend roosters, 'n reisgids-afdeling en 'n hotelgids. Die publikasie is in 1914 met die uitbreek van die Eerste Wêreldoorlog gestaak. Ná die oorlog is dit 'n tyd lank hervat. Die laaste uitgawe het in 1939 verskyn. 'n Faksimile van die 1913-uitgawe is in September 2012 gepubliseer. Naas die gedrukte versie het ook 'n e-boek verskyn wat die volledige teks en 'n klein deel van die oorspronklike advertensies behels.

Die Britse joernalis en televisiepersoonlikheid Michael Portillo het 'n uitgawe van een van Bradshaw se gidse (veral die 1863-uitgawe van Bradshaw's Descriptive Railway Hand-Book of Great Britain and Ireland) vir sy televisiereeks Great British Railway Journeys gebruik. In hierdie dokumentêr, wat deur BBC Two vervaardig en uitgesaai is, reis hy dwarsdeur Groot-Brittanje. Die eerste seisoen van die reeks is vroeg in 2010 gebeeldsaai, die tweede vroeg in 2011 en 'n derde vroeg in 2012. 'n Vierde reeks het vroeg in 2013 gevolg.

In laat 2012 is 'n spesiale reeks, Great Continental Railway Journeys, gebeeldsaai waarin Portillo vir sy reeks van spoorwegreise deur verskillende Europese lande en gebiede gebruik maak van die 1913-uitgawe van Bradshaw's Continental Railway Guide. Dit is opgevolg deur Great American Railroad Journeys en Great Indian Railway Journeys.

Die televisiereeks het kykers se belangstelling in Bradshaw se gids gewek. In 2012 was die herdrukte uitgawe 'n tyd lank een van Amazon UK se tien blitsverkoper-boeke. [3]


Buildings (fn. 89)

In 1284 the scholars of Balliol inhabited locum quendam cum Edificiis et omnibus pertinentiis. (fn. 90) This consisted of three tenements stretching back from Broad St. on what is now the western part of the front quadrangle and Fellows' Garden. (fn. 91) It was only in the 15th and early 16th centuries that a sustained building campaign provided the college with a quadrangle round which were grouped the chapel, library, hall, and fellows' rooms. Its external appearance then was virtually the same as it was in Loggan's time, 150 years later, except that the garden behind the quadrangle had grown in size. But since 1700 almost everything has been changed. The only structural remains of buildings earlier than that date are the outside walls of the Upper Library, Lower Library (formerly the hall), and the oriel window of the Master's Lodgings. Everything else has been built or rebuilt, and some of it twice rebuilt, since 1700. The centre of the college has been shifted from 'the' quadrangle (which is now reduced to 'the front quadrangle') to the garden, round which are grouped the 19th-century hall, chapel, and common rooms.

Owing to the number of times that every part of the front quadrangle has been repaired, restored, or entirely rebuilt, it will be necessary to deal with its separate parts in turn. The chapel will be described first, and then the Upper Library, Lower Library, Master's Lodgings, and the south and east sides of the front quadrangle. The history of the garden quadrangle being less complex can then be treated as a whole.

The Chapel.

At first the scholars of Balliol had no chapel of their own but attended the parish church of St. Mary Magdalene. It was only in 1293 that they received license from Oliver, Bishop of Lincoln, to build an oratory within the bounds of their own house, since lectures and disputations left them no time to attend services in the parish church. (fn. 92) Since then three successive chapels have been built. Of the first (c. 1309–28) nothing remains. The second (1522–9) was pulled down in 1856, but the stained glass and some of its 17th-century furnishings have been preserved in the third chapel which was built by William Butterfield in 1856–7.

The first chapel was built of stone and had a leaden roof. The building had been begun by 1309, but progressed slowly since the scholars had difficulty in extracting from the executor of Hugh de Vienne (d. 1296) the whole sum of 100 marks which he had bequeathed for its erection. (fn. 93) It must have been nearing completion in 1328 when Nicholas de Quappelade, Abbot of Reading, gave £20, a glass window worth £10, and timber and lathes, for the soul of Adam le Politer, burgess of Reading. (fn. 94)

Of this chapel nothing remains. There has even been speculation as to its site. But despite the speculation, it is certain that the first chapel was on the present site, which is known to have been part of four tenements acquired by the college between 1303 and 1310. (fn. 95) The reason for our certainty is the curious manner in which the second chapel was built.

