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U.S.S. Monitor sinks

U.S.S. Monitor sinks


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On December 30, 1862, the U.S.S. Monitor sinks in a storm off Cape Hatteras, North Carolina. Just nine months earlier, the ship had been part of a revolution in naval warfare when the ironclad dueled to a standstill with the C.S.S. Virginia (Merrimack)off Hampton Roads, Virginia, in one of the most famous naval battles in American history–the first time two ironclads faced each other in a naval engagement.

READ MORE: Faces of Drowned Civil War Sailors From USS Monitor

After the famous duel, the Monitor provided gun support on the James River for George B. McClellan’s Peninsular Campaign. By December 1862, it was clear the Monitor was no longer needed in Virginia, so she was sent to Beaufort, North Carolina, to join a fleet being assembled for an attack on Charleston, South Carolina. The Monitor served well in the sheltered waters of Chesapeake Bay, but the heavy, low-slung ship was a poor craft for the open sea. The U.S.S. Rhode Island towed the ironclad around the rough waters of Cape Hatteras. Since December is a treacherous time for any ship off North Carolina, the decision to move the Monitor could be considered questionable. As the Monitor pitched and swayed in the rough seas, the caulking around the gun turret loosened and water began to leak into the hull. More leaks developed as the journey continued. High seas tossed the craft, causing the ship’s flat armor bottom to slap the water. Each roll opened more seams, and by nightfall on December 30, the Monitor was in dire straits.

The Monitor’s commander, J.P. Bankhead, signaled the Rhode Island that he wished to abandon ship. The wooden side-wheeler pulled as close as safety allowed to the stricken ironclad, and two lifeboats were lowered to retrieve the crew. Many of the sailors were rescued, but some men were terrified to venture onto the deck in such rough seas. The ironclad’s pumps stopped working and the ship sank before 16 crew members could be rescued.

Although the Monitor’s service was brief, it signaled a new era in naval combat. The Virginia’s arrival off Hampton Roads terrified the U.S. Navy, but the Monitor leveled the playing field. Both sides had ironclads, and the advantage would go to the side that could build more of them. Northern industry would win that battle for the Union.

READ MORE: When Ironclads Clashed: How Hampton Roads Changed Naval Warfare Forever


USS Tecumseh (1863)

USS Tecumseh was a Canonicus-class monitor built for the United States Navy during the American Civil War. Although intended for forthcoming operations against Confederate fortifications guarding Mobile Bay with Rear Admiral David Farragut's West Gulf Blockading Squadron, Tecumseh was temporarily assigned to the James River Flotilla in April 1864. The ship helped to plant obstacles in the river and engaged Confederate artillery batteries in June.

  • 320 ihp (240 kW)
  • 2 × Stimers fire-tube boilers
  • 1 × Propeller
  • 1 × Vibrating-lever steam engine
    : 10 in (254 mm) : 5 in (127 mm) : 1.5 in (38 mm) : 10 in (254 mm)

Tecumseh was sunk on 5 August during the Battle of Mobile Bay when she struck a mine. The ship capsized and rests upside down northwest of Fort Morgan. The Smithsonian Institution surveyed her wreck in 1967 with the intent of raising it, but ultimately decided against the project when proffered funding was withdrawn. Several other plans to raise the wreck have been made, but all have fallen through.


Contents

Conception and funding Edit

During and following the end of World War II, Arizona ' s wrecked superstructure was removed and efforts began to erect a memorial at the remaining submerged hull.

Robert Ripley, of Ripley's Believe It or Not! fame, visited Pearl Harbor in 1942. Six years later, in 1948, he did a radio broadcast from Pearl Harbor. Following that broadcast, with the help of his longtime friend Doug Storer, he got in contact with the Department of the Navy. He wrote letters to Rear Admiral J.J. Manning of the Bureau of Yards and Docks regarding his desire for a permanent memorial.

While Ripley's original idea for a memorial was disregarded due to the cost, the Navy continued with the idea of creating a memorial. The Pacific War Memorial Commission was created in 1949 to build a permanent memorial in Hawaii. Admiral Arthur W. Radford, commander of the Pacific Fleet, attached a flag pole to the main mast of the Arizona in 1950, and began a tradition of hoisting and lowering the flag. In that same year a temporary memorial was built above the remaining portion of the deckhouse. [3] Radford requested funds for a national memorial in 1951 and 1952, but was denied because of budget constraints during the Korean War.

The Navy placed the first permanent memorial, a 10-foot (3 m)-tall basalt stone and plaque, over the mid-ship deckhouse on December 7, 1955. [4] President Dwight D. Eisenhower approved the creation of a National Memorial in 1958. Enabling legislation required the memorial, budgeted at $500,000, be privately financed however, $200,000 of the memorial cost was government subsidized.

