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U.S. Casualties in Operation Iraqi FreedomJune 2005 - History

U.S. Casualties in Operation Iraqi FreedomJune 2005 - History



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Monthly SummariesReferences77Total Casualties#Service MemberAgeDateUnitDetails1SFC Virgil R. Case3701 June 2005Army National Guard's 145th Support Bn, 116th Brigade Combat Team, TF LibertyDied of a non-battle-related injury at about 6:40 a.m. June 1 in Kirkuk2Spc. Phillip C. Edmundson2201 June 20051st Bn, 9th Infantry, 2nd Infantry Division, assigned to 2nd MARDIV, II MEF (Forward)Killed in action when anIED detonated near the vehicle in which he was traveling. His unit was conducting combat operations near Ar Ramadi / DoD Release: IED detonated near his Bradley Fighting Vehicle3Pfc. Louis E. Niedermeier2001 June 20052nd Bn, 17th Field Artillery, 2nd BCT, 2nd Infantry Division, assigned to 2nd MARDIV, II MEF (Forward)Died June 1 from enemy small-arms fire received while conducting combat operations near Ar Ramadi, Iraq.4Cpl. Antonio Mendoza2103 June 20055th Bn, 11th Marine, 1st MARDIV, I MEFDoD Release: Died June 3 at Brook Army Medical Center, San Antonio, from wounds received as a result of an explosion while conducting combat operations against enemy forces in Ar Ramadi, Iraq, on Feb. 225Ms. Linda J. Villar4103 June 2005Department of the Army Civilian working for U.S. Army Field SupportDoD Release: Died June 3 in Baghdad, Iraq, from injuries sustained when a mortar struck her forward operating base6Spc. Carrie L. French1905 June 2005Army National Guard's 145th Support Bn, TF LibertyDied of wounds suffered when an IED detonated near a vehicle patrol in Kirkuk Province at about 4 p.m., June 5 / DoD Release: IED hit the front of her convoy vehicle and detonated7Col. Theodore S. Westhusing4405 June 2005Multi-national Security Transition Command-Iraq, assigned to the United States Military Academy, West Point, N.Y.Died of non-combat related injuries June 5 at Camp Dublin near the Baghdad International Airport8Staff Sgt. Justin L. Vasquez2605 June 20053rd Squadron, 3rd Armored Cavalry RegimentDoD Release: Died on June 5 in Baghdad, Iraq, when an IED detonated near their military vehicle9Spc. Eric J. Poelman2105 June 20053rd Squadron, 3rd Armored Cavalry RegimentDoD Release: Died on June 5 in Baghdad, Iraq, when an IED detonated near their military vehicle10Pfc. Brian S. Ulbrich2305 June 20053rd Squadron, 3rd Armored Cavalry RegimentDoD Release: Died on June 5 in Baghdad, Iraq, when an IED detonated near their military vehicle11Lance Cpl. Jonathan L. Smith2206 June 20052nd Assault Amphibian Bn, Regimental Combat Team-8, 2nd MARDIV, II MEF (Forward)Died June 6 from wounds sustained when an IED detonated near his vehicle. The incident took place during combat operations June 5, near Fallujah12Lance Cpl. Robert T. Mininger2106 June 20053rd Battalion, 8th Marine, Regimental Combat Team-8, 2nd MARDIV, II MEF (Forward)Killed in action June 6 when an IED detonated near the vehicle in which he was traveling. The incident took place near Fallujah, Iraq13Spc. Brian M. Romines2006 June 2005Army National Guard's 2nd Bn, 123rd Field ArtilleryDoD Release: Died June 6 in Baghdad, Iraq, where an IED detonated near his HMMWV14Lt. Col. Terrence K. Crowe4407 June 2005Army Reserve's 10th Bn, 98th Regiment, 4th BDE, 98th DivisionDoD Release: Died June 7 in Tal Afar, Iraq, when his unit was attacked by enemy forces using RPGs and small arms fire15Spc. Eric T. Burri2107 June 2005623rd Quartermaster Company, 1st COSCOMDied when an IED detonated near the vehicle the Soldier was traveling in during a combat logistics patrol north of Baghdad at approximately 10:30 p.m. June 716Capt. Phillip T. Esposito3007 June 2005HHC, 42nd Infantry Division, TF LibertyKilled during an indirect fire attack on a Coalition Forces base in Tikrit at about 10 p.m., on June 7 / DoD Release: Died on June 8 in Tikrit, Iraq, of injuries sustained on June 7, when an explosion of unknown origin occurred near their location / MNC-Iraq opened a criminal investigation into incident at FOB Danger171st Lt. Allen3407 June 2005HHC, 42nd Infantry Division, TF LibertyKilled during an indirect fire attack on a Coalition Forces base in Tikrit at about 10 p.m., on June 7 / DoD Release: Died on June 8 in Tikrit, Iraq, of injuries sustained on June 7, when an explosion of unknown origin occurred near their location / MNC-Iraq opened a criminal investigation into incident at FOB Danger181st Lt. Michael J. Fasnacht2508 June 20051st Bn, 15th Infantry, 3rd BDE, 3rd Infantry Division, TF LibertyKilled when an IED detonated near a vehicle patrol near Ad Dwar in Salah Ad Din Province at about 12:00 p.m. on June 8 / DoD Release: Died June 8 in Tikrit, Iraq, when an IED detonated near his Bradley Fighting Vehicle19Lance Cpl. Marc L. Tucker2408 June 20059th Engineer Support Bn, 3rd FSSG, III MEF, assigned to 2nd FSSG, II MEF (Forward)Killed a vehicle accident near the town of Hit, June 8 / DoD Release: Died as a result of a non-hostile vehicle accident in Asr Uranium, Iraq20Pfc. Douglas E. Kashmer2708 June 2005Army's 70th Transportation CompanyDoD Release: Died June 8 in Nippur, Iraq, when the wrecker in which he was a passenger was involved in a non-combat related rollover21Staff Sgt. Mark O. Edwards4009 June 2005Army National Guard's 2nd Squadron, 278th Armored Cavalry Regiment, TF LibertyDied of a non-battle injury at about 6:40 a.m., June 9 near Tuz / DoD Release: Died at his FOB near Tuz, Iraq, from a non-combat related cause22Sgt. Roberto Arizola, Jr.3108 June 2005297th Military Intelligence Bn, 513th Military Intelligence BDEDoD Release: Died June 8 in Baghdad, Iraq, when an IED detonated near his HMMWV23Lance Cpl. Thomas O. Keeling2309 June 2005Marine Forces Reserve’s 3rd Bn, 25th Marine, 4th MARDIVKilled in action June 9, when their vehicle hit an explosive device while conducting combat operations near Haqlaniyah, Iraq / DoD Release: Died while conducting combat operations with 2nd MARDIV, II MEF (Forward)24Lance Cpl. Devon P. Seymour2109 June 2005Marine Forces Reserve’s 3rd Bn, 25th Marine, 4th MARDIVKilled in action June 9, when their vehicle hit an explosive device while conducting combat operations near Haqlaniyah, Iraq / DoD Release: Died while conducting combat operations with 2nd MARDIV, II MEF (Forward)25Cpl. Brad D. Squires2609 June 2005Marine Forces Reserve’s 3rd Bn, 25th Marine, 4th MARDIVKilled in action June 9, when their vehicle hit an explosive device while conducting combat operations near Haqlaniyah, Iraq / DoD Release: Died while conducting combat operations with 2nd MARDIV, II MEF (Forward)26Lance Cpl. Dustin V. Birch2209 June 2005Marine Forces Reserve’s 4th Tank Bn, 4th MARDIVKilled in action June 9, when their vehicle hit an explosive device while conducting combat operations near Haqlaniyah, Iraq / DoD Release: Died while conducting combat operations with 2nd MARDIV, II MEF (Forward)27Lance Cpl. Daniel Chavez2009 June 20051st Tank Bn, 1st MARDIV, I MEFKilled in action June 9, when their vehicle hit an explosive device while conducting combat operations near Haqlaniyah, Iraq / DoD Release: Died while conducting combat operations with 2nd MARDIV, II MEF (Forward)28Sgt. David J. Murray2309 June 2005Army National Guard's 1088th Engineering BnDoD Release: Died June 9 in Baghdad, Iraq, when an IED detonated near his military vehicle29Lance Cpl. Mario A. Castillo2010 June 20052nd Combat Engineer Bn, 2nd MARDIV, II MEF/ Initial release mentioned Regimental Combat Team-8, 2nd MARDIV, II MEF (Forward)Killed June 10 when an IED detonated near their vehicle during combat operations near Saqlawiyah, Iraq30Lance Cpl. Andrew J. Kilpela2210 June 20052nd Combat Engineer Bn, 2nd MARDIV, II MEF/ Initial release mentioned Regimental Combat Team-8, 2nd MARDIV, II MEF (Forward)Killed June 10 when an IED detonated near their vehicle during combat operations near Saqlawiyah, Iraq31Spc. Casey Byers2211 June 2005Army National Guard's 224th Engineer Battalion, assigned to 2nd MARDIV, II MEF (Forward)Killed June 11 when their vehicle struck an IED during combat operations about 18 miles southwest of Taqaddum, Iraq32Sgt. 1st Class Neil A. Prince3511 June 20052nd Bn, 17th Field Artillery, 2nd BDE, 2nd Infantry Division, assigned to 2nd MARDIV, II MEF (Forward)Killed June 11 when their vehicle struck an IED during combat operations about 18 miles southwest of Taqaddum, Iraq33Sgt. Larry R. Arnold Sr.4611 June 2005Army National Guard's 150th Combat Engineer Bn, 155th BCT, II MEF (Forward)Killed June 11 when an IED detonated near vehicle during combat operations about 12 miles southeast of Al Amiriyah, Iraq / DoD Release: Died on June 11 in Owesat Village, Iraq, when their APC was hit by an IED34Spc. Terrance D. Lee Sr.2511 June 2005Army National Guard's 150th Combat Engineer Bn, 155th BCT, II MEF (Forward)Killed June 11 when an IED detonated near vehicle during combat operations about 12 miles southeast of Al Amiriyah, Iraq / DoD Release: Died on June 11 in Owesat Village, Iraq, when their APC was hit by an IED35Cpl. Stanley J. Lapinski3511 June 20053rd Bn, 7th Infantry, 3rd Infantry DivisionDoD Release: Died June 11 in Baghdad, Iraq, when an improvised explosive device detonated near his military vehicle36Lance Cpl. John J. Mattek Jr.
Second DoD Release2413 June 20052nd Light Armored Reconnaissance Bn, Regimental Combat Team-2, 2nd MARDIV, II MEFDoD Release: Died June 13 from wounds received as a result of an explosion while conducting combat operations against enemy forces in Al Anbar Province, Iraq, on June 837Sgt. Kuhns Jr.2413 June 20052nd Bn, 17th Field Artillery, 2nd BDE, 2nd Infantry Division, assigned to 2nd BCT, 2nd MARDIV, II MEF (Forward)Killed in action June 13 when their vehicle was struck by an explosive device during combat operations near Ramadi, Iraq / DoD Release: Military vehicle came under a grenade attack38Spc. Anthony D. Kinslow2113 June 20052nd Bn, 17th Field Artillery, 2nd BDE, 2nd Infantry Division, assigned to 2nd BCT, 2nd MARDIV, II MEF (Forward)Killed in action June 13 when their vehicle was struck by an explosive device during combat operations near Ramadi, Iraq / DoD Release: Military vehicle came under a grenade attack39Pfc. Michael R. Hayes2914 June 2005Army National Guard’s 617th MP Company, serving with the 18th MP BrigadeKilled by an RPG while on patrol in Baghdad June 14 / DOD Release: RPG hit his HMMWV while he was providing security cordon for an IED found earlier40Pfc. Joshua P. Klinger2114 June 20051st Bn, 6th Marine assigned to Regimental Combat Team-8, 2nd MARDIV, II MEF (Forward)Killed June 14 by an improvised explosive device. The incident took place during combat operations near Fallujah, Iraq41Pfc. Nathan B. Clemons2014 June 20052nd Light Armored Reconnaissance Bn, Regimental Combat Team 2, 2nd MARDIV, II MEF (Forward)Died June 14 from wounds sustained when an IED detonated near his vehicle during combat operations near Ar Rutbah, Iraq42Sgt. Anthony G. Jones2514 June 2005104th Transportation Company, 36th Engineer Group, 3rd Infantry Division (Mechanized)DoD Release: Died June 14 in Baghdad, Iraq, where an IED detonated near his military vehicle43Lance Cpl. Chad B. Maynard1915 June 20051st Bn, 5th Marine, 1st MARDIV, I MEF, but for OIF operating with the 2nd BCT, 2nd Infantry Division, attached to 2nd MARDIV, II MEF (Forward)Killed in action June 15 when their vehicle hit an IED during combat operations near Ar Ramadi, Iraq44Lance Cpl. Jonathan R. Flores1815 June 20051st Bn, 5th Marine, 1st MARDIV, I MEF, but for OIF operating with the 2nd BCT, 2nd Infantry Division, attached to 2nd MARDIV, II MEF (Forward)Killed in action June 15 when their vehicle hit an IED during combat operations near Ar Ramadi, Iraq45Cpl. Jesse Jaime2215 June 20051st Bn, 5th Marine, 1st MARDIV, I MEF, but for OIF operating with the 2nd BCT, 2nd Infantry Division, attached to 2nd MARDIV, II MEF (Forward)Killed in action June 15 when their vehicle hit an IED during combat operations near Ar Ramadi, Iraq46Cpl. Tyler S. Trovillion2315 June 20051st Bn, 5th Marine, 1st MARDIV, I MEF, but for OIF operating with the 2nd BCT, 2nd Infantry Division, attached to 2nd MARDIV, II MEF (Forward)Killed in action June 15 when their vehicle hit an IED during combat operations near Ar Ramadi, Iraq47Lance Cpl. Dion M. Whitley2115 June 2005Marine assigned to 2nd MARDIV, II MEF (Forward)Killed in action June 15 when their vehicle hit an IED during combat operations near Ar Ramadi, Iraq48Petty Officer 2nd Class Cesar O. Baez3715 June 2005Hospital Corpsman assigned to 2nd MARDIV, II MEF (Forward)Died June 15 from wounds received from enemy small-arms fire during combat operations in Ar Ramadi, Iraq49Lance Cpl. Erik R. Heldt2616 June 20051st Bn, 5th Marine, 1st MARDIV, I MEF, but for OIF operating with the 2nd BCT, 2nd Infantry Division, attached to 2nd MARDIV, II MEF (Forward)Killed in action June 16 when their vehicle hit an IED during combat operations near Ar Ramadi, Iraq50Capt. John W. Maloney3616 June 20051st Bn, 5th Marine, 1st MARDIV, I MEF, but for OIF operating with the 2nd BCT, 2nd Infantry Division, attached to 2nd MARDIV, II MEF (Forward)Killed in action June 16 when their vehicle hit an IED during combat operations near Ar Ramadi, Iraq511st Lt. Noah Harris2317 June 20052nd Bon, 69th Armor, 3rd BDE, 3rd Infantry Division, TF LibertyKilled during an engagement, near Buhritz in Diyala Province about 11:30 p.m., June 17 / DoD Release: Died on June 18 in Baqubah, Iraq, from injuries sustained on June 17 in Buritz, Iraq, when they were conducting a mounted patrol and their HMMWV was attacked by enemy forces using RPGs52Cpl. William A. Long2617 June 20052nd Bon, 69th Armor, 3rd BDE, 3rd Infantry Division, TF LibertyKilled during an engagement, near Buhritz in Diyala Province about 11:30 p.m., June 17 / DoD Release: Died on June 18 in Baqubah, Iraq, from injuries sustained on June 17 in Buritz, Iraq, when they were conducting a mounted patrol and their HMMWV was attacked by enemy forces using RPGs53Master Sgt. Robert M. Horrigan4017 June 2005Headquarters, U.S. Army Special Operations CommandDoD Release: Died on June 17 in Al Qaim, Iraq, while conducting combat operations54Master Sgt. Michael L. McNulty3617 June 2005Headquarters, U.S. Army Special Operations CommandDoD Release: Died on June 17 in Al Qaim, Iraq, while conducting combat operations55Lance Cpl. Adam J. Crumpler1918 June 20053rd Bn, 2nd Marine, 2nd MARDIV, II MEFKilled in action June 18 by small-arms fire during Operation Spear, a combat operation in Karabilah, Iraq56Pfc. Christopher R. Kilpatrick1820 June 2005603rd Transportation Company, 142nd Corps Support Bn, Warrior Brigade, 1st COSCOMKilled as a result of wounds sustained from an IED attack while conducting a combat logistics patrol northeast of Tall Afar June 20 / DoD Release: During convoy operations, enemy forces attacked his HMMWV with an IED and small arms fire57Sgt. James D. Stewart2921 June 200557th Transportation Company, 10th Mountain Division, attached to 1st COSCOMKilled as a result of wounds sustained from an IED attack while conducting a combat logistics patrol west of Ar Rutbah June 21 / DoD Release: IED detonated near his military cargo truck58Spc. Nicholas R. Idalski2321 June 20051st Bn, 9th Infantry, 2nd BCT, 2nd Infantry Division attached to 2nd MARDIV, II MEF (Forward)Killed in action June 21 by small-arms fire during combat operations near Ar Ramadi, Iraq / DoD Release: His unit was conducting combat operations and was attacked by enemy forces using small arms fire59Spc. Christopher L. Hoskins2121 June 20051st Bn, 9th Infantry, 2nd BCT, 2nd Infantry Division attached to 2nd MARDIV, II MEF (Forward)Killed in action June 21 by small-arms fire during combat operations near Ar Ramadi, Iraq60Spc. Brian A. Vaughn2321 June 20051st Bn, 9th Infantry, 2nd BCT, 2nd Infantry Division attached to 2nd MARDIV, II MEF (Forward)Killed in action June 21 by small-arms fire during combat operations near Ar Ramadi, Iraq61Sgt. Arnold Duplantier II2622 June 2005Army National Guard's 1st Bn, 184th InfantryDoD Release: Died June 22 in Baghdad, Iraq, where he was providing cordon security, and was attacked by enemy forces using small arms fire62Sgt. Joseph M. Tackett2223 June 2005Army National Guard's 1st Bn, 76th Field Artillery, 4th BCT, 3rd Infantry DivisionDoD Release: Died June 23 in Baghdad, Iraq, of a non-combat related injury63Lance Cpl. Holly A. Charette2123 June 2005Headquarters Battalion, 2nd MARDIV, II MEFKilled by a suicide VBIED when convoy came under attack June 23 in Falluja / DoD Relase: Died from wounds sustained when a suicide VBIED struck her vehicle64Cpl. Ramona M. Valdez2023 June 2005Headquarters Battalion, 2nd MARDIV, II MEFKilled by small arms fire immediately after attack by a suicide VBIED June 23 in Falluja / DoD Release: Died June 23 while traveling in a convoy that was attacked by a suicide VBIED in Fallujah, Iraq65Pfc. Veashna Muy2023 June 20058th Marine Regiment, 2nd MARDIV, II MEF (Forward)Killed during suicide VBIED and small arms fire attack June 23 in Fallujah66Cpl. Chad W. Powell2223 June 20058th Marine Regiment, 2nd MARDIV, II MEF (Forward)Killed during suicide VBIED and small arms fire attack June 23 in Fallujah67Petty Officer 1st Class Regina R. Clark4323 June 2005Navy culinary specialist deployed with Naval Construction Regiment Detachment 30, temporarily assigned to II MEF (Forward)Previously listed as Duty Status Whereabouts Unknown; killed while in a convoy that was attacked by a suicide VBIED and small arms fire the night of June 23 in Fallujah68Cpl. Carlos Pineda2324 June 20058th Marine Regiment, 2nd MARDIV, II MEFPreviously listed as Duty Status Whereabouts Unknown; killed while in a convoy that was attacked by a suicide VBIED and small arms fire the night of June 23 in Fallujah / DoD Release: Died June 24 as a result of wounds sustained from enemy small-arms fire while conducting combat operations in Falluhah, Iraq69Sgt. 1st Class Christopher W. Phelps3923 June 20053rd Squadron, 3rd Armored Cavalry RegimentDoD Release: Died June 23 in Baghdad, Iraq, when an IED detonated near his HMMWV70Spc. Charles A. Kaufman2026 June 2005Army National Guard's 1st Battalion, 128th Infantry, TF LibertyKilled by an IED in Baghdad June 26 / DoD Release: VBIED detonated near his HMMWV71Chief Warrant Officer Keith R. Mariotti3927 June 20053rd Bn, 3rd Aviation, 3rd Infantry Division, TF BaghdadKilled around 11 a.m. June 27 when their AH-64 Apache helicopter crashed northwest of Baghdad / DoD Release: Died near Taji, Iraq, where their AH-64D Apache helicopter crashed72Chief Warrant Officer Steven E. Shepard3027 June 20053rd Bn, 3rd Aviation, 3rd Infantry Division, TF BaghdadKilled around 11 a.m. June 27 when their AH-64 Apache helicopter crashed northwest of Baghdad / DoD Release: Died near Taji, Iraq, where their AH-64D Apache helicopter crashed732nd Lt. Matthew S. Coutu2327 June 200564th MP Company, 720th MP Bn, 89th MP Brigade, TF BaghdadDied June 27 from wounds sustained during a small-arms fire attack in central Baghdad around 10:15 a.m. His unit was assisting Iraqi Police at the scene of a vehicle fire when it came under attack from terrorists / DoD Release: Enemy forces engaged his convoy with small arms fire74Spc. Robert E. Hall Jr.3028 June 2005Army Reserve's 467th Engineer Bn, TF LibertyKilled when a suicide VBIED detonated near a Coalition Forces base near Balad at about 11:40 a.m. June 28 / DoD Release: Died June 28 in Ad Dujayl, Iraq, when a VBIED detonated near his dismounted position at the gate of his FOB75Sgt. Manny Hornedo2728 June 2005Army National Guard's 1569th Transportation Company, TF LibertyKilled when a suicide VBIED detonated near a combat patrol west of Tikrit at about 4:15 p.m. June 2876Spc. Rafael A. Carrillo2128 June 20051st Ban, 64th Armor, 3rd Infantry DivisionDoD Release: Died June 28 in Baghdad, Iraq, where an enemy mortar detonated near his HMMWV77Sgt. Chad M. Mercer2530 June 2005Army National Guard's 2nd Bn, 121st InfantryDoD Release: Died June 30 in Baghdad, Iraq, where his M2A2 BFV rolled over while conducting combat operations