The second chapel (1522–9) was built round the outside of the first chapel. The operation was carried out in two 'campaigns'. First the college made a contract with William Eist, mason of Burford (3 April 1522), to make the south wall and three windows in it for £8, some of the stone being provided by the college. Six years later (20 Feb. 1528) a second contract was made with John Lobbens, 'mason of my Lordes wark' (i.e. Cardinal College), and William Jonsons, freemason, to make the heads of four windows on the north side of the east window, 'every window to be wrowghte with wovsers (voussoirs) and chawmerantes (chamfers, or mouldings)' for the price of 21 marks, 3s. 4d., exclusive of the carriage of stone. (fn. 96) This piecemeal operation enabled the college to use the chapel while it was being rebuilt a college meeting was held in it on 15 November 1525. (fn. 97) But some inconvenience must have been caused in the (upper) library (built c. 1478) where the East Window no longer admitted light, since it now looked into the new ante-chapel.

Both of the master-masons involved in the second chapel are well-known figures. William Eist had been one of the master-masons of Corpus Christi College in 1514–16. He seems to have died c. 1526, so the change of master-masons would have been forced on the college. His successor, John Lobbens, was Wolsey's mason for Cardinal College (1525–9). He was not the only link between the second chapel and Cardinal Wolsey. For four of the donors of stained glass windows in 1529 and 1530 were intimately associated with Wolsey.

These four donors were Richard Stubbs (Master of Balliol 1518–25), Laurence his brother who in the inscription is described simply as 'sacre theologie professoris', Thomas, subdean of York, and John Hygdon, one-time president of Magdalen. Richard Stubbs was the link that bound to Balliol the other three donors, all of whom were presidents or ex-presidents of Magdalen. Thomas, the subdean of York (1508–29), alias Thomas Knolles, was president of Magdalen from 1528 to 1536. We know that he had some connexion with Wolsey since he owed him 20s. at the time of his disgrace. (fn. 98) The man to whom he had succeeded as president was Laurence Stubbs, who had been elected in 1525 at the direct instance of Cardinal Wolsey and who had resigned in 1528 when his position had become untenable. (fn. 99) He had then been employed in the household of the Cardinal, disbursing money for his building works. But even as early as 1525 he had been handing over money from Wolsey for the building of Cardinal college to John Higdon (alias Hygdon). (fn. 100) This John Hygdon, the third of our trio, had been Stubbs's predecessor as president of Magdalen (1518–25). He had resigned that office in order to become first dean of Cardinal College, and as part of his new duties was in charge of the building works there. (fn. 101) But in 1529–30 Cardinal Wolsey was in disgrace, and his college had ceased to exist, the very site being threatened by the king. Hygdon was not then to know that in 1532 his college would be refounded and that he himself would be reappointed dean. Did he, in his despair, pass on to Balliol College glass that had been ordered for Wolsey and was no longer required ?

The style of the east window and of the Catharine window certainly suggests such a solution. For the style of the glass is very like that of James Nicholson, the king's glazier, who certainly worked for Cardinal College in 1528. (fn. 102)

The East window originally showed 12 scenes from Gethsemane to the Ascension with a lower row of 6 panels, 4 of which showed angels and 2 the donor, Laurence Stubbs, kneeling before St. Catharine. From the panels of the bottom row, two angels and the donor are missing the figures of Laurence and Richard Stubbs now in this window belong properly to the Catharine window. (fn. 103) Of the scenes one, the Deposition, is lost another, the central panel of the Crucifixion is mainly modern (fn. 104) and a third, the Arrest of Christ is badly patched. Of the remaining four, the Agony in the Garden, the Scourging, the Crowning with thorns and the Ecce Homo are taken from Dürer's engravings of the Passion (1512). James Nicholson, it may be added, was in origin a Fleming it might be expected therefore that he would have known Dürer's works.