Principal contributions [5] to the memorial included:

  • $50,000 Territory of Hawaiʻi initial contribution in 1958
  • $95,000 privately raised following a 1958 This Is Your Life television segment featuring Rear Admiral (ret.) Samuel G. Fuqua, [6]Medal of Honor recipient and the senior surviving officer from the Arizona
  • $64,000 from a March 25, 1961 benefit concert by Elvis Presley, [7] which was his final live performance until 1968
  • $40,000 from the sale of plastic models of the Arizona, in a partnership between the Fleet Reserve Association and Revell Model Company
  • $150,000 from federal funds in legislation initiated by Hawaii Senator Daniel Inouye in 1961

During planning stages, the memorial's purpose was the subject of competing visions. Some were eager to keep it a tribute to the sailors of the Arizona, while others expected a dedication to all who died in the Pacific theater. [8] In the end, the legislation authorizing and funding the memorial (HR 44, 1961) declared that the Arizona would "be maintained in honor and commemoration of the members of the Armed Forces of the United States who gave their lives to their country during the attack on Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, on December 7, 1941." [9] [8]

Design Edit

The national memorial was designed by Honolulu architect Alfred Preis, who was detained at Sand Island at the start of the war as an enemy of the country, because of his Austrian birth. [10] The United States Navy specified the memorial be in the form of a bridge floating above the ship and accommodating 200 people. [ citation needed ]

The 184-foot-long (56 m) structure has two peaks at each end connected by a sag in the center of the structure. Critics initially called the design a "squashed milk carton". [11]

The architecture of the USS Arizona Memorial is explained by Preis as, "Wherein the structure sags in the center but stands strong and vigorous at the ends, expresses initial defeat and ultimate victory . The overall effect is one of serenity. Overtones of sadness have been omitted, to permit the individual to contemplate his own personal responses . his innermost feelings." [12]

Description Edit

The national memorial has three main parts: entry, assembly room, and shrine. The central assembly room features seven large open windows on either wall and ceiling, to commemorate the date of the attack. Rumor says the 21 windows symbolically represents a 21-gun salute or 21 Marines standing at eternal parade rest over the tomb of the fallen, but guides at the site will confirm this was not the architect's intention. The memorial also has an opening in the floor overlooking the sunken decks. It is from this opening that visitors can pay their respects by tossing flowers in honor of the fallen sailors. In the past, leis were tossed in the water, but because string from leis poses a hazard to sea life, leis now are placed on guardrails in front of the names of the fallen.

One of Arizona ' s three 19,585-pound (8,884 kg) anchors is displayed at the visitor center's entrance. (One of the other two is at the Arizona State Capitol in Phoenix.) One of the two ship's bells is in the visitor center. (Its twin is in the clock tower of the Student Memorial Center at the University of Arizona in Tucson.)

The shrine at the far end is a marble wall that bears the names of all those killed on Arizona, protected behind velvet ropes. To the left of the main wall is a small plaque which bears the names of thirty or so crew members who survived the 1941 sinking. Any surviving crew members of Arizona (or their families on their behalf) can have their ashes interred within the wreck by U.S. Navy divers [13]

History Edit

The USS Arizona Memorial was formally dedicated on May 30, 1962 (Memorial Day) by Texas Congressman and Chairman of Veteran Affairs Olin E. Teague and future-Governor John A. Burns.

It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on October 15, 1966. While the wreck of the Arizona was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1989, the memorial does not share this status. Rather, it is listed separately from the wreck on the National Register of Historic Places. The joint administration of the memorial by the United States Navy and the National Park Service was established on September 9, 1980.

Oil leaking from the sunken battleship can still be seen rising from the wreckage to the water's surface. This oil is sometimes referred to as "the tears of the Arizona" [14] [15] or "black tears." [16] In a National Geographic feature published in 2001, concerns were expressed that the continued deterioration of the Arizona ' s bulkheads and oil tanks from saltwater corrosion could pose a significant environmental threat from a rupture, resulting in a significant release of oil. [17] The National Park Service states it has an ongoing program that closely monitors the submerged vessel's condition.

The Park Service, as part of its Centennial Initiative celebrating its 100th anniversary in 2016, developed a "mobile park" to tour the continental United States to increase exposure of the park. The mobile park also collected oral histories of the attack on Pearl Harbor. [18] [19]

Upon the deck of the battleship USS Missouri in Tokyo Bay, the Japanese surrendered to United States General Douglas MacArthur and Admiral Chester W. Nimitz, ending World War II. In 1999, Missouri was moved to Pearl Harbor from the United States west coast and docked behind, and in line, with USS Arizona, placing it perpendicular to the USS Arizona Memorial. The pairing of the two ships became an evocative symbol of the beginning and end of the United States' participation in the war.