2005 in Iraq

January 6 – Seven national guards killed when IED strikes Bradley fighting vehicle.

  • January 21 – A suicide car bomb blows up outside a Shi'ite mosque in Baghdad killing 14 worshipers and wounding 40.
  • January 26 – Thirty-one U.S.Marines are killed in a helicopter crash near the Jordan border.
  • January 27 – Iraq's expatriates start voting for the Iraqi National Assembly election, 2005
  • January 28 – The insurgent continues with several dozen Iraqi deaths. Seven U.S. soldiers killed, three in a helicopter crash.
  • January 29 – About 17 people died from car bombs on the eve of the elections. A rocket hit the U.S. Embassy compound inside Baghdad's fortified Green Zone, killing two people and wounding at least four. According to the embassy spokesman, all of them are Americans.
  • January 30 – Ghazi Yawer was one of the first people to vote in the Iraqi National Assembly election. Up to 15 British military personnel were killed in Iraq when an air force transport plane crashed northwest of Baghdad. Meanwhile, at least 35 people die in attacks at polling places.
  • January 31 – Nine RAF personnel and one soldier are KIA after a British Hercules plane comes down 25 miles (40 km) north-west of Baghdad.

February Edit

  • February 4 – Paul Wolfowitz announces that 15,000 U.S. troops whose tours of duty had been temporarily extended will be withdrawn by the next month.
  • February 7 – Two suicide bombers strike in Mosul and Baquba, claiming at least 27 lives, mostly police recruits.
  • February 8 – At least 21 people are killed in a blast at an Iraqi army recruitment centre in Muthenna airfield in west Baghdad.
  • February 9 – At least nine Iraqis die including a correspondent for a U.S.-funded Arabic TV station.
  • February 10 – At least 50 Iraqis are killed when rebels attack targets across the country. Meanwhile, the election results are postponed because of a limited recount.
  • February 11 – More than 20 Iraqis are killed in attacks near a Shia mosque and on a Baghdad bakery.
  • February 12 – A car bomb attack blast outside a hospital kills at least 17 people in the town of Musayyib.
  • February 13 – Limited election results are announced.
  • February 17 – Full results are announced in the national legislative election. The United Iraqi Alliance wins a slight majority.
  • February 19 – At least 40 people are killed and more than 100 wounded in attacks by suicide bombers in Baghdad and other parts of Iraq during festival of Ashoura.
  • February 22 – Two policemen and two civilians are killed and another 30 police are injured in a suicide attack against a convoy of security forces in Baghdad.
  • February 24 – A car bombing attack in the Iraqi city of Tikrit reportedly kills up to 15 people. Another 25 are injured in an attack on a police station.
  • February 25 – Three US troops are killed and eight others injured in a bomb explosion in Tarmiyah just north of Baghdad.
  • February 27 – Five people are killed in a bomb blast in Hammam Alil. In another incident, a US soldier is shot and killed in Baghdad while manning a traffic checkpoint.
  • February 28 – 127 Iraqis are killed by a suicide car bomb outside a medical center in Hilla, south of Baghdad. The bomber, who later turned out to be a U.S. educated Jordanian lawyer from al Qaeda targeted a large crowd of mainly teachers and police recruits outside a health clinic. It was the deadliest single blast in Iraq's history.

March Edit

  • March 2 – Judge Barwez Mohammed Mahmoud al-Merwani and his son Aryan Barwez al-Merwani are murdered in the Azamyiah district. Also 10 people are killed in attacks on an Iraqi army base and a checkpoint in Baghdad.
  • March 3 – Two car bombs exploded near Iraq's Interior Ministry killing at least five policemen. In total 17 people are killed in various incidents.
  • March 4 – Four U.S. soldiers are killed in Al Anbar Governorate. An Italian hostage, journalist Giuliana Sgrena is hurt by friendly fire shortly after her rescue, and an Italian secret service agent escorting her, Nicola Calipari, is killed.
  • March 7–33 people are killed and dozens wounded as Iraqi insurgents attack in Baqouba and Baghdad.
  • March 9 – A suicide car bomb attack reportedly carried out by a group linked to al-Qaeda kills three and injures more than 20 people in Baghdad.
  • March 10 – At least 47 people are killed by a suicide bomber who blows himself up at a Shia funeral service in the northern city of Mosul.
  • March 20 – A gun battle between Iraqi insurgents and US troops near Baghdad leaves 24 rebels dead. Earlier, a suicide bomber kills the head of the police anti-corruption department in the northern city of Mosul. Insurgents then attack his funeral, killing at least two other people.

April Edit

  • April 2 – The Battle of Abu Ghraib was an attack on US forces at Abu Ghraib prison, which consisted of heavy mortar and rocket fire, under which armed insurgents attacked with grenades, small arms, and two vehicle-borne improvised explosive devices (VBIED). [1]
  • April 6 – Jalal Talabani is elected President of Iraq by the Iraqi National Assembly, becoming the first President elected under the country's new Constitution.
  • April 9 – Tens of thousands of demonstrators loyal to Shiite cleric Muqtada Sadr march through Baghdad denouncing the US occupation of Iraq, two years after the fall of Saddam Hussein. Also insurgents kill 15 Iraqi soldiers traveling in a convoy south of Baghdad.
  • April 14 – Two car bombs kill 18 in Baghdad neighborhood.
  • April 15 – At least four people are killed in bombings in the Iraqi city of Samarra and in the capital Baghdad.
  • April 16 – Three American soldiers are killed when a Marine base comes under indirect fire near Ramadi, west of Baghdad.
  • April 17 – A roadside bomb near the central city of Samarra kills two Iraqi soldiers. Also other bombs kill an American soldier and two civilians.
  • April 18 –
    • Iraqi security forces numbering in the hundreds launch an operation to "root out" Sunni insurgents at the tip of Iraq's "Triangle of Death".
    • In Baghdad, gunmen ambush a senior Defence Ministry adviser, Major General Adnan al-Qaraghulli, killing him and his son. [13]
    • Iraq's prime minister Iyad Allawi escapes an assassination attempt when a suicide bomber in a car attacks his convoy near his home. The attack kills two policeman and wounds four.
    • 60 bodies are fished out of the Tigris river south of Baghdad the bodies appear to not be from a single region or date [14]. Also insurgents execute 19 Iraqi soldiers in a football stadium in Haditha.
    • A commercial helicopter is shot down about 20 km (12 mi) north of the Iraqi capital Baghdad, killing all 11 people on board. One survivor is shot by insurgents who rush to the site.
    • Two foreign contractors are killed in a roadside bomb on the road to Baghdad airport.