Two of the windows given in 1530 were given by donors outside Wolsey's circle. Sir William Compton, builder of Compton Wynyates and friend of Henry VIII, was considered by Wolsey as a rival. (fn. 105) Mr. Thomas Leson was Compton's clerk and executor of his will. (fn. 106) Both these windows are now in a fragmentary state. But there is an illustration of Compton's window (drawn by O. Jewitt in 1841) showing it as it was after it had undergone restoration in the 17th century. (fn. 107)

There are several water-colours and drawings of the chapel as it was in the 19th century. Most of them are in the possession of the college, and one of the interior is reproduced here. (fn. 108) In that picture it will be seen that the chapel had been refurnished in the 17th century. The work was done partly in 1637–8 and partly in 1685–9.

In the first campaign the windows were repaired, (fn. 109) and two new windows by Abraham van Linge, showing Philip and the Eunuch and the illness of Hezekiah, were set up they were the gifts of Richard Atkyns and Peter Wentworth in 1637. Both of these windows survive, although both are now divided into two. The chapel had been repanelled in the previous year at a cost of £267, £100 of which was given by John Popham of Littlecote, formerly a fellow commoner. The pulpit and lectern belong to the same period, the latter the gift of Edward Wilson, vicar of Bampton (Oxon.), and a former fellow.

In the second campaign the chapel floor was laid with black and white marble by Thomas Wood, lapidary or stonecutter, in 1685 and 1688, at a cost of £186 16s. 10d. A new ceiling of Flanders oak was built by John Wild, joiner, in 1689 for £55 and it was painted by Daniel Webbe for £9. (fn. 110)

In 1841 a new plaster roof, imitative of a lierne vault was erected by Basevi. His design for it is in the library. (fn. 111)

In 1856 the second chapel was demolished, and in its place was built the present, or third chapel.

At first the intention was only to enlarge the chapel, so as to accommodate the whole college and at the same time provide a memorial for Dr. Jenkyns, the late Master. The architect consulted was William Butterfield, and by 3 June 1854 he had produced two alternative plans, one to extend the chapel westwards at the expense of one bay of the library, the other to extend it northwards. In either case he reckoned to accommodate 100 persons. It was suggested to him that extra accommodation could be provided more easily by throwing the ante-chapel into the chapel proper. But this Butterfield refused to do: 'I should feel so much this departure from the universal plan of a college chapel, that I should have seriously to consider whether I ought not to resign the work you have kindly entrusted to me if the arrangement were decided on by the college.' (fn. 112) When the college proposed to retain the old walls and windows 'so as to preserve the ancient appearance, raising the pitch of the roof', Butterfield replied that 'we ought I think to raise the upper part of the walls and insert some kind of clerestory in addition to raising the pitch of the roof. But by this plan we should not gain any enlargement of the area of the chapel.' In his letter of 7 November 1854, which the Master endorsed as 'acquiesced in, though not quite approved', he wrote 'I really have not the least fear of the extra height of the chapel above the library. I am sure it will give great life and effect of a good kind to the quadrangle.'

The demolition of the old chapel was begun in the Easter week of 1856. The new chapel was finished by October 1857. (fn. 113) The external colour scheme became apparent as early as 27 August 1856: 'you must not judge of that red doorway such as it now stands. There is a great plain wall of white coming above it which would have looked badly unless there had been some strong color below to give a strong and not toy like look to that arch. I have little doubt about it when finished. I like, however, to hear your views from time to time.'

Butterfield's own views were multifarious. He replanned the garden, discoursed on the virtues of yewtrees, hollies and low shrubs, and designed the 'private terrace for the Fellows with a low wall'. He lowered the floor of the passage west of the chapel by 4 or 5 in. in order to make step up into the chapel, and had a new arrangement for kneeling in chapel, the virtues of which he was willing to prove to Mr. Riddell. (fn. 114)

At first the old stained glass was put up in the chapel. Butterfield had Laurence Stubbs's east window reerected (with the addition of the new crucifixionscene), but did not like it: 'The east window looks more and more glaring as the side ones get fixed.' (fn. 115) He set to work therefore with enthusiasm to design a new window, which would not only be modelled on the 'best old glass in various places', but would also keep up 'the banded character of the walls'. 'We must', he wrote, 'have the best window which has yet been done.' (fn. 116) He made the designs himself and had the work executed by Wailes of Newcastle. To match it he had the iron screen between the ante-chapel and chapel gilded. (fn. 117)