USS Arizona Memorial staff initially criticized the placement of Missouri, saying the large battleship would "overshadow" the Arizona Memorial. To guard against this perception, Missouri was placed well back of the Arizona Memorial, and positioned in Pearl Harbor to prevent those participating in military ceremonies on Missouri ' s aft decks from seeing the Arizona Memorial. The decision to have Missouri ' s bow face the Memorial was intended to convey that Missouri now watches over the remains of Arizona so that those interred within Arizona ' s hull may rest in peace. These measures have helped preserve the identities of the Arizona Memorial and the Missouri Memorial, thereby improving the public's perception of having Arizona and Missouri in the same harbor. [20]


Overview of Greenhouse Gases and Sources of Emissions

Key findings from the 1990-2019 U.S. Inventory include:

  • In 2019, U.S. greenhouse gas emissions totaled 6,558 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalents, or 5,769 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalents after accounting for sequestration from the land sector.
  • Emissions decreased from 2018 to 2019 by 1.7 percent (after accounting for sequestration from the land sector). This decrease was driven largely by a decrease in emissions from fossil fuel combustion resulting from a decrease in total energy use in 2019 compared to 2018 and a continued shift from coal to natural gas and renewables in the electric power sector.
  • Greenhouse gas emissions in 2019 (after accounting for sequestration from the land sector) were 13 percent below 2005 levels.

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See the Data

EPA has developed an interactive tool that provides access to data from the national greenhouse gas inventory. Visit the Greenhouse Gas Inventory Data Explorer to create customized graphs, examine trends over time, and download the data. The graphs below are examples from EPA’s Greenhouse Gas Inventory Data Explorer. Click either image to enter the tool and explore an interactive version of the graph.


The USS Monitor’s Story

This site offers an overview of the development and career of the USS Monitor from her conception by John Ericsson, through her short career as a warship of the United States Navy, to her loss off Cape Hatteras in December 1862 and her subsequent discovery and recovery.

On March 9, 1862, the Civil War battle of Hampton Roads between the ironclads USS Monitor and CSS Virginia (formerly the USS Merrimack ) heralded the beginning of a new era in naval warfare. Though indecisive, the battle marked the change from wood and sail to iron and steam.

Today, the remains of the Monitor rest on the ocean floor off North Carolina’s Outer Banks, where the ship sank in a storm on December 31, 1862. Discovered in 1973, the Monitor wreck site was designated the Monitor National Marine Sanctuary (MNMS) and is managed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The purpose of the Monitor National Marine Sanctuary is to preserve the historic record of this significant vessel and to interpret her role in shaping US naval history. Over the past several years NOAA has made extensive surveys of the wreck site and recovered a number of artifacts from the Monitor.

Diver on the USS Monitor’s wreck site, courtesy of NOAA

A statue of John Ericsson, the Monitor’s inventor, in Battery Park, New York City, with a Monitor model in hand


Monitor, USS

The USS Monitor, lying in 230 feet of water off Cape Hatteras, is probably the most famous victim of the infamous "Graveyard of the Atlantic" off the North Carolina coast. The Monitor was the third Union ironclad approved for construction during the Civil War and the first to be completed for the Union navy. The two previously contracted ironclads were comparable to the growing number of European ironclads. Swedish designer John Ericsson's Monitor, however, was unlike any previous warship. The Monitor was a 776-ton vessel measuring 172 feet long and 41 feet in beam. The freeboard of the ship was just over 1 foot, so even in a light sea its deck was awash. The ship was well protected, with the entire upper portion of its hull encased in iron armor. Amidships, a short cylindrical tower 20 feet in diameter housed the Monitor's two guns. Steam power enabled the turret to rotate 360°, allowing the guns to be trained in any direction without maneuvering the ship. The wall of the turret was 8 inches thick, composed of 8 layers of 1-inch-thick iron plate. Designed by Rear Adm. John Dahlgren, the guns were 11-inch smoothbores.

On 6 Mar. 1862 the Monitor left New York Harbor for Hampton Roads, Va., towed by the tug Seth Low and accompanied by two escort ships. There, the new Rebel ironclad Virginia (converted from the old USS Merrimack) was expected to make its first appearance in a strike at Union blockaders. The trip to Hampton Roads became dangerous for the Monitor when, on 7 March, it encountered a squall that sent waves crashing through air vents on the deck and over the smokestack, nearly drowning the boiler fires. Only fair weather the next day saved the ship from foundering. That night the Monitor steamed into Hampton Roads, only to find a Union naval disaster.