    May Edit

    • May 1 – A suicide attack targets a Kurdish funeral in the northern town of Talafar, near Mosul leaves at least 25 people dead and injures more than 30 others. Earlier, at least five policemen and four civilians are killed in two separate attacks in Baghdad.
    • May 2 – Nine people die in a blast in a busy shopping area of Baghdad. At least three people are killed in an explosion in the east of the capital and four more died in two blasts in the northern city of Mosul.
    • May 3 – Clashes in the Iraqi city of Ramadi have left 12 insurgents, two Iraqi civilians and one Iraqi soldier dead.
    • May 4 – At least 60 people have been killed and dozens wounded in a suicide bombing at the offices of a Kurdish party in Irbil, northern Iraq.
    • May 5 – At least 24 people die in wave of attacks in Baghdad.
    • May 6 – A suicide car bomber strikes a vegetable market in Suwayra, killing at least 58 people and wounding 44. 9 more Iraqi die in another attack.
    • May 7 – Two suicide car bombs explode in a central Baghdad square killing 22 people.
    • May 11 – At least 71 people are killed and more than 160 wounded as suicide bombers rip through a crowded market and a line of security force recruits in a wave of explosions and gunfire across Iraq.
    • May 12 – Police General Iyad Imad Mehdi was shot by unidentified gunmen as he was driving to work.

    June Edit

    • June 12 –
      • French journalist Florence Aubenas and her Iraqi interpreter Hussein Hanoun al-Saadi were freed after five months of captivity in Iraq. [2]
      • 28 bodies, believed to mainly be SunniArabs, have been found in Baghdad sidestreets. [3][4]
      • Four US Soldiers die from two roadside bombs in Baghdad, bringing the total death toll of US troops to over 1,700. [5] parliament in Northern Iraq elects Masoud Barzani as a president of the region [6]

      July Edit

      • July 3 – Ihab al-Sherif, Egypt's most senior envoy to Iraq is kidnapped by gunmen while buying a newspaper. He was to be promoted to ambassador, representing the first Arab nation to recognize the new Iraqi government. [11]
      • July 8 – Egyptian ambassador-designate Ihab al-Sharif is killed in Baghdad. A group related to Abu Musab al-Zarqawi has claimed responsibility. [12]
      • July 13 – A suicide bomber kills 34 Iraqi boys and one US soldier in Baghdad. The boys were scooping up candy thrown from an American Humvee.
      • July 16 – A suicide bomber detonates explosives near an LPG (propane) fuel tanker parked near a gas station south of Baghdad, sparking a massive explosion that kills more than 60 people and wounds as many as 100 in one of the worst insurgent attacks to hit the area since the US occupation of Iraq. [13]
      • July 17 – A fuel truck bomb kills 98 people south of Baghdad as three more suicide car bombers strike the Iraqi capital. [14]
      • July 21 – Algeria's two most senior diplomatic staff in Iraq are kidnapped from outside a restaurant in the western Mansour district. [15]
      • July 24 – At least 39 people, mostly civilians, have been killed when a Suicide Truck Bomb exploded at a police station in the IraqiCapital of Baghdad. [16][17]
      • July 25 – At least seven people have died following a twin suicide car bomb attack on policecheckpoints in the centre of the IraqiCapitalBaghdad. [18]
      • July 26 –
        • At least 12 workers were shot dead as they were driven away from the state owned factory they worked at, in the Abu Ghraib area, by insurgents. [19] released a video showing the two diplomatic staff from Algeria kidnapped from Baghdad last week. [20]
        • Two US troops were killed following a bomb in Baghdad. [21]
        • Two Algeriandiplomatic staff who had been kidnapped by insurgents have been killed. [22]
        • At least five people have died following an apparent Suicide Bomb blast outside a hospital in the IraqiCapital, Baghdad. [23]
        • The interim Prime Minister of Iraq, Ibrahim Jaafari, has called on US troops to leave Iraq soon. [24]
        • Seven Iraqi soldiers, guarding a water plant north of Baghdad, have been shot and killed by Insurgents. [25]

        August Edit

        • August Troop E 108th Cavalry, 48th MIB secure and control more than 40% insurgency activity in the "triangle of death". A known route used to supply the insurgency with ammunition and explosives to forces in fallujah objecting the United States efforts on anti-terrorism.
        • August 9 – Fallen soldiers honored in northern Iraq with stiffened restraint of sector
        • August 13 – Three American soldiers are killed and one wounded when their vehicle strikes a pressure activated IED near Tuz Khurmatu.
        • August 15 – Soldiers from 3rd Platoon, A Troop, 256 Infantry Brigade, engage and kill three enemy insurgents and wound at least four enemy insurgents while defending an attack in Baghdad.
        • August 28 – Iraq's National Assembly signs the text of the proposed Iraqi constitution.
        • August 31 – Up to 1,000 people die in a stampede on the Al-Aaimmah bridge after rumours of a suicide bomber cause panic amongst pilgrims on the shrine of the Imam Musa al-Kazim.

        In late August 2005, violence occurred in Najaf, Nasiriyah, Diwaniyah, and Sadr City (Baghdad). The Shi'ite infighting was between the supporters of cleric Muqtada al-Sadr and the Badr Organization, who are backed by the Supreme Council for the Islamic Revolution in Iraq (SCIRI). Both sides blame each other for the violence. Some Shi'a National Assembly members and ministers suspended their membership in the council because of the violence. Since Sadr's Mahdi Army were expelled from the city of Najaf, fighting between rival Shi'a groups has ceased.


        U.S. Military Casualties, Missing in Action, and Prisoners of War from the Era of the Vietnam War

        This reference report provides an overview of the electronic data records in the custody of the National Archives that relate to U.S. military casualties, missing in action, and prisoners of war from the Vietnam War era. Full descriptions of the series and data files listed in this report are in the National Archives Catalog. Users can search the Catalog by title, National Archives Identifier, type of archival material, or keyword.

        Some of the series and files listed in this report are accessible online:

        • Download - This is a link for downloading the files and documentation from the Catalog. For more details on downloading files, please review the frequently asked questions (FAQs).
        • Search - This is a link for searching the records via the Access to Archival Databases (AAD) resource.

        All of the files are also available for a cost-recovery fee. For more information see: Ordering Information for Electronic Records.

        Record Group 330: Records of the Office of the Secretary of Defense

        • Defense Casualty Analysis System (DCAS) Extract Files
          National Archives Identifier:2163536
          Online Access: Download | Search
          • Vietnam Conflict Extract Data File, as of April 29, 2008
            National Archives Identifier:2240992
            Technical Documentation: 26 pages (also available electronically) and extensive supplemental documentation (code lists)
            Online Access: Download | Search

          This file contains records of U.S. military officers and soldiers who died as a result of either a hostile or non-hostile occurrence or who were missing in action or prisoners of war in the Vietnam Conflict, including casualties that occurred in Cambodia, China, Laos, Thailand, and Vietnam. It is the successor to the Combat Area Casualties Current Files (CACCF), which are part of the series "Records of Military Personnel Who Died, Were Missing in Action or Prisoners of War as a Result of the Vietnam War." The Electronic Records Reference Report on Statistical Information about Fatal Casualties of the Vietnam War contains statistics based on selected data fields in the Vietnam Conflict Extract Data File. In addition, information from these records are available as State-Level Fatal Casualty Lists.

          This series contains records of U.S. military officers and soldiers who died as a result of either a hostile or non-hostile occurrence in the Korean War, Vietnam War, Gulf War, or War on Terrorism. These include the records of persons who were missing in action or prisoners of war in either the Korean War or the Vietnam War.

          This series contains records of U.S. military officers and soldiers who died as a result of either hostile or non-hostile occurrence or who were missing in action or prisoners of war in the Southeast Asian combat area during the Vietnam War, including casualties that occurred in Cambodia, China, Laos, North Vietnam, South Vietnam, and Thailand. The dates of death range from 1956 to 1998 (the last transfer of the records). This series consists of:

            Combat Area Casualties Current Files (CACCF)
            Technical Documentation: 58 pages
            Online Access: Download | Search

          Record Group 407: Records of the Adjutant General's Office

          • Records of Deceased, Wounded, Ill, or Injured Army Personnel, Including Dependents and Civilian Employees
            National Archives Identifier:641697
            Technical Documentation: 22 pages
            Online Access: Download | Search

          This series contains information about U.S. Army personnel and their dependents who died or were injured worldwide, including missing in action and prisoners of war, between 1961 and 1981. NARA makes a public use version of the file available. In addition, individual records of Army personnel who were wounded will be provided in full to the named individual upon receipt of a written request and appropriate identification. NARA provides this service free of charge.

          Collection COFF: Richard Coffelt, Richard Arnold, and David Argabright Collection

          • Records with Unit Information on Military Personnel Who Died During the Vietnam War
            National Archives Identifier:571687
            Technical Documentation: 12 pages
            Online Access: Search

          This series contains military unit information on U.S. military officers and soldiers who died as a result of either a hostile or non-hostile occurrence, including while missing in action or while prisoner of war, in the Southeast Asian combat area during the Vietnam War.

          Related Information

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          U.S. Casualties in Operation Iraqi FreedomJune 2005 - History

          Images


          EA-6B Prowler (VMAQ-2) - June 2018


          EA-6B Prowler (VMAQ-2) at Al Udeid Airbase, Qatar - June 2018


          EA-6B Prowler (VMAQ-2) at MCAS Yuma, Arizona - October 2017


          EA-6B Prowler (VMAQ-2) at MCAS Yuma, Arizona - October 2017


          EA-6B Prowler (VMAQ-2) over Arizona - October 2017


          EA-6B Prowler (VMAQ-2) at MCAS Yuma, Arizona - October 2017


          EA-6B Prowler (VMAQ-2) at MCAS Yuma, Arizona - October 2017


          EA-6B Prowler (VMAQ-2) at MCAS Yuma, Arizona - October 2017


          EA-6B Prowler (VMAQ-2) during inflight refueling over Iraq - November 2016


          EA-6B Prowler (VMAQ-2) during inflight refueling over Iraq - November 2016


          EA-6B Prowler (VMAQ-2) during inflight refueling over Iraq - November 2016


          EA-6B Prowler (VMAQ-2) during inflight refueling over Iraq - October 2016


          EA-6B Prowler (VMAQ-2) at MCAS Cherry Point, North Carolina - December 2015


          EA-6B Prowler (VMAQ-2) at MCAS Cherry Point, North Carolina - December 2015


          EA-6B Prowler (VMAQ-2) at MCAS Cherry Point, North Carolina - August 2015


          EA-6B Prowlers (VMAQ-2) - homecoming to MCAS Cherry Point, North Carolina - August 2015


          EA-6B Prowler (VMAQ-2) during exercise Northern Edge at Eielson AFB, Alaska - June 2015


          EA-6B Prowler (VMAQ-2) during exercise Northern Edge at Eielson AFB, Alaska - June 2015


          EA-6B Prowler (VMAQ-2) during exercise Northern Edge at Eielson AFB, Alaska - June 2015


          EA-6B Prowler (VMAQ-2) during exercise Northern Edge at Eielson AFB, Alaska - June 2015


          EA-6B Prowler (VMAQ-2) during exercise Northern Edge at Eielson AFB, Alaska - June 2015


          EA-6B Prowler (VMAQ-2) at Eielson AFB, Alaska - June 2015


          EA-6B Prowler (VMAQ-2) at Eielson AFB, Alaska - June 2015


          EA-6B Prowler (VMAQ-2) during exercise Northern Edge, Alaska - June 2015


          EA-6B Prowler (VMAQ-2) during exercise Northern Edge, Alaska - June 2015


          EA-6B Prowler (VMAQ-2) at MCAS Cherry Point, North Carolina - July 2014


          EA-6B Prowler (VMAQ-2) at MCAS Cherry Point, North Carolina - April 2014


          EA-6B Prowler (VMAQ-2) at Andersen Air Force Base, Guam - December 2013


          EA-6B Prowler (VMAQ-2) at Andersen Air Force Base, Guam - December 2013


          EA-6B Prowler (VMAQ-2) at Andersen Air Force Base, Guam - December 2013


          EA-6B Prowler (VMAQ-2) at Andersen Air Force Base, Guam - December 2013


          EA-6B Prowler (VMAQ-2) at Andersen Air Force Base, Guam - December 2013


          EA-6B Prowler (VMAQ-2) at Andersen Air Force Base, Guam - December 2013


          EA-6B Prowler (VMAQ-2) at Andersen Air Force Base, Guam - December 2013


          EA-6B Prowler (VMAQ-2) at Andersen Air Force Base, Guam - December 2013


          EA-6B Prowler (VMAQ-2) at Andersen Air Force Base, Guam - December 2013


          EA-6B Prowler (VMAQ-2) at MCAS Cherry Point, North Carolina - March 2013


          EA-6B Prowler (VMAQ-2) at Bagram Air Field, Afghanistan - August 2012


          EA-6B Prowler (VMAQ-2) at Bagram Air Field, Afghanistan - August 2012


          EA-6B Prowler (VMAQ-2) at Bagram Air Field, Afghanistan - August 2012


          EA-6B Prowler (VMAQ-2) at Bagram Air Field, Afghanistan - August 2012


          EA-6B Prowler (VMAQ-2) at Bagram Air Field, Afghanistan - August 2012


          EA-6B Prowler (VMAQ-2) at MCAS Cherry Point, North Carolina - March 2012


          The first Marine Corps Prowler, known as 000 or 160432, was in service for more than 34 years and during that time it flew more than 11,000 flight hours and was piloted by four VMAQ-2 Marines for its final flight. “This aircraft has been used by all the VMAQ squadrons aboard the base and finished up here with its final flight under the Q-2 logo. Its new job will be as a display at its home base of MCAS Cherry Point, North Carolina - June 2011