But Butterfield's enthusiasm died with him. In 1911 his window was judged to contribute more than anything else to the 'dreariness' of the chapel, and in 1912 it was taken down and replaced by Laurence Stubbs's window. (fn. 118) The banded character of the walls was concealed with plaster. His stalls were ejected in 1937 and were sent to Duloe Church in Cornwall. The new stalls are of walnut and were designed by Walter Tapper. Even Butterfield's iron screen was thrown out it was last seen in 1940 on top of a truck-load of scrap-iron near Oxford station.

But Butterfield should be grateful that even the exterior of his chapel, which Freeman described as 'a personal injury to me and to every Trinity man' has survived. (fn. 119) For in 1912 Walter Morrison offered the college £20,000 to pull the whole chapel down and rebuild a copy (as near as was possible) of its predecessor, and the offer was at first provisionally accepted. Strachan-Davidson, the Master, was enthusiastically in favour but opposition was encountered. Many of the fellows felt that the destruction of a serviceable chapel would be a flagrant waste of money, when the college was intent on using every penny of its resources to help the admission of poor students to the university and after an appeal to all the Honorary Fellows and trustees of college trust-funds, their opinion prevailed. The college refused Walter Morrison's offer and in consequence lost the money which was given instead to the university to provide a retiring fund for professors and to promote the study of Egyptology. (fn. 120)

It is perhaps remarkable that in this great debate only one honorary fellow defended Butterfield's chapel on aesthetic grounds. He was Lord Francis Hervey, and his letter has all the enthusiasm of Butterfield himself:
My dear Master,
A boon! A boon! Spare your chapel! It is a building of great beauty, … this innocent poem in stone.

The Upper Library

The Upper Library occupies the first floor of the greater part of the north side of the library. The five west bays were built in 1431, largely at the expense of Thomas Chace, a former Master of the college and one-time chaplain of Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester. (fn. 121) The four eastern bays were built by Robert Abdy (master 1477–94), presumably to house the books bequeathed to the college by William Gray, Bishop of Ely who died in 1478. (fn. 122) But the building has suffered many subsequent alterations.

Externally, only the walls (which have been considerably refaced) and the library windows are original. The low-pitched roof and battlements are apparently the work of Wyatt (c. 1794) and replace a steeppitched roof with no parapet at all. The windows and doorways of the ground floor are all subsequent to J. C. Buckler's time and are most likely the work of either Basevi (1826) or Salvin (1853). (fn. 123) The chimney in the middle of the north side is the work of Butterfield (1857). (fn. 124)

Internally the changes are greater. The plaster vault, plaster on the walls, and bookcases are the work of Wyatt who in 1794 produced a plan and estimate 'to fit up the library with clapboard'. (fn. 125) In 1643–4 there had been eight 'formes' of books in stalls. The books were chained at least as late as 1767. (fn. 126) So far as Wyatt's plaster makes measurements possible, the dimensions of the bays were identical with those of the contemporary library of Durham College. (fn. 127)

Until 1794 there was a window in the east wall of the library. After 1522–9 this window looked into the ante-chapel. In this window was the glass showing Thomas Chace and the fellows kneeling before St. Catharine. Thomas Chace and the fellows were releaded into one of the ante-chapel windows in 1800 (and are now in the chapel) but St. Catharine 'was lost or broke to pieces in taking down'.

The glass showing Thomas Chace may indeed date from c. 1431, in which case Abdy must have moved it from a window in the west end of the library. But the rest of the library glass is work of varying dates. As it is, there are shields and tracery lights, patched with little pieces of van Linge glass. Originally every window had two coats of arms, one in each light, and round each coat of arms was a verse which rhymed with the verse in the next light. At the bottom of each light was portrayed a 'saint' sitting in a chair. Wood reported that these saints survived the Commonwealth during which they were obscured with black paint, but now only two prophets and the Virgin and child survive, set in shields. The symbols of the Passion and Trinity which also survive, should probably be numbered among Wood's 'saints'. (fn. 128)

From the inscriptions as recorded by Symonds, Wood, and Savage it is clear that the library was not glazed immediately it was built, for there are clear references to the chilliness of an unglazed library. (fn. 129) But it must not be imagined that all the persons commemorated in the windows were donors specifically to the library. Some had died before the library was begun. They were the benefactors who had made possible the whole great building campaign of the fifteenth century.