The CSS Virginia had left Norfolk on 8 March to meet the Federal fleet. The wooden Union ships were thoroughly outmatched. The armored Virginia had rammed and sunk the USS Cumberland and destroyed the USS Congress with gunfire. The USS Minnesota, only lightly damaged, had run hard aground during the battle and would be helpless if the Virginia returned. Capt. John Worden anchored his Monitor near the Minnesota to protect it and awaited the reappearance of the Confederate ironclad.

Early on 9 Mar. 1862 the 270-foot, well-armed Virginia approached the still-stranded Minnesota and the strange-looking ship guarding it. At first the Virginia ignored the new Union vessel, concentrating fire on the Minnesota, but then the Monitor opened fire with its two big guns. For several hours the two ironclads pounded each other. The more maneuverable and lighter draft Monitor circled its opponent, constantly rotating the turret to protect the guns except when ready to fire-thus managing to withstand intense enemy shelling. Conversely, the Monitor failed to damage the Virginia. Eventually the two ships broke off the fight, each believing the other had withdrawn first.

Two months later, Confederate forces abandoned Norfolk and scuttled the Virginia, which enabled the Union fleet to operate up the York and James Rivers. In mid-May the Monitor participated in its final engagement, battling southern shore defenses at Drewry's Bluff. In the fall of 1862 it was overhauled in Washington and at the end of December headed south to participate in an attack on the defenses of Charleston, S.C. Under tow by the USS Rhode Island, the two vessels ran into foul weather off Cape Hatteras. The stormy seas proved too much for the ironclad, as rushing water eventually drowned the boiler fires and cut off power to the engines and pumps. The Rhode Island was able to rescue many of the sailors, but on 31 Dec. 1862 the Monitor sank, taking 16 of its crew to the bottom of the sea.

In August 1973 an expedition sponsored by the National Science Foundation and the National Geographic Society located the remains of the Monitor, whose identification was confirmed in May 1974. On 30 Jan. 1975 the site became the nation's first National Marine Sanctuary, to be administered by the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The Monitor was in an advanced state of deterioration, and NOAA instituted a stabilization and recovery program for the wreck. In August 2002 the Monitor's 235-ton gun turret was recovered and installed at the Mariners' Museum in a conservation tank on full public display. It joined hundreds of other Monitor artifacts, including the steam engine, propeller, condenser, propeller shaft, and engine room floor. But the hull of the vessel remains upside down 16 miles southeast of Cape Hatteras.

George E. Bass, ed., Ships and Shipwrecks of the Americas: A History Based on Underwater Archaeology (1988).

William C. Davis, Duel between the First Ironclads (1975).

Gordon P. Watts Jr., Investigating the Remains of the USS Monitor: A Final Report on 1979 Site Testing in the Monitor National Marine Sanctuary (1982).

Additional Resources:

"Monitor National Marine Sanctuary." Office of National Marine Sanctuaries, National Ocean Service. http://monitor.noaa.gov/ (accessed October 2, 2012).

"Nova Online: Lincoln's Secret Weapon." PBS. 2000. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/monitor/ (accessed October 2, 2012).

"USS Monitor (1862-1862) - Selected Views." Naval History and Heritage Command. http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/sh-usn/usnsh-m/monitor.htm (accessed October 2, 2012).

USS Monitor Center Blog (blog). The Mariner's Museum. http://www.marinersmuseum.org/blogs/ussmonitorcenter/ (accessed October 2, 2012).

USS Monitor 150th Anniversary. Office of National Marine Sanctuaries, National Ocean Service. 2012. http://monitor.noaa.gov/150th/ (accessed October 2, 2012).

Hunt, James B. "An Executive Order Creating the USS Monitor Technical Advisory Committee." March 31, 1978. Session laws and resolutions passed by the 1977 General Assembly at its Second Session 1978. Winston-Salem, N.C.: Hunter Publishing Company. 1978. p. 262-266. http://digital.ncdcr.gov/u?/p249901coll22,307692 (accessed October 2, 2012).

"An Act to Appropriate Funds to Continue North Carolina's Involvement in Research at the Site of the USS Monitor." Session laws and resolutions passed by the 1979 General Assembly at its First Session. Winston-Salem, N.C.: Hunter Publishing Company. 1979. p.1336. http://digital.ncdcr.gov/u?/p249901coll22,389364 (accessed October 2, 2012).