          EA-6B Prowler (VMAQ-2) at MCAS Cherry Point, North Carolina - June 2011


          EA-6B Prowler (VMAQ-2) at Al Asad Airfield, Iraq - November 2007


          EA-6B Prowler (VMAQ-2) at Al Asad Airfield, Iraq - November 2007


          EA-6B Prowler (VMAQ-2) - Souda Bay, Crete, Greece - July 2007


          EA-6B Prowler (VMAQ-2) - July 2007


          EA-6B Prowler (VMAQ-2) at Al Asad Airfield, Iraq - July 2006


          EA-6B Prowler (VMAQ-2) at Al Asad Airfield, Iraq - July 2006


          EA-6B Prowler (VMAQ-2) at Al Asad Airfield, Iraq - June 2006


          EA-6B Prowler (VMAQ-2) at Al Asad Airfield, Iraq - May 2006


          EA-6B Prowler (VMAQ-2) at Al Asad Airfield, Iraq - May 2006


          EA-6B Prowler (VMAQ-2) during Operation Iraqi Freedom - August 2004


          EA-6B Prowler (VMAQ-2) - Central Command AOR - March 2003


          EA-6B Prowler (VMAQ-2) - Central Command AOR - March 2003


          EA-6B Prowler (VMAQ-2) - Central Command AOR - March 2003


          EA-6B Prowler (VMAQ-2) - Central Command AOR - March 2003


          EA-6B Prowler (VMAQ-2) - Central Command AOR - March 2003


          EA-6B Prowler (VMAQ-2) - Central Command AOR - March 2003


          EA-6B Prowler (VMAQ-2) - Central Command AOR - March 2003


          EA-6B Prowler (VMAQ-2) - Souda Bay, Crete, Greece - February 2003


          EA-6B Prowler (VMAQ-2) during exercise Cope North 02 at Andersen AFB, Guam - April 2002


          EA-6B Prowler (VMAQ-2) at Andrews AFB, Maryland - October 1993


          EA-6B Prowler (VMAQ-2) at Andrews AFB, Maryland - September 1993


          EA-6B Prowler (VMAQ-2) during exercise Cope Thunder 89-5 - Clark Air Force Base, Philippines - November 1989


          EA-6B Prowler (VMAQ-2) refueling during Australian/US exercise Kangaroo 89 - 1989


          EA-6B Prowler (VMAQ-2) - June 1987


          EA-6B Prowler (VMAQ-2) - June 1987


          EA-6B Prowler (VMAQ-2) at MCAS Cherry Point - June 1985


          EA-6B Prowler (VMAQ-2) was loaded with an AGM-88 HARM anti-radiation missile at MCAS Cherry Point - June 1987


          U.S. Navy aircraft are launched from the aircraft carrier USS America (CV-66) during "Operation El Dorado Canyon" on 15 April 1986. Visble are (front to back): A Grumman F-14A Tomcat from Fighter Squadron VF-102 Diamondbacks, a LTV A-7E Corsair II from Attack Squadron VA-46 Clansmen armed with AGM-88 HARM missiles, and a Grumman EA-6B Prowler from Marine Tactical Electronic Warfare Squadron VMAQ-2 Det.Y Playboys. All squadrons were assigned to Carrier Air Wing 1 (CVW-1) aboard the America for a deployment to the Mediterranean Sea from 10 March to 14 September 1986.


          EA-6B Prowler (VMAQ-2) at MCAS Cherry Point - January 1984


          EA-6B Prowler (VMAQ-2) at MCAS Cherry Point - January 1984


          EA-6B Prowler (VMAQ-2) over Florida - 1982


          EA-6B Prowler (VMAQ-2) at NAS Whiting Field, Florida - 1982


          EA-6B Prowler (VMAQ-2) landing aboard USS Nimitz (CVN 68) during exercise Display Determination - September 1981


          Grumman EA-6B Prowler from Marine tactical electronic warfare squadron VMAQ-2 Playboys just after landing on the aircraft carrier USS Nimitz (CVN-68) on 1 August 1981. VMAQ-2 Det.Y was assigned to Carrier Air Wing 8 (CVW-8) for a deployment aboard the Nimitz to the Mediterranean Sea from 3 August 1981 to 12 February 1982. Note that the VMAQ-2 detachment kept its tail code "CY" and did not adopt the CVW-8 tail code "AJ".


          Firefighters attempt to extinguish flames in the aftermath of the crash of a Grumman EA-6B Prowler (BuNo 159910) from Marine Eletronic Attack Squadron VMAQ-2 Det.Y "Playboys" aboard the aircraft carrier USS Nimitz (CVN-68). The aircraft was fuel-critical after a "bolter" at night and reportedly applied power during the following landing attempt when it suddenly drifted to the right, running into parked aircraft, causing ammunition to explode and starting numerous fires. 3 crewmen and 11 deck personnel were killed, 48 injured. The subsequent fire and explosions destroyed or damaged eleven other aircraft (ca. 100 million US $ damage). The crash sparked a 5-month debate between Representative Joseph Addabo (D-NY) and the U.S. Navy over whether drug use on board the carrier may have contributed to the crash. Despite being uninvolved with the operation of the aircraft or cause of the accident, the focus turned to testing conducted during autopsies which found that several members of the flight deck crew tested positive for marijuana. Although unclear how it would have affected this incident, U.S. President Ronald Reagan instituted a "Zero Tolerance" drug policy across all of the armed services, which started the mandatory drug testing of all U.S. service personnel - May 27, 1981


          USS Nimitz (CVN 68) - May 27, 1981


          Grumman EA-6B ICAP I Prowler (BuNo 160706) from Marine Electronic Countermeasures Squadron VMAQ-2 Playboys taking off from Naval Air Facility Misawa, Japan, during exercise "Cope North '80" on 15 October 1980.


          EA-6B Prowler (VMAQ-2) - 1978


          Grumman EA-6B Prowler from Marine Tactical Electronic Warfare Squadron 2 (VMAQ-2) Det.X "Playboys" landing aboard the aircraft carrier USS Midway (CV-41). VMAQ-2 Det.X was assigned to Carrier Air Wing 5 (CVW-5) aboard the Midway in 1978-1979.



          Grumman EA-6A Intruder (BuNo 147865) from Marine Electronic Countermeasures Squadron VMAQ-2 Playboys flying over Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina, on 1 December 1978. The EA-6A 147865 was retired to the MASDC as 5A0030 on 24 March 1980. 147865 came out of storage in January 1983 and flew with Naval Reserve Squadron VAQ-33 until returned for display at MCAS Cherry Point on 15 April 1992.


          EA-6A Electric Intruder and EA-6B Prowler (VMAQ-2) - c.1977


          pre VMAQ time


          Grumman EA-6A Intruder (BuNo 147865) from Marine Composite Reconnaissance Squadron 2 (VMCJ-2) Det.A59 "Playboys" and a U.S. Navy A-6A (BuNo 155668) from Attack Squadron 85 (VA-85) "Black Panthers" on deck of the aircraft carrier USS Forrestal (CVA-59). Both squadrons were assigned to Carrier Air Wing 17 (CVW-17) aboard the Forrestal for a deployment to the Mediterranean Sea from 5 January to 2 July 1971.



          Douglas EF-10B Skyknight (BuNo 127047) of Marine composite reconnaissance squadron VMCJ-2 Playboys. VMCJ-2 was commissioned on 1 December 1955 and began to fly electronic warfare missions off North Korea, China and the Soviet Union immediatley. In 1965 VMCJ-2 was deployed to Da Nang in South Vietnam with six aircraft. The Skyknights flew over 9000 sorties and lost five aircraft and twelve crewmembers. They were withdrawn from Da Nang in October 1969 and officially retired at MCAS El Toro (California, USA) on 31 May 1970.


          Douglas F3D-2Q Skyknight (BuNo 124618) of Marine Composite Reconnaissance Squadron VMCJ-2 "Playboys" in flight . circa 1960


          Vought F8U-1P Crusader (BuNo 145636) and a Douglas F3D-2Q Skynight (BuNo 125809) of Marine Composite Reconnaissance Squadron 2 (VMCJ-2) "Playboys" in flight near Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point, Noth Carolina - circa 1958

          Since its designation in 1975, VMAQ-2 has deployed detachments of EA-6A and EA-6B aircraft on a continuous basis in support of Marine forces in the Western Pacific and in support of Fleet Commanders on aircraft carriers, including lengthy deployments on the USS Midway, Nimitz, America, and Saratoga. In 1977, the squadron transitioned to the EA-6B Prowler and now operates the Improved Capability II version of the aircraft. In 1986, a detachment of the squadron participated in U.S. raids against Libya. In 1990, VMAQ-2 deployed to Bahrain in support of Operations DESERT SHIELD and DESERT STORM, flying nearly 500 combat sorties in a six-week period.

          On 1 July 1992, VMAQ-2, the largest tactical squadron in Marine Aviation, was reorganized into three squadrons: VMAQ-1, VMAQ-2, and VMAQ-3.

          The squadron, in its new form, deployed to Iwakuni, Japan in November of 1992. During this deployment VMAQ-2 participated in several Air Defense exercises in support of USMC, USAF, and Japanese Air Self Defense Force (JASDF) fighter and attack aircraft.

          In 1995 VMAQ-2 deployed once again to Iwakuni, Japan. On this deployment VMAQ-2 supported VMFA (AW)-225, 35th and 80th FS, AWACS, HAWK, and Patriot batteries in Kunsan Air Base, Korea, as well as participating in a MAG-12 readiness exercise, MAG-12 photo shoot, and multiple War-at-Sea strikes.

          VMAQ-2’s next assignment led them to Aviano, Italy, in March 1996 in support of Operation DECISIVE ENDEAVOR. This operation tasked VMAQ-2 with several assigned Combined Air Operations Center (CAOC) missions over Bosnia and Herzegovina. Specifically, VMAQ-2 Prowlers provided Suppression of Enemy Air Defenses (SEAD) support to British Harriers performing reconnaissance flights over weapons containment sites in these two areas of operation.

          In 1997 VMAQ-2 once again deployed to Aviano, Italy. However, this time it was in support of Operation DELIBERATE GUARD. VMAQ-2 was tasked with flying missions over Bosnia to cover the Bosnian elections. Along with these successful missions, VMAQ-2 participated in several coordinated exercises, to include a Force Protection mission with the German Tornadoes and Dutch F-16s and a Battlefield Air Interdiction (BAI) exercise planned at the CAOC with NATO assets.

          In February of 1999, VMAQ-2 received the order to deploy to Aviano, Italy, in support of Operation NOBLE ANVIL and possible subsequent combat operations against Serbia. After diplomatic attempts to resolve the Kosovo crisis failed, Operation ALLIED FORCE began. VMAQ-2 launched day and night sorties to provide jamming and HARM support to U.S. and NATO missions. VMAQ-2 also provided support for armed reconnaissance missions, day and night Battlefield Air Interdiction strikes, and Combat Search and Rescue efforts of downed allied aircrew. When Operation ALLIED FORCE came to an end, VMAQ-2 had flown 2151.5 combat hours, 464 combat sorties, and fired 57 HARM missiles against the former Republic of Yugoslavia.

          On 29 June to 1 July 2000, VMAQ-2 celebrated its proud history with a 25th Anniversary Reunion.

          From March to June 2001 and from December 2001 to June 2002, VMAQ-2 deployed to Iwakuni, Japan. During these deployments, the squadron provided electronic warfare in support of operations throughout the Pacific region, to include WINTER SURGE and FOAL EAGLE in South Korea, COPE TIGER and COBRA GOLD in Thailand, and COPE NORTH in Guam.

          In February 2003, VMAQ-2 deployed to Prince Sultan Air Base, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, initially in support of Operation ENDURING FREEDOM and then Operation IRAQI FREEDOM. VMAQ-2 logged over 1000 combat hours in under 60 days in the war to liberate Iraq.

          VMAQ-2 deployed to Tallil Air Base, Iraq, for Operation IRAQI FREEDOM II from July 2004 through January 2005 and became the first Prowler squadron to operate from Iraqi soil. The squadron logged over 2000 mishap-free combat hours and attained 10,000 Mishap Free Flight Hours during the same period. VMAQ-2 was subsequently chosen as the Marine Corps Aviation Association 2005 Prowler squadron of the year.

          In January 2006, VMAQ-2 deployed to Al Asad, Iraq in support of Operation IRAQI FREEDOM 05-07. VMAQ-2 flew 691 combat missions for 3286.7 combat flight hours and supported 975 Joint Tactical Air Requests (JTARS). This rigorous operational tempo resulted in four times the normal airframe utilization rate.

          In July 2007, VMAQ-2 returned to Al Asad, Iraq in support of Operation IRAQI FREEDOM 06-08. During the deployment, VMAQ-2 flew 821 combat missions for a total of 4423.0 combat flight hours while supporting Coalition ground forces. This sustained tempo led not only to the highest utilization rate for any Prowler squadron but also for any Type/Model/Series in the Marine Corps.

          VMAQ-2’s awards include the Navy Unit Commendation Streamer with two Bronze Stars for the Cuban Missile Crisis and actions against Iraq, the Meritorious Unit Commendation Streamer with two Bronze Stars, the Marine Corps Expeditionary Streamer with two Bronze Stars, the National Defense Service Streamer with two Bronze Stars, the Armed Forces Expeditionary Streamer with one Bronze Star for Cuban and Dominican Republic service, and the Southwest Asia Service Streamer with two Bronze Stars.

          Early years:
          VMAQ-2 boasts a proud history of service to the Marine Corps through its predecessor squadrons flying various electronic warfare aircraft, to include: the AD-5 Skyraider, the EF-10 Skyknight, and the EA-6A Intruder. VMC-2 was the original composite squadron (combined aerial photographic reconnaissance and electronic warfare capability) in Marine Corps aviation. It was commissioned at Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point on September 15, 1952 evolving from the former Airborne Early Warning and Electronic Counter Measures section of the Wing Headquarters Squadron. On December 1, 1955, the squadron was redesignated as VMCJ-2 after former Marine Photographic Squadron 2 (VMJ-2) was decommissioned and joined VMC-2. As 1955 was also the year Playboy magazine was first published, it soon followed that the squadron adopted the Playboy name and logo with their permission. In December 1960, VMCJ-2 provided electronic and photographic intelligence during the Cuban Missile Crisis that enabled President Kennedy to make key decisions that would lead to the removal of Soviet military equipment from Cuba. In 1964 VMCJ-2 participated in Operation Steel Pike, the largest amphibious training exercise in history. The unit sailed from Morehead City, NC to the Naval Base at Rota, Spain and flew both photographic and electronic warfare missions during the exercise.

          Vietnam:
          Less than three years after the end of the Cuban Missile Crisis, some of the same VMCJ-2 aircrews deployed with VMCJ-1 to Vietnam and applied their lessons learned against Cuba as the EF-10Bs began to provide ECM support for air strikes against North Vietnamese targets. Beginning in the Spring of 1966 the squadron began sending Marines to join VMCJ-1 in Vietnam for 13-month tours. In late November 1965, VMCJ-2 received the first EA-6A Electric Intruder. With the rapidly escalating North Vietnamese air defenses this new EW aircraft was anxiously awaited by VMCJ-1 still flying the outdated EF-10B Skyknights, However, the initial EW systems delivered with the new aircraft proved unsuitable for the mission without some major modifications. Given the urgency, the decision was made to make the modifications by a contractor team on-site at VMCJ-2. The success of this effort was due to the dedicated support of VMCJ-2 personnel who worked tirelessly to get the aircraft ready for deployment to Vietnam.