Some of them were fellows of the college. The earliest of these was Thomas Barry (1395), the latest, if correctly identified, John Burton (c. 1495). (fn. 130) The bishops commemorated are Walter Skirlaw of Durham (d. 1406), Richard Clifford of London (d. 1421), Roger Whelpdale of Carlisle (d. 1423), John Carpenter of Worcester (d. 1476), John Alcock of Rochester, Worcester, and Ely (d. 1500), and of course William Gray of Ely (d. 1478). George Neville (Archbishop of York 1465–76) was more a political figure. (fn. 131) The arms of his brother Warwick, the King-maker, are also to be found. Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, is also represented, though his interest may have been vicarious through John Patrick, his 'valette de wardrobe', and Thomas Chace who had been his chaplain. (fn. 132)

The latest benefactor to be mentioned was Thomas Harrope who left lands in the north of the county in 1522. (fn. 133) The glazing of the library, therefore, cannot have been finished before that date, some ninety years after the library had been begun.

The Lower Library and Salvin's Tower

The lower library which is on the west side of the quadrangle was originally the college hall and was converted to its present use in 1877. It is a building of four-bays with double-light Perpendicular windows. Originally it had no external parapet, and its roof had a steep pitch and was surmounted by a louvre. The south bay was originally the screens passage with doorways at its east and west ends,—the latter of which survives, now leading into the Master's Lodgings. The kitchen was south of the hall, next to Broad St. (fn. 134)

The hall would seem to have been built early in the 15th century, and was finished by 1430 at least, since Thomas Chace gave it glass windows (since destroyed) in that year. (fn. 135)

The first major alterations to the hall were probably made by Wyatt c. 1792. The pitch of the roof was lowered, and a crenellated parapet was added to increase the 'Gothick' atmosphere. The kitchens, and consequently the screens passage also, were moved from the south to the north end of the hall. (fn. 136)

By 1853 it was necessary to increase the size of the hall in order to accommodate the increased numbers of undergraduates. Accordingly the college instructed Mr. Salvin, its architect, 'to enlarge the hall by taking in the adjoining (i.e. screens) passage and to construct a new kitchen and offices partly under the Hall and partly on ground taken from the Fellows' Garden'. (fn. 137) These instructions involved the building of the present passage round the north end of the old hall, the excavation under it of the cellars that are now used as bicycle sheds, and the erection of 'Salvin's tower' at the northwest corner of the quadrangle. At the bottom of the tower were some of the kitchen offices. The room at the top of it was eventually put to use as a muniment room. (fn. 138)

Salvin's enlargement of the old hall was insufficient for the needs of the college. In 1876–7 Alfred Waterhouse built the new hall at the north end of the garden. The old hall was then put to its present use as a library. The sum of £2,049 15s. was spent on giving it a new floor and fitting it with bookcases, and on converting the kitchen offices in Salvin's tower into a set of fellow's rooms 'with special accommodation for his servants'. (fn. 139)

The Master's Lodgings

South of the Lower Library, and completing the west range of the quadrangle is a building on the first floor of which is the oriel window of the Master's Lodgings. The corbels of the oriel window have carved on them the arms of Bishop Gray of Ely (d. 1478), and it would therefore seem that this building was due to his generosity. The stonework of the window was (faithfully) renewed by Waterhouse in 1867–8, and the windows of the ground floor (which had previously been the college buttery) are entirely his work. The interior also, was completely remodelled by him, at the same time as he rebuilt the rest of the Master's Lodgings.

The South and East Ranges of the Front Quadrangle

These were entirely rebuilt by Alfred Waterhouse in 1867–8. If we look at Loggan's drawing to see the appearance of this part of the quadrangle, we see two ranges of 15th-century buildings. The east range indeed might even have been built as early as the end of the 14th century Wood described it as 'the oldest part' of the college. (fn. 140) The south range 'was not, as it seems, built till the time of Henry VII'. (fn. 141) Wood thought that he could make out the arms of Thomas Kempe, Bishop of London (1450–89), and a bell which he took to be the rebus of William Bell, (Master 1483–95).