Watts, Gordon P. Investigating the remains of the U.S.S. Monitor: a final report on 1979 site testing in the Monitor National Marine Sanctuary. N.C. Dept. of Cultural Resources. 1982? http://digital.ncdcr.gov/u?/p249901coll22,394489 (accessed October 2, 2012).

Peterkin, Ernest W. Drawings of the U.S.S. Monitor: a catalog and technical analysis. N.C. Dept. of Cultural Resources. 1985. http://digital.ncdcr.gov/u?/p249901coll22,396769 (accessed October 2, 2012).

Image Credits:

An illustration from the 24 Jan. 1863 issue of Harper's Weekly showing crewmen being rescued from the ironclad Monitor as it sinks in a storm off Cape Hatteras in December 1862. North Carolina Collection, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Library.


Why is the USS Monitor famous?

Civil War ironclad USS Monitor sank off Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, during a storm on December 31, 1862. Discovered in 1973, the wreck site became out nation’s first national marine sanctuary on January 30, 1975. Image courtesy of NOAA. Download image (jpg, 92 KB).

Designed by Swedish-American engineer John Ericsson, when it was constructed, the USS Monitor represented a radical departure from traditional warship design. This Union vessel was powered by steam alone and was the first American warship with no masts and sails. With barely more than one foot of her deck visible, all machinery, storage, working, and berthing areas were below the water line.

The vessel was constructed almost exclusively of iron and was heavily armored. A five-foot high, six-inch thick armor belt encircled the vessel at the water line for protection during battle. Perhaps the ship's most novel feature was its revolving turret. Located near the middle of the ship, it was 9 feet high, 22 feet in diameter, and housed two 11-inch Dahlgren smoothbore cannon.

The Monitor was launched from Continental Iron Works, Greenpoint, Long Island (New York City) on January 30, 1862. Less than two months later, she encountered the larger and more heavily armed Confederate ironclad, Virginia, in the infamous Battle of Hampton Roads. While neither ship suffered much damage during the battle, their fight marked the first time iron ships clashed in naval warfare and signaled the end of the era of wooden warships.

Shortly after midnight on December 31, 1862, while being towed by the USS Rhode Island to Beaufort, North Carolina, the Monitor sank in a gale off Cape Hatteras. Its final resting place was designated as the nation’s first national marine sanctuary in 1975.

On January 30, 1975, NOAA designated the wreck of the USS Monitor as the nation's first national marine sanctuary. Fifty years later, Monitor National Marine Sanctuary continues to protect this famed Civil War ironclad.


U.S.S. Monitor Sailors’ Remains to Be Buried With Honors

The Civil War sailors perished in an 1862 storm after making military history.

Members of a Virginia family whose ancestors fought against each other in the American Civil War will be among the thousands to gather Friday in Arlington, Virginia, for somber ceremonies honoring sailors lost when one of history's most innovative warships, the U.S.S. Monitor, sank in 1862.

The observance will include a funeral service for two unknown sailors who died when the Monitor went down off the coast of North Carolina. The sailors' remains, recovered when part of the iconic warship was raised in 2002, will be buried with full military honors in Arlington National Cemetery.

The Monitor was the U.S. Navy's first ironclad warship, marking a turning point in military history.

Michael Luchs, an assistant professor at The College of William and Mary in Williamsburg, Virginia, who will attend the ceremony with his three sons, said the realization that he is descended from brothers who were on opposing sides during the bloody conflict makes him feel "more wholly American."

Luchs's ancestor, James Bryan of Savannah, Georgia, served in the Confederate Army. James Bryan's brother, William Bryan, was a crewman aboard the Monitor.

William Bryan was one of 16 sailors lost when the ship sank on December 31, 1862.

Luchs recalled hearing his mother talk about his family's involvement in the Civil War when he was a child. "I'm feeling a whole bunch of different emotions, and sadness is one of them," Luchs said.

Luchs's son Matthew, a fourth grader in Williamsburg, said that it's "strange to know that brothers fought each other" in the Civil War. "I'd like to know some of the reasons, find out why they fought each other."

The Monitor's 63-member crew reflected the melting pot of immigrants and cultures that had found their way to the United States by the mid-19th century. The crew included sailors born in Wales and Scotland, as well as African-Americans who were former slaves.

Noel Day, a landscape designer who lives in Long Beach, California, is descended from Daniel Moore, a former slave on a plantation in Prince William County, Virginia. Moore was one of two African-American sailors lost when the Monitor sank.

Day can't attend the Friday ceremony but says he's glad the unknown sailors are being buried with honors.