          During this same time period the squadron received the first of its RF-4Bs and for several months the squadron was flying four different aircraft types. In October, 1966 VMCJ-2 sent six EA-6As with full maintenance capability to Danang, Vietnam as a VMCJ-1 replacement cadre. The squadron would continue to provide replacement aircrews and updated aircraft to VMCJ-1 in Vietnam.

          In 1971 the squadron deployed the first EA-6A detachment aboard USS Forrestal (CV-59) for a Mediterranean cruise that lasted 10 months with cross decking to USS Saratoga (CV-60) and USS America (CV-66). In April 1972 the squadron diverted an EA-6A detachment that was scheduled to deploy on the Saratoga in the Mediterranean to WESTPAC to join VMCJ-1 at NAS Cubi Point. The VMCJ-2 detachment operated in concert with VMCJ-1 to support strikes against North Vietnam under Operation Linebacker that ended with the release of the U.S. POWs early in 1973.

          Cold War Sea Service:
          After its re-designation in 1975, VMAQ-2 deployed detachments of EA-6A Electric Intruder aircraft [designated Detachments Alpha, Bravo, and Charlie] and EA-6B Prowler aircraft [designated Detachments Xray, Yankee, and Zulu] on a continuous basis in support of Marine forces in the Western Pacific and in support of Fleet Commanders on aircraft carriers, including lengthy deployments on the Midway, Nimitz, America, and Saratoga. In 1977, the squadron transitioned to the EA-6B Prowler with the Improved Capability (ICAP) EW suite. In 1986, a detachment of the squadron participated in U.S. raids against Libya as part of Operation El Dorado Canyon.

          The Gulf War & The Balkans:
          In 1990, VMAQ-2 deployed Detachments Yankee and Zulu to Bahrain in support of Operation Desert Shield and Operation Desert Storm, flying nearly 500 combat sorties in a six-week period. Detachment X-Ray was already forward deployed with the 1st Marine Aircraft Wing in the Western Pacific for their routine six-month rotation and would remain there for a total of 410 days - more than double their scheduled deployment time - the longest continuous deployment in Marine aviation history during peacetime.

          On 1 July 1992, VMAQ-2, the largest tactical squadron in Marine Aviation, was reorganized into three squadrons: VMAQ-1 "Banshees", VMAQ-2 "Playboys", and VMAQ-3 "Moondogs". In 1993, outside pressure forced the Marine Corps to direct the squadron to change their name and logo from "Playboys" to something more politically correct. After several ideas were rejected the squadron chose "Panthers" as the new name and began using the logo (with permission) of the National Football League's Carolina Panthers. VMAQ-2 later changed from the "Panthers" to the current name "Death Jesters". Even with the name changes the squadron continues to use "Playboy" Bunny patches and paint jobs on their five aircraft. Even the CY tail code was fashioned on some in the shape of a bunny head.

          VMAQ-2’s next assignment led them to Aviano Air Base, Italy, in March 1996 in support of Operation Decisive Endeavor. This operation tasked VMAQ-2 with missions over Bosnia and Herzegovina. Specifically, VMAQ-2 Prowlers provided Suppression of Enemy Air Defenses (SEAD) support to British Harriers performing reconnaissance flights over weapons containment sites in these two areas of operation. In 1997, VMAQ-2 once again deployed to Aviano Air Base. However, this time it was in support of Operation Deliberate Guard. VMAQ-2 was tasked with flying missions over Bosnia to cover the Bosnian elections. On February 3, 1998 a USMC Grumman EA-6B Prowler, BuNo 163045, callsign "Easy 0-1" from VMAQ-2, struck a cable supporting a gondola in Cavalese, Italy. The cable was severed and 20 people in the cabin plunged over 80 metres to their deaths. The plane had wing and tail damage but was able to return to the base. It was the squadron's first major mishap in over 60,000 flight hours spanning nearly fifteen years of worldwide operations.

          In February 1999, VMAQ-1, VMAQ-2, VMAQ-3, and VMAQ-4 received the order to again deploy to Aviano Air Base in Italy in support of Operation Noble Anvil and possible subsequent combat operations against the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. After diplomatic attempts to resolve the Kosovo crisis failed, Operation Allied Force began. VMAQ-2 launched day and night sorties to provide jamming and HARM support to U.S. and NATO missions. VMAQ-2 also provided support for armed reconnaissance missions, day and night battlefield air interdiction strikes, and combat search and rescue efforts of downed allied aircrew. When Operation Allied Force came to an end, VMAQ-2 had flown 2151.5 combat hours, 464 combat sorties, and fired 57 High speed Anti-Radiation Missiles (HARM) against the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.

          Global War on Terror:
          In February 2003, VMAQ-2 deployed to Prince Sultan Air Base, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, initially in support of Operation ENDURING FREEDOM and then Operation IRAQI FREEDOM. VMAQ-2 logged over 1000 combat hours in under 60 days in the war to liberate Iraq.

          VMAQ-2 deployed to Tallil Air Base, Iraq, for Operation IRAQI FREEDOM II from July 2004 through January 2005 and became the first Prowler squadron to operate from Iraqi soil. The squadron logged over 2000 mishap-free combat hours and attained 10,000 Mishap Free Flight Hours during the same period. VMAQ-2 was subsequently chosen as the Marine Corps Aviation Association 2005 Prowler squadron of the year.

          In January 2006, VMAQ-2 deployed to Al Asad, Iraq in support of Operation IRAQI FREEDOM 05-07. VMAQ-2 flew 691 combat missions for 3286.7 combat flight hours and supported 975 Joint Tactical Air Requests (JTARS). This rigorous operational tempo resulted in four times the normal airframe utilization rate.

          In July 2007, VMAQ-2 returned to Al Asad, Iraq in support of Operation IRAQI FREEDOM 06-08. During the deployment, VMAQ-2 flew 821 combat missions for a total of 4423.0 combat flight hours while supporting Coalition ground forces. This sustained tempo led not only to the highest utilization rate for any Prowler squadron but also for any Type/Model/Series in the Marine Corps.


          Marcus Luttrell’s Escape

          On the ground and nearly out of ammunition, the four SEALs, Murphy, Luttrell, Dietz, and Axelson, continued the fight. By the end of the two-hour gunfight that careened through the hills and over cliffs, Murphy, Axelson, and Dietz had been killed. An estimated 35 Taliban were also dead.

          The fourth SEAL, Luttrell, was blasted over a ridge by a rocket-propelled grenade and was knocked unconscious. Regaining consciousness sometime later, Luttrell managed to escape – badly injured – and slowly crawl away down the side of a cliff. Dehydrated, with a bullet wound to one leg, shrapnel embedded in both legs, three vertebrae cracked the situation for Luttrell was grim. Rescue helicopters were sent in, but he was too weak and injured to make contact.

          Traveling seven miles on foot, he evaded the enemy for nearly a day. Gratefully, local nationals came to his aid, carrying him to a nearby village where they kept him for three days. The Taliban came to the village several times, demanding that Luttrell be turned over to them. The villagers refused. One of the villagers made his way to a Marine outpost with a note from Luttrell, and U.S. forces launched a massive operation that rescued him from enemy territory on July 2.

          By his undaunted courage, intrepid fighting spirit, and inspirational devotion to his men in the face of certain death, Lt. Murphy was able to relay the position of his unit, an act that ultimately led to the rescue of Luttrell and the recovery of the remains of the three who were killed in the battle.

          This was the worst single-day U.S. Forces death toll since Operation Enduring Freedom began. It was the single largest loss of life for Naval Special Warfare since World War II. Operation Red Wings was a pyrrhic victory U.S. victory.

          The Naval Special Warfare (NSW) community will forever remember June 28, 2005, and the heroic efforts and sacrifices of our special operators. We hold with reverence the ultimate sacrifice they made while engaged in that fierce firefight on the global war’s front lines on terrorism (GWOT).


          Full list of casualties

          Number of casualties: one
          Circumstances: A British soldier died of his injuries in Edinburgh. He was injured in an accident on April 1.
          Name released by MoD: Lieutenant Alexander Tweedie, 25, the Blues and Royal Household Cavalry Regiment.

          Number of casualties: no casualties confirmed

          Number of casualties: three
          Circumstances: One soldier was killed in action in Basra. Two other soldiers were killed in action in Basra in a separate incident later on the same day.
          Names released by MoD: Fusilier Kelan John Turrington, 18, Royal Regiment of Fusiliers Lance Corporal Ian Keith Malone, 28,1st Battalion, Irish Guards Piper Christopher Muzvuru, 21, 1st Battalion, Irish Guards.

          Number of casualties: no casualties confirmed.

          Number of casualties: one
          Circumstances: one soldier was killed in an accident involving a light armoured vehicle.
          Name released by MoD: Lance Corporal Karl Shearer, age unknown, Household Cavalry Regiment.

          Number of casualties: one
          Circumstances: one soldier was killed in southern Iraq during an explosive ordnance disposal operation.
          Name released by MoD: Staff Sergeant Chris Muir, 32, Army School of Ammunition, Royal Logistic Corps.

          Number of casualties: two
          Circumstances: One Royal Marine was killed in action during fighting in the area of Basra. One soldier was killed in a road traffic accident in Kuwait.
          Names released by MoD: Marine Christopher R Maddison, 24, 9 Assault Squadron Royal Marines Lance Corporal Shaun A Brierley, 28, 212 Signal Squadron, 1(UK) Armoured Division HQ & Signal Regiment, based in Herford. Major Steve Ballard, age unknown, 3 Commando Brigade, Royal Marines, died of natural causes.

          Number of casualties: no casualties confirmed.

          Number of casualties: one
          Circumstances: One soldier was killed in a "friendly fire" incident after his armoured vehicle was fired upon by an American A-10 Thunderbolt Tankbuster.
          Name released by MoD: Lance Corporal of Horse Matty Hull, 25, of the Blues & Royals, Household Cavalry Regiment.

          Number of casualties: no casualties confirmed.

          Number of casualties: no casualties confirmed.

          Number of casualties: two
          Circumstances: Both died in a "friendly fire" attack on their Challenger tank.
          Names released by MoD: Corporal Stephen John Allbutt, 35, from Stoke-on-Trent Trooper David Jeffrey Clarke, 19, from Littleworth, Staffordshire.

          Number of casualties: two
          Circumstances: Combat operations.
          Names released by MoD: Lance Corporal Barry Stephen, 31, from Perth Sergeant Steven Mark Roberts, 33, of 2nd Royal Tank Regiment, from Bradford, West Yorkshire.

          Number of confirmed casualties: four
          Circumstances: An RAF pilot and navigator were killed after their Tornado was struck by a US patriot missile. Two soldiers were killed after an attack on a British military vehicle in southern Iraq.
          Names released by MoD: Flight Lieutenant Kevin Barry Main, age unknown, Pilot, 9 Squadron Flight Lieutenant David Rhys Williams, age unknown, Navigator, 9 Squadron Sapper Luke Allsopp, 24, 33 Engineer Regiment (Explosive Ordnance Disposal) Staff Sergeant Simon Cullingworth, 36, 33 Engineer Regiment (EOD).

          Number of casualties: six
          Circumstances: All six died when two RAF Sea King helicopters collided over the northern Arabian Gulf.
          Names released by MoD: Lieutenant Philip D Green RN, age unknown, 849 Squadron Lieutenant Antony King RN, age 35, 849 Squadron, from Helston, Cornwall Lieutenant Marc A Lawrence RN, 26, 849 Squadron Lieutenant Philip West RN, 32, 849 Squadron, from Budock Water, Cornwall Lieutenant James Williams RN, 28, 849 Squadron, from Falmouth, Cornwall Lieutenant Andrew S Wilson RN, 36, 849 Squadron.

          Number of casualties: eight
          Circumstances: All eight died when a US Marine Corps CH-46 Sea Knight helicopter crashed south of the Kuwait border.
          Names released by MoD: Colour Sergeant John Cecil, age unknown, Royal Marines, from Plymouth Lance Bombardier Llywelyn Karl Evans, 24, 29 Commando Regiment Royal Artillery, from Llandudno Captain Philip Stuart Guy, age unknown, Royal Marines Marine Sholto Hedenskog, age unknown, Royal Marines Sergeant Les Hehir, 34, 29 Commando Regiment Royal Artillery, Operator Mechanic (Communications) Second Class Ian Seymour RN, no age given ,148 Commando Battery Royal Artillery Warrant Officer Second Class Mark Stratford, age unknown, Royal Marines Major Jason Ward, 34, Royal Marines.

          US military casualties. Source: Pentagon

          US personnel identified as dead: 132
          US non-combat dead: 21
          US personnel identified as prisoners of war: none

          Number of casualties: one
          Circumstances: Soldier previously listed as missing is confirmed killed in action.
          Name released by US department of defence: Sergeant Edward Anguiano, US Army 3rd Infantry Division.

          Number of casualties: no casualties confirmed

          Number of casualties: one
          Circumstance: One soldier was killed in Kuwait when his vehicle turned over.
          Name released by US department of defence: Cpl John T Rivero, 23.

          Number of casualties: no casualties confirmed

          Number of casualties: no casualties confirmed

          Number of casualties: six
          Circumstances: One soldier was killed when his truck entered a dust cloud and went into the truck in front of him. Another was killed when in a non-hostile accident when a commercial refueller collapsed at Logistics Supply Area Viper in southern Iraq. One soldier was killed after being struck by an AP round that was discharged from an M2 Bradley vehicle. Two soldiers were killed when a grenade exploded inside their HMMWV. One soldier was killed after being mistaken for an enemy soldier.
          Names released by US department of defence: Spf Richard A Goward, 32 Cpl Armando Ariel Gonzalez, 25 Pfc Joseph P Mayek, 20 Spc Thomas A Foley III, 23 Pfc John E Brown, 21 Cpl. Jason David Mileo, 20.

          Number of casualties: one
          Circumstances: One soldier was killed by a non-combat weapon discharge in Iraq.
          Name released by US department of defence: Spc Gill Mercado, 25.

          Number of casualties: two
          Circumstances: One soldier was killed while manning a checkpoint in Baghdad. One soldier died received in action in central Iraq.
          Names released by US department of defence: Cpl Jesus A Gonzalez, 22 Marine Lance Cpl. David Edward Owens Jr, 20.

          Number of casualties: one
          Circumstances: One soldier was killed during combat operations against enemy forces in northeast Baghdad.
          Name released by US department of defence: Staff Sgt Riayan A Tejeda, 26.