The east part of the south front, between the gatetower and the corner next to Trinity College, and also the east range itself were rebuilt early in the 18th century. (fn. 142) They would appear to have been built as part of a grand design to rebuild the whole college in the classical manner, a design which can be seen on the University Almanack for 1742. But nothing of these classical buildings remains they were demolished by Waterhouse in 1867. The college possesses drawings, water-colours and photographs which show what they were like, and it cannot be said that they were inspiring.

Consequently, the quadrangle was a hybrid in the latter part of the 18th century and the early part of the 19th century. One corner was classical and the rest Gothic. Moreover the Gothic portion at least was in poor repair. In 1775 the fellows complained of the ruinous condition of the buildings 'not to be repaired at any expense if at all'. (fn. 143) In 1826 Mr. Hudson, the builder, was called in to inspect the buildings. But he was more optimistic, reporting of the gate-tower that 'although the parapets and cornices and mouldings are in a very decayed state, the walls are as good and substantial as when first built, and that the adjoining buildings to the west, though not in a good state of repair are likely to last fifty years and upward'. Encouraged by this report the college left the quadrangle alone and embarked on the Basevi buildings in the garden.

Fifteen years later, in December 1841, George Basevi surveyed the south front himself, and reported that 'the expense of rebuilding the front of the college from the tower inclusive to John Fisher's building' would be from £9,000 to £10,000. Although his buildings in the garden had been in the classical style, his plans for the south front were Gothic. (fn. 144) When taxed with the extravagance of this he replied that 'the cost of a house in the Italian style of architecture would not be much less than one built in plain but handsome Gothic'. (fn. 145) On 3 June 1842, the college issued an appeal for funds, and Basevi made no secret of the fact that he was to be the architect of the new South Front. Suddenly, in February 1843, the fellows rejected his design. (fn. 146) Basevi, highly indignant, considered that his professional reputation had been damaged. So indeed it may have been, for the fellows, apparently led by Frederick Oakley, were approaching Pugin. The college on 6 March 1843, 'agreed that Mr. Pugin be requested to furnish a design for a new façade towards the Broad St., but at the same time resolved that under the peculiar circumstances of the case, even if Mr. P's plan shall eventually be approved and be thought worthy of being carried into effect, he himself be not employed in the execution of the work'. (fn. 147) The peculiar circumstances were that Pugin was a Roman Catholic and on this ground, as well as from a desire to protect Basevi's reputation, the Master, Dr. Jenkyns, refused to consent to employ Mr. Pugin or any other party rebuilding the part of the college in which his house was. He would refuse to affix the college seal to any such proposal. (fn. 148) This was on 13 March. On 4 April the college decided to 'decline availing themselves' of the liberality of subscribers to the new buildings, and ordered the roofs of the south front to be repaired.

But the college retained Pugin's drawings which are still preserved in the library. They were even lent to Waterhouse when he was producing his own designs in 1866. It would seem that they influenced his design in one respect for the row of sharp gables facing Broad St. echoes the Pugin drawings. But Waterhouse himself was of a different stamp from Pugin. His letters to the Master were severely practical. He asked if the Master wished to collect the rain water from the roof of his house 'the town water is hard I believe'. Or 'The enclosed is a sketch of the fittings in a scout's room. May I ask if they would be satisfactory?' (fn. 149)

The college took an interest in the appearance of the new front. When first shown the new designs the fellows reported that they did not like the pyramidical roof of the tower, nor the dormer windows in his design, nor the staircase windows west of the tower. They also minuted that 'Mr. Waterhouse be requested to consider whether the groining of the archway under the tower may not be retained'. (fn. 150) Obviously, he must have reported that it could not be retained, but he had the grace to build the ancient bosses into the wall between Trinity and Balliol whence some have been removed to the 'cenotaph' in the Fellows' Garden.