"I am very happy that we have a closure for these men," he said. "The remains of the two men that have been found represent all sailors that died that night. This is a way of honoring all 16 of them."

Day also is glad that the presence of African-American sailors on the Monitor has been recognized. "I think it's been overlooked for so long," he said. "I grew up learning about the Monitor in school, and I had no idea there were African-Americans on board."

When the war began in April 1861, Union military leaders were uncertain about allowing African-American men to serve in the Army and Navy. But as more former slaves fled from the South and sought to join the fight against the Confederacy, Union leaders warmed to the idea.

In July 1861, Secretary of the Navy Gideon Welles opened the Navy to African-American men, and the number of blacks in the military grew as the war progressed.

The ceremony honoring the Monitor crew is being held on the 151st anniversary of the Battle of Hampton Roads. That epic naval slugfest, fought on March 8 and 9, 1862, marked history's first battle between ironclad warships.

The meeting technically was a draw, since both the Monitor and its Confederate opponent, the ironclad C.S.S. Virginia, were still afloat after hours of pounding each other with heavy cannon fire.

Still, the Monitor prevented the Virginia from breaking the Union naval blockade, which was seriously hampering the Confederacy's ability to wage war. Had the Monitor failed to stop the Virginia, the blockade would have been broken and the course of the war could have been changed.

The Monitor was the creation of Swedish-born inventor John Ericsson. The ship was crammed with cutting-edge 19th-century technology, including a rotating turret housing the ship's two powerful guns and a cleverly designed steam engine that could operate in the cramped quarters of the small warship.

The ship also rode very low in the water, earning the nickname "cheese-box on a raft" because of its unusual appearance.

Union military leaders knew in late 1861 that the Confederate Navy was building a powerful ironclad in Norfolk, Virginia. The Monitor was rushed to completion at Brooklyn Navy Yard and sailed for Hampton Roads in early March 1862.

Shortly after nightfall on March 8, the Monitor arrived at Hampton Roads, where the Virginia had destroyed two wooden Union warships before withdrawing because of darkness and the falling tide. When the Virginia returned the following morning, intent on destroying the rest of the Union fleet, the Monitor confronted the Confederate warship, forever changing the course of naval warfare.

Unable to destroy the Monitor, the Virginia returned to Norfolk. Confederates destroyed the ironclad a few months later to prevent its capture by Union forces.

The Monitor remained at Hampton Roads until December 1862, when Union commanders decided to move it to Beaufort, North Carolina. But the Monitor and the U.S.S. Rhode Island, which was towing the ironclad, were caught in a winter storm off Cape Hatteras on December 30.

The Rhode Island rescued 47 members of the Monitor's crew, but 16 unlucky sailors couldn't get out before the Monitor was swamped and sank in the early morning hours of New Year's Eve.

Although the Monitor's service career was brief, its impact was permanent. Soon after Hampton Roads, the world's navies were building warships of iron and steel.

Michael Luchs's son Andrew, a seventh grader in Williamsburg, has seen a full-size replica of the Monitor at the Mariners' Museum in Newport News, where the Monitor's turret, engine, and other artifacts are undergoing a painstaking conservation process. He thinks the Monitor's innovative design "looks like some stealth craft made today."

"I thought it almost looks modern," Andrew Luchs said. "Whoever came up with this is pretty imaginative.'"

Part of the Monitor's wreckage still lies on the ocean floor, where it settled a century and a half ago. Howard Lowell, a credit union officer in Freeport, Maine, who's descended from Monitor commander John Worden, wonders if more Monitor artifacts could be recovered.

"I hope the burial of the remains sparks more interest in the Monitor," Lowell said. "An assessment of the wreckage ought to be made. If any remaining parts of the ship should be saved, then we need to move forward and raise funds and get it done."

The burial has sparked new interest in Matthew Luchs, the fourth grader. "As I get older," he said, "I might like to do research about the Monitor and the Civil War and other things that happened."


List of available metrics providers

Metrics used by Spark are of multiple types: gauge, counter, histogram, meter and timer, see Dropwizard library documentation for details. The following list of components and metrics reports the name and some details about the available metrics, grouped per component instance and source namespace. The most common time of metrics used in Spark instrumentation are gauges and counters. Counters can be recognized as they have the .count suffix. Timers, meters and histograms are annotated in the list, the rest of the list elements are metrics of type gauge. The large majority of metrics are active as soon as their parent component instance is configured, some metrics require also to be enabled via an additional configuration parameter, the details are reported in the list.