          Number of casualties: two
          Circumstances: One soldier was killed in action when a car exploded next to his Bradley Fighting Vehicle. One soldier was killed in northern Baghdad while engaging enemy forces.
          Names released by US department of defence: Staff Sgt Terry W Hemingway, 39 Gunnery Sgt Jeffrey E Bohr, Jr, 39.

          Number of casualties: one
          Circumstances: one soldier was killed in action in Iraq.
          Name released by US department of defence: Staff Sgt Scott D Sather, 29.

          Number of casualties: four
          Circumstances: one soldier was killed in action by enemy fire. One soldier was killed in action. One soldier was killed in central Iraq. One soldier was killed by an enemy rocket propelled grenade during an enemy ambush in Baghdad.
          Names released by US department of defence: Staff Sgt Robert A Stever, 36 Pfc Jason M Meyers, 23 Pfc Juan Guadalupe Garza Jr, 20 Sgt 1st Class John W Marshall, 50.

          Number of casualties: eight
          Circumstances: two soldiers were killed by an enemy rocket attack south of Baghdad. One soldier was killed in action. One soldier was killed by indirect enemy fire. Two soldiers were killed in central Iraq when an enemy artillery round struck the amphibious assault vehicle in which they were travelling. One soldier was killed by enemy fire. One soldier was killed in action while supporting Operation Iraqi Freedom.
          Names released by US department of defence: Spc George A Mitchell, 23 Cpl Henry L Brown, 22 2nd Lt Jeffrey J Kaylor, 24 Pfc Anthony S Miller, 19 Lance Cpl Andrew Julian Aviles, 18 Cpl. Jesus Martin Antonio Medellin, 21 Staff Sgt Lincoln D Hollinsaid, 27 Capt. Eric B. Das, 30.

          Number of casualties: two
          Circumstances: one soldier was killed in action. One soldier was killed by enemy fire.
          Names released by US department of defence: Pvt Kelley S Prewitt, 24 Pfc Gregory P Huxley, Jr, 19.

          Number of casualties: three
          Circumstances: one soldier was killed in action in Iraq. One soldier died from wounds received while engaged with enemy forces in central Iraq. One soldier was killed by enemy fire during a raid in Baghdad.
          Names released by US department of defence: Spc Larry K. Brown, 22 1st Sgt Edward Smith, 38 Staff Sgt Stevon A Booker, 34.

          Number of casualties: ten
          Circumstances: two soldiers were killed in action when their AH-1W Super Cobra helicopters crashed during combat operations near Ali Aziziyal, Iraq. Two soldiers were killed in action. Three soldiers were killed when their vehicle fell into a ravine. Three soldiers were during a firefight in central Iraq.
          Names released by US department of defence: Capt Travis A Ford, 30 Capt Benjamin W Sammis, 29 Capt Tristan N Aitken, 31 Sgt 1st Class Paul R Smith, 33 Pfc Wilfred D Bellard, 20 Spc Daniel Francis J Cunningham, 33 Pvt Devon D Jones, 19 Cpl Bernard G Gooden, 22 1st Lt Brian M McPhillips, 25 Sgt Duane R Rios, 25.

          Number of casualties: 11
          Circumstances: Three soldiers were killed in action. Three other soldiers died as a result of severe injuries. One soldier was killed in a non-hostile vehicle accident during convoy operations east of Ash Shahin, Iraq. One soldier was killed in action during a firefight in central Iraq. One soldier was killed in action in a separate incident. One soldier killed while investigating the wreckage of an Iraqi T-72 tank destroyed by his unit in central Iraq. Another soldier was killed in a non-hostile accident when his vehicle ran off the road into a canal.
          Names released by US department of defence: Spc Donald Oaks Jr, 20 Sgt 1st Class Randall S Rehn, 36 Sgt Todd J Robbins, 33 Staff Sgt Nino D Livaudais, 23 Spc Ryan P Long, 21 Captain Russell B Rippetoe, 27 Pfc Chad E Bales, 20 Cpl Mark A Evnin, 21 Cpl Eric H Silva, 22 Capt. Edward J Korn, 31 Staff Sgt Wilbert Davis, 40.

          Number of casualties: ten
          Circumstances: One marine died after he struck low-hanging power lines whilst he was manning a .50 calibre rifle on top of a seven-tonne truck passing through Nassiriya. One marine died after a non-combat weapons discharge in southern Iraq. One soldier was shot in northern Iraq. Small arms fire downed a US Black Hawk helicopter, killing six soldiers. A US FA-18 Hornet warplane was shot down by a surface-to-air missile near Kerbala, a city about 50 miles south of Baghdad. A search is under way for the pilot. Source: AP.
          Names released by US department of defence: Lance Cpl Brian E Anderson, 26 Pfc Christian D Gurtner, 19 Master Sgt George A Fernandez, 36 Capt James F Adamouski, 29 Spc Mathew G Boule, 22 Chief Warrant Officer Erik A Halvorsen, 40 Chief Warrant Officer Scott Jamar, 32 Sgt Michael F Pedersen, 26 Chief Warrant Officer Eric A Smith, 41 Lt Nathan D White, 30.

          Number of casualties: two
          Circumstances: One soldier was killed in Samawa when a rocket-propelled grenade hit his vehicle. One marine was killed by a non-combat weapon discharge at Camp Coyote, Kuwait.
          Names released by US department of defence: Sgt Jacob L Butler, 24 Lance Cpl Joseph B Maglione, 22.

          Number of casualties: one
          Circumstances: One soldier was killed by enemy artillery in Ayyub.
          Names released by US department of defence: Spc Brandon J Rowe, 20.

          Number of casualties: three
          Circumstances: three marines died in a UH-1N Huey helicopter crash in southern Iraq.
          Names released by US department of defence: Sgt Michael V Lalush, 23 Capt Aaron J Contreras, 31 Marine Sgt Brian D McGinnis, 23.

          Number of casualties: six
          Circumstances: one marine was killed in a non-hostile vehicle accident. Four soldiers were killed at a checkpoint in southern Iraq after a bomb exploded in an approaching taxi. One marine was killed during a firefight.
          Names released by US department of defence: Lance Cpl William W White, 24 Pfc Michael Russell Creighton Weldon, 20 Spc Michael Edward Curtin, 23 Pfc Diego Fernando Rincon, 19 Sgt Eugene Williams, 24, Staff Sgt James W Cawley, 41.

          Number of casualties: two
          Circumstances: one soldier died when a Bradley fighting vehicle rolled off a cliff in a non-hostile accident in southern Iraq. One soldier was killed in action near Nassiriya.
          Names released by US department of defence: Sgt Roderic A Solomon, 32 Sgt Fernando Padilla-Ramirez, 26.

          Number of casualties: three
          Circumstances: Two died in undisclosed combat operations. One marine died when his tank fell off a bridge into the Euphrates river during combat operations northwest of Nassiriya.
          Names released by US department of defence: Gunnery Sgt Joseph Menusa, 33 Lance Cpl Jesus A Suarez del Solar, 20 Cpl Robert M Rodriguez, 21.

          Number of casualties: two
          Circumstances: One marine was killed in a non-hostile vehicle accident in Iraq. One soldier died after being evacuated from Kuwait with a sudden illness.
          Names released by US department of defence: Marine Major Kevin G Nave, 36 Spc William A Jeffries, 39.

          Number of casualties: five
          Circumstances: One soldier died from wounds received by the grenade attack at Camp Pennsylvania, Kuwait, on March 22. One sailor was killed in action in Iraq. Three soldiers were killed during convoy operations in the vicinity of the Euphrates river.
          Names released by US department of defence: Maj Gregory Stone, 40 Hospital Corpsman Third Class (Fleet Marine Force) Michael Vann Johnson, Jr, 25 Staff Sgt Donald C May, Jr, 31 Lance Cpl Patrick T O'Day, 20 Pfc Francisco A Martinez Flores, 21.

          Number of casualties: six
          Circumstances: One marine was killed by the accidental discharge of a .50 cal machine gun in southern Iraq. One soldier died in a non-hostile vehicle accident. Three soldiers were killed in military combat in the vicinity of the Saddam Canal. One soldier was killed in action on the outskirts of An Nasiriyah.
          Names released by US department of defence: Army Spc Gregory P Sanders, 19 Lance Cpl Eric J Orlowski, 26 Sgt Nicolas M Hodson, 22 Cpl Evan T James, 20 Sgt Bradley S Korthaus, 28 Lance Cpl Thomas A Blair, 24.

          Number of casualties: 28
          Circumstances: 19 marines were killed in an ambush at Nassiriya. Eight soldiers were in a convoy that was ambushed in Iraq. One soldier was killed by a grenade while sleeping in a tent at Camp Pennsylvania, Kuwait.
          Names released by US department of defence: Cpl Kemaphoom A Chanawongse, 22 Lance Cpl Brian Rory Buesing, 20 Cpl Randal Kent Rosacker, 21 Sgt Michael E Bitz, 31 Lance Cpl David K Fribley, 26 Cpl Jose A Garibay, 21 Cpl Jorge A Gonzalez, 20 Staff Sgt Phillip A Jordan, 42 2nd Lt Frederick E Pokorney Jr, 31 Lance Cpl Thomas J Slocum, age unknown Spc Jamaal R Addison, 22 Pfc Howard Johnson II, 21 Captain Williams, 31 Lance Cpl Patrick R Nixon Sgt Brendon C Reiss, 23 Pfc Tamario D Burkett, 21 Lance Cpl Donald J Cline, 21 Pvt Nolen R Hutchings, 19 Pvt Jonathan L Gifford, 20 Sgt George E Buggs, 31 Master Sgt Robert J Dowdy, 38 Pvt Ruben Estrella-Soto, 18 Spc James M Kiehl, 22 Chief Warrant Officer Johnny Villareal Mata, 35 Pfc Lori Ann Piestewa, 23 Pvt Brandon U Sloan, 19 Sgt Donald R Walters, 33 Army Capt Christopher Scott Seifert, 27.

          Number of casualties: two
          Circumstances: One died when two RAF Sea King helicopters collided. One died in a non-hostile vehicle accident. Another officer was killed by a grenade while he was sleeping in his camp in Kuwait.
          Names released by US department of defence: Navy Lt Thomas Mullen Adams, 27 Reserve Spc Brandon S Tobler, 19 Army Capt Christopher Scott Seifert, 27.

          Number of casualties: two
          Circumstances: combat operations.
          Names released by US department of defence: 2nd Lt Therrel S Childers, 30 Lance Cpl Jose Gutierrez, 22.

          Number of casualties: four
          Circumstances: All four died when their CH-46 Sea Knight helicopter crashed in Kuwait.
          Names released by US department of defence: Maj Jay Thomas Aubin, 36 Capt Ryan Anthony Beaupre, 30 Cpl Brian Matthew Kennedy, 25 Staff Sgt Kendall Damon Watersbey, 29.

          Reported incidents of Iraqi military casualties

          Iraqi military casualties: 2,320 (coalition estimate)
          Iraqi prisoners of war held: 9,000

          Reported Iraqi casualties: no estimate given

          Reported Iraqi casualties: US estimate says that at least 2,320 Iraqi soldiers have been killed in Baghdad alone. No estimate has been given for the rest of Iraq. The Iraqi military has given no figures for the losses it has suffered.

          Reported Iraqi casualties: no estimate given

          Reported Iraqi casualties: US officials say that about 2,000 Iraqi fighters were killed in Baghdad since American troops attacked the city's outskirts. Source: Reuters.
          No official Iraqi response to these claims.

          Reported Iraqi casualties: Dozens of Iraqi were killed in a fight for Kerbala. Source: Reuters.
          No official Iraqi response to these claims.

          Reported Iraqi casualties: No estimate given.

          Reported Iraqi casualties: US military officials claim 320 Iraqi soldiers were killed in the battle for Saddam international airport. Source: Reuters.
          No official Iraqi response to these claims.

          Reported Iraqi casualties: US military sources reported that the Republican Guard Baghdad division near Kut, southeast of Baghdad, has been "destroyed". No specific estimate of Iraqi casualties was given. Source: Reuters.
          No official Iraqi response to these claims.

          Reported Iraqi casualties: US military sources reported that marines from the 3rd Battalion, 4th Regiment, killed at least 75 Iraqis and took 44 PoWs during operations to clear out Iraqi mortar nests, snipers and tanks along a line several miles wide near Diwaniya, 80 miles southeast of Baghdad. Source: AP.
          No official Iraqi response to these claims.

          Reported Iraqi casualties: US military sources claim many Iraqis were killed in a fierce battle on the front line about 70 miles south of Baghdad. Source: Reuters.
          No official Iraqi response to these claims.

          Reported Iraqi casualties: US military sources claim that 50 elite Republican Guards were killed near Najaf after an attack by several US Apache helicopters. Source: Reuters.
          No official Iraqi response to these claims.

          Reported Iraqi casualties: US central command claim that a US jet killed 200 pro-Saddam paramilitaries after a laser-guided bomb hit a building in Basra.
          No official Iraqi response to these claims.

          Reported Iraqi casualties: Iraqi troop positions south of Baghdad heavily bombarded. No specific estimate of Iraqi casualties given. Source: AP.
          Iraqi response: "The heavy bombing south of Baghdad has had no great effect. Iraqi troops are well protected in small foxholes and military losses have been minimal." Source: Iraqi defence minister Sultan Hashim Ahmad Jabburi Tai.

          Reported Iraqi casualties: British forces engaged and destroyed 14 Iraqi tanks that tried to break out of the southern city of Basra. No specific estimate of Iraqi casualties was given. Source: British military.
          No official Iraqi response to these claims.

          Reported Iraqi casualties: Columns of Iraq's elite Republican Guard divisions and paramilitary fighters moved south from Baghdad. US commanders responded by ordering intense air strikes, which they said wiped out many of the convoys. No specific estimate of Iraqi casualties. Source: Washington Post.
          No official Iraqi response to these claims.

          Reported Iraqi casualties: US defence officials claim that between 150 and 500 Iraqis were killed in a battle near Najaf.
          No official Iraqi response to these claims.

          Reported Iraqi casualties: British officials claim that their forces raided a suburb of Basra and captured a senior leader of the ruling Ba'ath party, killing 20 of his bodyguards.
          Iraqi response: "The situation in Basra is stable. Resistance is continuing and we are teaching them more lessons." Source: Iraq's information minister.

          Reported Iraqi casualties: 30-plus Iraqi soldiers killed in bombing raid on their way to reinforce the city of Nassiriya. Source: Reuters.
          No official Iraqi response to these claims.