Waterhouse started the demolition of the old work early in April 1867. His new buildings (excepting the tower) were ready for occupation by October 1868. The building contractor was W. M. Brass of London, and the total contract was for £19,994, of which the Master's House and study cost £4,704. (fn. 151) In 1870 Waterhouse produced plans for altering Fisher's building to his own particular brand of Gothic, making a complete façade. (fn. 152) But the college preferred to reface Fisher's buildings without altering the design.

Since then Waterhouse's buildings have remained substantially unaltered. Plumbing was installed in 1939, but otherwise the buildings are as baronial as when he built them.

The Garden Quadrangle

The garden quadrangle has developed over a period of two hundred years. At the end of the 17th century, as can be seen in Loggan and the Ichnographia, it was not a quadrangle at all. It had the air of appendent tenements and outhouses.

Facing Broad St., on the eastern part of the site of the present Fisher's buildings, there was an Elizabethan cottage known as 'Hammond's castle' or 'the Rat's castle'. (fn. 153) Farther north, lying behind the gardens of the houses facing St. Mary Magdalene was a long halftimbered building which was partly a 'Trencher House' and partly stables. The back gate was opposite the chancel of St. Mary Magdalene, at the south-west corner of that part of the garden known as 'the Grove'. North of it was a ball court and brew-house, and north of these was 'Caesar's lodging', on the site of the present back gate. This house had been acquired by the college in 1610 and derived its name from Henry Caesar who resided here while studying for his D.D. (fn. 154) As it was called Caesar, the building opposite it (on the east) was known as 'Pompey' which had been the residence of a Mr. Ellis who had enlarged it in 1675. (fn. 155)

The development of the garden as a quadrangle started with the erection of the Bristol Buildings, supposedly in 1714, at the south end of the west side. (fn. 156) Possibly the fellows already had ideas about making a courtyard open to the garden on the north, for such a design appeared on the University Almanack in 1742. But there is no evidence that that grandiose design was any more than an opulent dream. The college could raise new buildings only when it was given funds, and when it was given £3,000 by John Fisher in 1767, it had no premeditated schemes. The Fisher buildings were designed as an individual work by Henry Keene, who had already done work at Christ Church and Worcester College. (fn. 157)

Next were built the Basevi buildings north of the Bristol buildings in 1826–7 at a cost of £3,946. (fn. 158) The college had some trouble with Basevi. His first design included Ionic columns and pilasters, and was consequently rejected. (fn. 159) The college desired 'that the intended building be neat, plain, and substantial, it being the object of the Society to afford additional accommodation in the present great demand for admission into the college, without attempting architectural embellishment which would ill account with the situation itself and the character of the adjoining buildings'. (fn. 160)

The next building, however, was more ambitious. Mr. Salvin, the expert on medieval military architecture, was employed in 1852–3 on the range of buildings which includes the present back gate facing St. Giles and Beaumont St.—where formerly had been Caesar's Lodgings and the Master's stables. The new buildings, though Gothic, lived up to the college's traditions. They were utilitarian and contained among other things a chemistry laboratory. 'There is a sort of baldness about the building, but there is nothing positively ugly' wrote Freeman. (fn. 161) Most strikingly in accord with the college's policy was its decision to furnish the undergraduates' rooms in the building itself' with a view to adopting some mode of checking the expensive and luxurious habits of young men in the fitting up of their rooms'. (fn. 162)

Salvin's buildings did not stretch far enough south to meet Basevi's buildings (the gap between them containing, until 1912–13, only that celebrated convenience known as Periham), but the idea of a garden quadrangle was apparent when his buildings were completed, and it was but a short step to building along its north side. This was done by Alfred Waterhouse in 1875–7. He built the hall, the buildings east and west of it, and one staircase of rooms east of Salvin's buildings, incorporating the half-timbered faç of a small 17th-century house. The hall has been subsequently altered by his son, Paul Waterhouse, who panelled it and blocked up the lower part of the windows, and the kitchens were remodelled in 1948.

The last buildings of the college show a reversion to a quiet Georgian style by E. P. Warren, who built the staircase at the very north-west corner of the college (1906) and the block between Basevi's and Salvin's buildings (1912–13). The garden quadrangle was then complete on three sides, and the building of the fourth side remained, as it still remains, an exercise for visionaries.


Watch the video: Theodore George Bradshaw (August 2022).