Component instance = Driver

This is the component with the largest amount of instrumented metrics

  • namespace=BlockManager
    • disk.diskSpaceUsed_MB
    • memory.maxMem_MB
    • memory.maxOffHeapMem_MB
    • memory.maxOnHeapMem_MB
    • memory.memUsed_MB
    • memory.offHeapMemUsed_MB
    • memory.onHeapMemUsed_MB
    • memory.remainingMem_MB
    • memory.remainingOffHeapMem_MB
    • memory.remainingOnHeapMem_MB
    • note: these metrics are conditional to a configuration parameter: spark.metrics.staticSources.enabled (default is true)
    • fileCacheHits.count
    • filesDiscovered.count
    • hiveClientCalls.count
    • parallelListingJobCount.count
    • partitionsFetched.count
    • note: these metrics are conditional to a configuration parameter: spark.metrics.staticSources.enabled (default is true)
    • compilationTime (histogram)
    • generatedClassSize (histogram)
    • generatedMethodSize (histogram)
    • sourceCodeSize (histogram)
    • job.activeJobs
    • job.allJobs
    • messageProcessingTime (timer)
    • stage.failedStages
    • stage.runningStages
    • stage.waitingStages
    • listenerProcessingTime.org.apache.spark.HeartbeatReceiver (timer)
    • listenerProcessingTime.org.apache.spark.scheduler.EventLoggingListener (timer)
    • listenerProcessingTime.org.apache.spark.status.AppStatusListener (timer)
    • numEventsPosted.count
    • queue.appStatus.listenerProcessingTime (timer)
    • queue.appStatus.numDroppedEvents.count
    • queue.appStatus.size
    • queue.eventLog.listenerProcessingTime (timer)
    • queue.eventLog.numDroppedEvents.count
    • queue.eventLog.size
    • queue.executorManagement.listenerProcessingTime (timer)
    • note: Introduced in Spark 3.0. Conditional to a configuration parameter:
      spark.metrics.appStatusSource.enabled (default is false)
    • stages.failedStages.count
    • stages.skippedStages.count
    • stages.completedStages.count
    • tasks.blackListedExecutors.count // deprecated use excludedExecutors instead
    • tasks.excludedExecutors.count
    • tasks.completedTasks.count
    • tasks.failedTasks.count
    • tasks.killedTasks.count
    • tasks.skippedTasks.count
    • tasks.unblackListedExecutors.count // deprecated use unexcludedExecutors instead
    • tasks.unexcludedExecutors.count
    • jobs.succeededJobs
    • jobs.failedJobs
    • jobDuration
    • note: User-configurable sources to attach accumulators to metric system
    • DoubleAccumulatorSource
    • LongAccumulatorSource
    • note: This applies to Spark Structured Streaming only. Conditional to a configuration parameter: spark.sql.streaming.metricsEnabled=true (default is false)
    • eventTime-watermark
    • inputRate-total
    • latency
    • processingRate-total
    • states-rowsTotal
    • states-usedBytes
    • jvmCpuTime
    • note: These metrics are available in the driver in local mode only.
    • A full list of available metrics in this namespace can be found in the corresponding entry for the Executor component instance.
    • note: these metrics are conditional to a configuration parameter: spark.metrics.executorMetricsSource.enabled (default is true)
    • This source contains memory-related metrics. A full list of available metrics in this namespace can be found in the corresponding entry for the Executor component instance.
    • Optional namespace(s). Metrics in this namespace are defined by user-supplied code, and configured using the Spark plugin API. See “Advanced Instrumentation” below for how to load custom plugins into Spark.

    Component instance = Executor

    These metrics are exposed by Spark executors.

    • namespace=executor (metrics are of type counter or gauge)
      • notes:
        • spark.executor.metrics.fileSystemSchemes (default: file,hdfs ) determines the exposed file system metrics.
        • notes:
          • These metrics are conditional to a configuration parameter: spark.metrics.executorMetricsSource.enabled (default value is true)
          • ExecutorMetrics are updated as part of heartbeat processes scheduled for the executors and for the driver at regular intervals: spark.executor.heartbeatInterval (default value is 10 seconds)
          • An optional faster polling mechanism is available for executor memory metrics, it can be activated by setting a polling interval (in milliseconds) using the configuration parameter spark.executor.metrics.pollingInterval
          • ProcessTreeJVMVMemory
          • ProcessTreeJVMRSSMemory
          • ProcessTreePythonVMemory
          • ProcessTreePythonRSSMemory
          • ProcessTreeOtherVMemory
          • ProcessTreeOtherRSSMemory
          • note: “ProcessTree” metrics are collected only under certain conditions. The conditions are the logical AND of the following: /proc filesystem exists, spark.executor.processTreeMetrics.enabled=true . “ProcessTree” metrics report 0 when those conditions are not met.
          • jvmCpuTime
          • shuffle-client.usedDirectMemory
          • shuffle-client.usedHeapMemory
          • shuffle-server.usedDirectMemory
          • shuffle-server.usedHeapMemory
          • note: these metrics are conditional to a configuration parameter: spark.metrics.staticSources.enabled (default is true)
          • fileCacheHits.count
          • filesDiscovered.count
          • hiveClientCalls.count
          • parallelListingJobCount.count
          • partitionsFetched.count
          • note: these metrics are conditional to a configuration parameter: spark.metrics.staticSources.enabled (default is true)
          • compilationTime (histogram)
          • generatedClassSize (histogram)
          • generatedMethodSize (histogram)
          • sourceCodeSize (histogram)
          • Optional namespace(s). Metrics in this namespace are defined by user-supplied code, and configured using the Spark plugin API. See “Advanced Instrumentation” below for how to load custom plugins into Spark.