          Reported Iraqi casualties: US defence officials claim that 70 Iraqis were killed in a battle south of Najaf.
          No official Iraqi response to these claims.

          Reported Iraqi casualties: More than 60 Iraqi soldiers killed as soldiers and tanks of British 7th Armoured Brigade fired on key battlegrounds of southern Iraq. Source: Reuters.
          No official Iraqi response to these claims.

          Reported Iraqi casualties: British military claim six Iraqis were killed in battles to secure key installations on Iraq's Faw peninsula.
          No official Iraqi response to these claims.

          Iraqi civilian casualties

          Iraqi estimate: 1,254 killed, 5,112 injured (Iraqi estimates up to April 3)
          Iraqi civilians killed: 1,878- 2,325
          Source: iraqbodycount.org

          The Iraqi body count organisation is a not-for-profit organisation staffed by volunteers and funded by donations. It describes its objective as "to establish an independent and comprehensive public database of media-reported civilian deaths in Iraq".

          Its tally of civilian deaths is compiled from worldwide media reports. Each report is sourced and logged in a public database. Where its sources report differing figures, a range (a minimum and a maximum) is given. For more details visit iraqbodycount.net

          Journalist casualties

          Confirmed journalist casualties: 13
          Injured journalists: two
          Confirmed missing journalists: two

          Mario Podesto, 52, a correspondent for Argentine America TV, was killed when his car crashed on the highway between Amman and Baghdad.

          His camerawoman, Veronica Cabrera, 28, was seriously injured and died the following day. She was first female journalist to die covering the war in Iraq. Source: Reuters.

          An Iraqi interpreter was killed when gunmen ambushed and kidnapped three Malaysian journalists in Baghdad. The journalists were released the same day. Source: Reuters.

          Tarek Ayoub, a correspondent and cameraman for the al-Jazeera television network, was killed during a US air raid on Baghdad. Source: Reuters.

          Taras Protsyuk, 35, a Reuters cameraman, was killed when a US tank fired at the hotel where he and other journalists were staying. A Spanish journalist was injured in the same blast. Source: Reuters.

          Julio Anguita Parrado, 31, a reporter from Spanish daily newspaper, El Mundo, was killed in an Iraqi attack on a US communications centre on the southern outskirts of Baghdad. He was with the US 3rd Infantry Division. Christian Liebig, a reporter from the weekly magazine Focus, was also killed in the attack. Source: Reuters.

          David Bloom, 39, an NBC correspondent in Iraq, died from a blood clot according to the network. He had been travelling with US army's 3rd Infantry. Source: Reuters.

          A translator for the BBC, Kamaran Abdurazaq Muhamed, 25, was killed when a convoy of American special forces and Kurdish allies he was travelling with came under "friendly" fire by an American warplane. At least 18 people died and 45 were said to be injured

          Michael Kelly, the former editor-in-chief of the Atlantic Monthly, was killed with a US soldier in an accident involving their jeep. Source: Reuters.

          Kaveh Golestan, 52, an Iranian freelance cameraman working for the British Broadcasting Corporation, died when he stood on a landmine as he climbed out of his car.

          Channel Four News reporter Gaby Rado was found dead after apparently falling from the roof of his hotel in Kurdish-controlled northern Iraq.

          The four journalists who disappeared from a hotel in Baghdad last week have surfaced alive and well in Jordan. According to Janey McAllester who has spoken to her brother Matthew McAllester, one of the missing journalists, all four had been held in a Baghdad jail whilst the Iraqi authorities questioned them. The three missing journalists from al-Arabiya, an Arabic-language television station based in Dubai, were also safe. They resurfaced in Kuwait on March 30.

          Terry Lloyd, a senior journalist from Britain's Independent Television News (ITN), was killed after coming under coalition fire in southern Iraq. Source: ITN. French cameraman Fred Nerac and Lebanese producer Hussein Othman, who were members of Terry Lloyd's ITN crew, missing after the incident. Source: Reuters.

          Australian cameraman Paul Moran killed by a car bomb in northern Iraq. Kurdish officials blamed militant Islamic group Ansar al-Islam, which Washington has linked to al-Qaida. Source: Reuters.


          Civilian deaths in Iraq war 2003-2021

          Between 2003 and May 2021, the number of civilian deaths due to the Iraq war has fluctuated significantly. As of May 31, there were 284 documented civilian deaths in 2021.

          Civilian Deaths in the Iraq War

          Civilian casualties are the deaths of non-military individuals as a result of military operations. The number of documented civilian deaths in the Iraq war peaked in 2006 at 29,517 casualties. Since then, the number had fallen to 4,162 casualties documented in the year 2011, and the number of casualties have been decreasing since 2014. Due to the nature of the Iraq war and of war reporting, data cannot be considered exact. Many civilian deaths that occurred during the war in Iraq may remain unaccounted for.

          The Iraq war was launched in March 2003 upon the invasion of Iraq by US forces. Eight years later, in December 2011, the US formally declared an end to the Iraq war. From the start of the war in 2003 until September 30, 2015, it is estimated that the United States spent a total of over 819 billion US dollars on war costs in Iraq. This number includes funding requested by the President and appropriated by Congress, and accounts for both military and non-military spending. Spending was highest in 2008, that year over 142 billion US dollars were spent in Iraq by the United States government. As of 2019, about 7,990 U.S. active-duty military personnel were deployed in North Africa, the Near East and South Asia.

          The number of US American soldiers killed in Iraq peaked in 2007 with just over nine hundred causalities. In the same year, there were over 25,000 civilian deaths in Iraq.


          Fallen Heroes of Operation Iraqi Freedom

          Click on a servicemember's name for more information.