          Source = JVM Source

          • Activate this source by setting the relevant metrics.properties file entry or the configuration parameter: spark.metrics.conf.*.source.jvm.class=org.apache.spark.metrics.source.JvmSource
          • These metrics are conditional to a configuration parameter: spark.metrics.staticSources.enabled (default is true)
          • This source is available for driver and executor instances and is also available for other instances.
          • This source provides information on JVM metrics using the Dropwizard/Codahale Metric Sets for JVM instrumentation and in particular the metric sets BufferPoolMetricSet, GarbageCollectorMetricSet and MemoryUsageGaugeSet.

          Component instance = applicationMaster

          Note: applies when running on YARN

          • numContainersPendingAllocate
          • numExecutorsFailed
          • numExecutorsRunning
          • numLocalityAwareTasks
          • numReleasedContainers

          Component instance = mesos_cluster

          Note: applies when running on mesos

          Component instance = master

          Note: applies when running in Spark standalone as master

          Component instance = ApplicationSource

          Note: applies when running in Spark standalone as master

          Component instance = worker

          Note: applies when running in Spark standalone as worker

          Component instance = shuffleService

          Note: applies to the shuffle service

          • blockTransferRateBytes (meter)
          • numActiveConnections.count
          • numRegisteredConnections.count
          • numCaughtExceptions.count
          • openBlockRequestLatencyMillis (histogram)
          • registerExecutorRequestLatencyMillis (histogram)
          • registeredExecutorsSize
          • shuffle-server.usedDirectMemory
          • shuffle-server.usedHeapMemory

          U.S.S. Monitor sinks - HISTORY

          In one of the most famous naval battles in history the Union Monitor defeated the Confederate Virginia. It was the first battle between two steel navy ships and marked the end of the wood based navy.

          When the Confederates seized the navy base at Norfolk they came into possession of the hull of the frigate USS Merrimack. They raised the hull and outfitted it with thick steel plate surrounding it. They thus created the first ironclad. Word that the south was creating a ship that might threaten the union blockade fleet soon reached the North. In August Congress forced the Union navies hand when it enacted a law directing the building of three ironclads. John Ericsson reluctantly submitted a bid for a radical design. It was a lightly armored small craft that was highly maneuverable, and had a heavily armored turret that could fire in any direction.

          On March 8th the CSS Virginia was ready to sail. It steamed out of Norfolk harbor and headed for the Union blockade fleet at the mouth of the James at Hampton Roads. Five Union ship were waiting there. The Virginia headed for the first the Cumberland, shelled her and then rammed her sending the ship to the bottom. She then turned to the Congress, who was helpless against her onslaught. All the while the shells of the Union ships bounced harmlessly off the Virginia. Next on her list was the Minnesota, which had run aground. However, the Virginia's draft was too deep to allow her to close on the Virginia. The Virginia retired for the night planning to finish off the Union fleet in the morning.

          The next morning when the Virginia returned to finish its handiwork, it was surprised to discover a new strange vessel near the Minnesota. A crewman from the Virginia recounted- "we though at first it was a raft on which one of the Minnesota's boilers was being taken to shore for repairs". That raft soon came out and fired on the Merrimack. Hour after hour the two ships slugged it out, neither side achieving a decisive advantage. Finally both ships withdrew. The day had ended in a draw. It was however a strategic victory of the Union, as its fleet had been saved and the Virginia was bottled up in the James River. The day of the wooden navy was over.


          Watch the video: USS Monitor Warship. Timewatch. BBC Studios (May 2022).


Comments:

  1. Raley

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  2. Nezilkree

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