          June 28, 2003 Army Sgt. Timothy M. Conneway, 22, of Enterprise, Alabama. Conneway was traveling in a government vehicle when an explosive device detonated and struck the vehicle on June 26 in Baghdad, Iraq. Conneway was assigned to the 3rd Battalion, 75th Ranger Regiment, Fort Benning, Georgia. Died on June 28, 2003. June 27, 2003 Army Cpl. Tomas Sotelo, Jr., 20, of Houston, Texas. Sotelo was traveling in a convoy when a rocket propelled grenade struck his vehicle in Baghdad, Iraq. Sotelo was assigned to Headquarters Troop, 2nd Armored Cavalry Regiment, Fort Polk, Louisiana. Died on June 27, 2003. June 26, 2003 Army Spc. Cory A. Hubbell, 20, of Urbana, Illinois. Hubbell died from a non-combat related cause in Camden Yards, Kuwait. Hubbell was assigned to Company B, 46th Engineer Battalion, Fort Rucker, Alabama. Died on June 26, 2003. Navy Hospitalman Joshua McIntosh, 22, of Kingman, Arizona. McIntosh died in Karbala, Iraq, from a non-hostile gunshot wound. He was assigned to the Third Battalion, Seventh Marine Regiment, Twentynine Palms, California. Died on June 26, 2003. Army Spc. Richard P. Orengo, 32, of Puerto Rico. Orengo was shot and died of injuries he received in An Najif, Iraq. Orengo was assigned to the 755th Military Police Company, Arecibo, Puerto Rico. Died on June 26, 2003. June 25, 2003 Army Spc. Andrew F. Chris, 25, of Huntsville, Alabama. Chris was fatally wounded in Iraq in combat operations in hostile enemy territory. Chris was assigned to Company B, 3rd Battalion, 75th Ranger Regiment, Fort Benning, Georgia. Died on June 25, 2003. Marine Lance Cpl. Gregory E. MacDonald, 29, of Washington, D.C. MacDonald died in Iraq when the light armored vehicle he was traveling in rolled over. MacDonald was assigned to Bravo Company, 4th Light Armored Reconnaissance Battalion, Frederick, Maryland. Died on June 25, 2003. June 24, 2003 Army Spc. Cedric L. Lennon, 32, of West Blocton, Alabama. Lennon died from a non-combat related cause in Baghdad, Iraq. He was assigned to Headquarters and Headquarters Troop, 2nd Armored Cavalry Regiment, Fort Polk, Louisiana. Died on June 24, 2003. June 22, 2003 Army Sgt. Orenthial J. Smith, 21, of Allendale, South Carolina. Smith was in a convoy that was ambushed by small arms fire in Baghdad, Iraq. Smith was assigned to Company A, 123rd Main Support Battalion, Dexheim, Germany. Died on June 22, 2003. June 19, 2003 Army Spc. Paul T. Nakamura, 21, of Santa Fe Springs, California. Nakamura was part of an ambulance crew transporting an injured soldier when the vehicle was hit by an RPG in Al Iskandariyah, Iraq. He was assigned to 437th Medical Company, based in Colorado Springs, Colorado. Died on June 19, 2003. June 18, 2003 Army Pfc. Michael R. Deuel, 21, of Nemo, South Dakota. Deuel received fatal gun shot wounds while on guard duty at a propane distribution center in Baghdad, Iraq. He was assigned to Company B, 2nd Battalion, 325th Infantry Regiment, 82nd Airborne Division, Fort Bragg, North Carolina. Died on June 18, 2003. Army Staff Sgt. William T. Latham, 29, of Kingman, Arizona. Latham was participating in a raid at a suspected arms market in Ar Ramadi, Iraq, on May 19 when he was hit with shrapnel. Latham was evacuated back to the United States where he died of his wounds at Walter Reed Army Medical Center, in Washington, D.C. He was assigned to Troop E, 2nd Squadron, 3rd Armored Cavalry Regiment, Fort Carson, Colorado. Died on June 18, 2003. June 17, 2003 Army Pvt. Robert L. Frantz, 19, of San Antonio, Texas. Frantz was on guard duty when a local resident threw a grenade over the wall. Frantz died of his injuries in Baghdad, Iraq. He was assigned to Company B, 1st Battalion, 36th Infantry Regiment, 1st Armored Division, Ray Barracks, Germany. Died on June 17, 2003. Army Sgt. Michael L. Tosto, 24, of Apex, North Carolina. Tosto died from a non-combat related cause at Camp Wolf, Kuwait. He was assigned to Company A, 1st Battalion, 35th Armored Regiment, 1st Armored Division, Smith Barracks, Germany. Died on June 17, 2003. June 16, 2003 Army Pfc. Shawn D. Pahnke, 25, of Shelbyville, Indiana. Pahnke was on patrol in Baghdad, Iraq when he received a fatal gunshot wound. He was assigned to Company C, 1st Battalion, 37th Armored Regiment, 1st Armored Division, Friedberg, Germany. Died on June 16, 2003. Army Spc. Joseph D. Suell, 24, of Lufkin, Texas. Suell died from a non-combat related cause in Todjie, Iraq. Suell was assigned to Headquarters and Headquarters and Service Battery, 5th Battalion, 3rd Field Artillery Regiment, Fort Sill, Oklahoma. Died on June 16, 2003. June 15, 2003 Marine Pfc. Ryan R. Cox, 19, of Derby, Kansas. Died as a result of wounds received from a non-combat weapon discharge near An Najaf, Iraq. Cox was assigned to the 1st Battalion, 7th Marine Regiment, 1st Marine Division, Marine Corps Air-Ground Combat Center, Twentynine Palms, California. Died on June 15, 2003. June 13, 2003 Army Staff Sgt. Andrew R. Pokorny, 30, of Naperville, Illinois. On the way back from patrol, Pokorny's M113 armored personnel carrier threw a track causing the vehicle to roll over in Al Asad, Iraq. He was assigned to 3rd Air Defense Artillery, 3rd Armor Cavalry Regiment, Fort Carson, Colorado. Died on June 13, 2003. June 12, 2003 Army Spc. John K. Klinesmith, Jr., 25, of Stockbridge, Georgia. Klinesmith was last seen wading in the lake on the palace compound in Al Fallujah, Iraq. A search was launched and Klinesmith's body was discovered at the lake. He was assigned to Company C, 2nd Battalion, 14th Infantry Regiment, 10th Mountain Division, Fort Drum, New York. Died on June 12, 2003. June 10, 2003 Army Cpl. Gavin L. Neighbor, 20, of Somerset, Ohio. Neighbor was off work from guard duty resting in a bus in Baghdad, Iraq when a rocket propelled grenade round was fired from men in the street. Neighbor died as a result of his wounds. He was assigned to Company C, 3rd Battalion, 325th Infantry Regiment, 82nd Airborne Division, Fort Bragg, North Carolina. Died on June 10, 2003. June 8, 2003 Army Staff Sgt. Micheal E. Dooley, 23, of Pulaski, Virginia. Dooley was manning a traffic control point in Al Asad, Iraq when a vehicle came up to the checkpoint and two individuals got out requesting a medic for their sick friend. Immediately following the request for help, they opened fire on Dooley which resulted in his death. Dooley was assigned to 1st Squadron, B Troop, 4th Platoon, 3rd Armor Cavalry Regiment, Fort Carson, Colorado. Died on June 8, 2003. June 7, 2003 Army Pvt. Jesse M. Halling, 19, of Indianapolis, Indiana. Halling received a fatal gunshot wound at a military police station when his section received rifle propelled grenade and small arms fire. Halling was assigned to 401st Military Police Company, Fort Hood, Texas. Died on June 7, 2003. June 6, 2003 Navy Petty Officer 3rd Class Doyle W. Bollinger, Jr., 21, of Poteau, Oklahoma. Bollinger died in Iraq when a piece of unexploded ordnance accidentally detonated in the area he was working. He was assigned to Naval Mobile Construction Battalion 133, Gulfport, Mississippi. Died on June 6, 2003. Army Sgt. Travis L. Burkhardt, 26, of Edina, Missouri. Burkhardt was part of an escort mission when the vehicle he was in hit a curb along the road and rolled over in Baghdad, Iraq. Burkhardt was assigned to 170th Military Police Company, Fort Lewis, Washington. Died on June 6, 2003. Navy Petty Officer 3rd Class David Sisung, 21, of Phoenix, Arizona. Sinsung died of a non-combat related injury while in the Persian Gulf. He was assigned to the USS Nimitz, home ported in San Diego, California. Died on June 6, 2003. June 5, 2003 Army Spc. Branden F. Oberleitner, 20, of Worthington, Ohio. Oberleitner was returning from a dismounted patrol when the element was fired upon by a rifle propelled grenade in Al Fallujah, Iraq. Oberleitner was assigned to Company B, 2nd Battalion, 502nd Infantry Regiment, Fort Campbell, Kentucky. Died on June 5, 2003. June 3, 2003 Army Sgt. Atanacio Haro-Marin, 27, of Baldwin Park, California. Haro-Marin was manning a checkpoint south of Balad, Iraq when his unit came under enemy fire from rocket propelled grenades and small arms. Haro-Marin was assigned to Battery C, 3rd Battalion, 16th Field Artillery Regiment, Fort Hood, Texas. Died on June 3, 2003. June 1, 2003 Marine Sgt. Jonathan W. Lambert, 28, of Newsite, Mississippi. Lambert died at Landstuhl Regional Medical Center, Germany, as a result of injuries he suffered when his HMMWV rolled over on May 26 in Iraq. He was assigned to the Headquarters Battalion, 1st Marine Division, Camp Pendleton, California. Died on June 1, 2003. May 30, 2003 Army Spc. Michael T. Gleason, 25, of Warren, Pennsylvania. Spc. Gleason was traveling in a three-vehicle convoy during a storm from Mosul to Tikrit (2 HUMMVs, 1 light medium tactical vehicle). A civilian vehicle dodged a pothole causing the HUMMVs to swerve. There was not enough stopping distance between the vehicles causing the LMTV to swerve off the road and turn over, causing the death of Gleason and two other soldiers. He was assigned to the 519th Military Intelligence Battalion, Fort Bragg, North Carolina. Died on May 30, 2003. Army Spc. Kyle A. Griffin, 20, of Emerson, New Jersey. Griffin was traveling in a three-vehicle convoy during a storm from Mosul to Tikrit (2 HUMMVs, 1 light medium tactical vehicle). A civilian vehicle dodged a pothole causing the HUMMVs to swerve. There was not enough stopping distance between the vehicles causing the LMTV to swerve off the road and turn over, causing the death of Griffin and two other soldiers. He was assigned to the 519th Military Intelligence Battalion, Fort Bragg, North Carolina. Died on May 30, 2003. Army Spc. Zachariah W. Long, 20, of Milton, Pennsylvania. Spc. Long was traveling in a three-vehicle convoy during a storm from Mosul to Tikrit (2 HUMMVs, 1 light medium tactical vehicle). A civilian vehicle dodged a pothole causing the HUMMVs to swerve. There was not enough stopping distance between the vehicles causing the LMTV to swerve off the road and turn over, causing the death of Long and two other soldiers. He was assigned to the 519th Military Intelligence Battalion, Fort Bragg, North Carolina. Died on May 30, 2003. May 28, 2003 Army Staff Sgt. Kenneth R. Bradley, 39, of Utica, Mississippi. Bradley's death in Baqubah, Iraq was non-combat related. He was assigned to 588th Engineer Battalion, Fort Hood, Texas. Died on May 28, 2003. Army Spc. Jose A. Perez III, 22, of San Diego, Texas. Perez was in a convoy that was ambushed in Taji, Iraq. He was assigned to 6th Battalion, 27th Field Artillery Regiment, Fort Sill, Oklahoma. Died on May 28, 2003. May 27, 2003 Army Sgt. Thomas F. Broomhead, 34, of Cannon City, Colorado. Broomhead was on guard at a checkpoint in Al Fallujah, Iraq when a vehicle pulled up and assailants fired on him. Broomhead was assigned to 2nd Squadron, 3rd Armor Cavalry Regiment, Fort Carson, Colorado. Died on May 27, 2003. Army Staff Sgt. Michael B. Quinn, 37, of Colorado Springs, Colorado. Quinn was on guard duty at a checkpoint in Al-Fallujah, Iraq when a vehicle pulled up and assailants fired on him. Quinn was assigned to the 2nd Squadron, 3rd Armor Cavalry Regiment, Fort Carson, Colorado. Died on May 27, 2003. May 26, 2003 (5) Army Sgt. Keman L. Mitchell, 24, of Hilliard, Florida. Mitchell jumped into seven-foot deep body of water in Kirkuk, Iraq. When he failed to resurface, members of his squad retrieved him. Medical personnel went to the scene and started cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Mitchell was evacuated to a forward surgical team and was pronounced dead on arrival. Mitchell was assigned to Company C, 4th Engineer Battalion, Fort Carson, Colorado. Died on May 26, 2003. Army Pvt. Kenneth A. Nalley, 19, of Hamburg, Iowa. Nalley and Staff Sgt. Brett J. Petriken were escorting a convoy in a HMMWV when a heavy equipment transporter crossed the median and struck their vehicle in As Samawah, Iraq. Both soldiers were assigned to the 501st Military Police Company, Wiesbaden, Germany. Died on May 26, 2003. Army Staff Sgt. Brett J. Petriken, 30, of Michigan. Petriken and Pvt. Kenneth A. Nalley were escorting a convoy in a HMMWV when a heavy equipment transporter crossed the median and struck their vehicle in As Samawah, Iraq. Both soldiers were assigned to the 501st Military Police Company, Wiesbaden, Germany. Died on May 26, 2003. Army Maj. Mathew E. Schram, 36, of Wisconsin. Schram was killed while traveling in a military convoy on a resupply mission when they encountered enemy fire in Hadithah, Iraq. He was assigned to the HHT Support Squadron 3rd ACR, Fort Carson, Colorado. Died on May 26, 2003. Army Pfc. Jeremiah D. Smith, 25, of Odessa, Missouri. Smith was escorting heavy equipment transporters when his vehicle hit unexploded ordnance in Baghdad, Iraq. Smith was assigned to 1st Battalion, 34th Armor Regiment, Fort Riley, Kansas. Died on May 26, 2003. May 25, 2003 Army Pvt. David Evans, Jr., 18, of Buffalo, New York. Evans was killed in an explosion at a facility which contained Iraqi ammunition in Ad Diwaniyah, Iraq. Evans and another soldier were performing security at the site when their steel shelter collapsed during the initial explosion. The rest of the squad returned after the first explosion and extracted the other soldier, but Pvt. Evans remains could not be located until several hours later. Evans was assigned to the 977th Military Police Company, Fort Riley, Kansas. Died on May 25, 2003. May 21, 2003 Army Spc. Nathaniel A. Caldwell, 27, of Omaha, Nebraska. Caldwell was responding to a civilian call when his vehicle rolled over in Baghdad, Iraq. Caldwell was assigned to the 404th Air Support Battalion, 4th Infantry Division, Fort Hood, Texas. Died on May 21, 2003. May 19, 2003 (6) Army Lt. Col. Dominic R. Baragona, 42, of Ohio. Killed in Iraq. A tractor-trailer jackknifed on the road and collided with Baragona's HMMWV causing his death. Baragona was assigned to 19th Maintenance Battalion, Fort Sill, Oklahoma. Died on May 19, 2003. Marine Capt. Andrew David LaMont, 31, of Eureka, California. Died when his CH-46 Sea-Knight helicopter went down in the Shatt Al Hillah Canal in Iraq shortly after take-off. The helicopter was conducting a resupply mission in support of civil military operations. He was assigned to Marine Medium Helicopter Squadron - 364, Marine Aircraft Group 39, 3rd Marine Aircraft Wing, Camp Pendleton, California. Died on May 19, 2003. Marine Lance Cpl. Jason William Moore, 21, of San Marcos, California. Died when his CH-46 Sea-Knight helicopter went down in the Shatt Al Hillah Canal in Iraq shortly after take-off. The helicopter was conducting a resupply mission in support of civil military operations. He was assigned to Marine Medium Helicopter Squadron - 364, Marine Aircraft Group 39, 3rd Marine Aircraft Wing, Camp Pendleton, California. Died on May 19, 2003. Marine 1st Lt. Timothy Louis Ryan, 30, of Aurora, Illinois. Died when his CH-46 Sea-Knight helicopter went down in the Shatt Al Hillah Canal in Iraq shortly after take-off. The helicopter was conducting a resupply mission in support of civil military operations. He was assigned to Marine Medium Helicopter Squadron - 364, Marine Aircraft Group 39, 3rd Marine Aircraft Wing, Camp Pendleton, California. Died on May 19, 2003. Marine Sgt. Kirk Allen Straseskie, 23, of Beaver Dam, Wisconsin. Drowned in a canal near Al Hillah, Iraq, when he attempted to rescue the crewmembers of a Marine CH-46 helicopter that went down in the canal. Straseskie was assigned to the 1st Battalion, 4th Marine Regiment, Camp Pendleton, California. Died on May 19, 2003. Marine Staff Sgt. Aaron Dean White, 27, of Shawnee, Oklahoma. Died when his CH-46 Sea-Knight helicopter went down in the Shatt Al Hillah Canal in Iraq shortly after take-off. The helicopter was conducting a resupply mission in support of civil military operations. He was assigned to Marine Medium Helicopter Squadron - 364, Marine Aircraft Group 39, 3rd Marine Aircraft Wing, Camp Pendleton, California. Died on May 19, 2003. May 18, 2003 Marine Cpl. Douglas Jose Marencoreyes, 28, of Chino, California. Died when the large transport truck he was driving rolled over approximately 30 km southeast of Al Samawah, Iraq. Marencoreyes was a reservist assigned to the 4th Light Armored Reconnaissance Battalion, Headquarters and Service Company, Camp Pendleton, California. Died on May 18, 2003. Army Spc. Rasheed Sahib, 22, of Brooklyn, New York. Sahib and another soldier in Balad, Iraq were cleaning their weapons when the other soldier's weapon discharged striking Sahib in the chest. Sahib was assigned to 20th Field Artillery Regiment, 4th Infantry Division, Fort Hood, Texas. Died on May 18, 2003. May 16, 2003 Army Master Sgt. Williams L. Payne, 46, of Otsego, Michigan. Payne was examining unexploded ordnance in Haswah, Iraq when the ordnance exploded causing his death. He was assigned to 2nd Battalion, 70th Armor Regiment, Fort Riley, Kansas. Died on May 16, 2003. May 14, 2003 Army Spc. David T. Nutt, 32, of Douglas, Georgia. Nutt died in Mosul, Iraq when an Iraqi civilian vehicle cut his loaded 5-Ton Truck off on the road. Nutt swerved hit the median and his vehicle overturned. He was assigned to the 494th Transportation Company, Fort Campbell, Kentucky. Died on May 14, 2003. May 13, 2003 Air Force Staff Sgt. Patrick Lee Griffin, Jr., 31, of Dryden, New York. Killed in action near Diwaniyah, Iraq when his convoy was ambushed enroute to Baghdad. Griffin was a data systems technician assigned to the 728th Air Control Squadron, Eglin Air Force Base, Florida. Died on May 13, 2003. Marine Lance Cpl. Nicholas Brian Kleiboeker, 19, of Irvington, Illinois. Killed near Al Hillah, Iraq, when the munitions bunker he was working in caught fire and exploded. He was assigned to the 2nd Combat Engineer Battalion, 2nd Marine Division, Camp Lejeune, North Carolina. Died on May 13, 2003. May 12, 2003 Marine Pfc. Jose Franci Gonzalez-Rodriguez, 19, of Norwalk, California. Killed in Iraq along with another First Marine Expeditionary Force Marine when unexploded ordnance they were handling detonated. He was assigned to the 1st Supply Battalion, 1st Force Service Support Group, Camp Pendleton, California. Died on May 12, 2003. Marine Lance Cpl. Jakub Henryk Kowalik, 21, of Schaumburg, Illinois. Killed in Iraq along with another First Marine Expeditionary Force Marine when unexploded ordnance they were handling detonated. He was assigned to the 1st Maintenance Battalion, 1st Force Service Support Group, Camp Pendleton, California. Died on May 12, 2003. May 10, 2003 Marine Lance Cpl. Matthew R. Smith, 20, of Anderson, Indiana. Smith died in a non-hostile vehicle accident in Kuwait when the HMMWV he was driving as part of a convoy to Camp Coyote in Kuwait struck a parked trailer. He was a reservist assigned to Detachment 1, Communications Company, Headquarters and Service Battalion, 4th Force Service Support Group, Peru, Indiana. Died on May 10, 2003. May 9, 2003 Marine Lance Cpl. Cedric E. Bruns, 22, of Vancouver, Washington. Bruns died in a non-hostile vehicle accident in Kuwait when the pick-up truck that he was driving was struck on the driver's side by a logistics vehicle system. He was a reservist assigned to the 6th Engineer Support Battalion, 4th Force Service Support Group, Eugene, Oregon. Died on May 9, 2003. Army Sgt. Richard P. Carl, 26, of King Hill, Idaho. Carl was onboard an UH-60 air medical helicopter which crashed in the Tigris River in a non-hostile incident near Samarrah, Iraq. He was assigned to the 571st Air Medical Company, Fort Carson, Colorado. Died on May 9, 2003. Army CWO Hans N. Gukeisen, 31, of Lead, South Dakota. Gukeisen was onboard an UH-60 air medical helicopter which crashed in the Tigris River in a non-hostile incident near Samarrah, Iraq. He was assigned to the 571st Air Medical Company, Fort Carson, Colorado. Died on May 9, 2003. Army CWO Brian K. Van Dusen, 39, of Columbus, Ohio. Van Dusen was onboard an UH-60 air medical helicopter which crashed in the Tigris River in a non-hostile incident near Samarrah, Iraq. He was assigned to the 571st Air Medical Company, Fort Carson, Colorado. Died on May 9, 2003. May 8, 2003 Army Pfc. Marlin T. Rockhold, 23, of Hamilton, Ohio. Pfc. Rockhold was directing traffic when he was struck by a sniper's bullet. Rockhold was assigned to 3rd Battalion, 7th Infantry Regiment, 3rd Infantry Division (Mechanized), Fort Stewart, Georgia. Died on May 8, 2003. May 4, 2003 Army Pvt. Jason L. Deibler, 20, of Hampton, Virginia. Killed by a non-combat weapon discharge in Kuwait. Deibler was assigned to 1st Battalion, 6th Infantry Regiment, based at Smith Barracks, Baumholder, Germany. Died on May 4, 2003. May 3, 2003 Army Sgt. Sean C. Reynolds, 25, of East Lansing, Michigan. Reynolds was climbing a ladder in Iraq when he fell causing his M4 rifle to accidentally discharge. Reynolds was assigned to the 74th Long-Range Surveillance Detachment 173rd Airborne Brigade, Camp Ederle, Italy. Died on May 3, 2003. May 1, 2003 Army Pfc. Jesse A. Givens, 34, of Springfield, Missouri. Givens was parked in an M-1 main battle tank alongside the bank of the Euphrates River in Al Habbaniyah, Iraq. The riverbank gave way resulting in the tank falling into the river. Givens was assigned to 2nd Squadron, 3rd Armored Cavalry Regiment, Fort Carson, Colorado. Died on May 1, 2003. April 28, 2003 Army 1st Sgt. Joe J. Garza, 43, of Robstown, Texas. Garza was riding in a HMMWV that swerved to avoid a civilian vehicle in Baghdad, Iraq. Graza fell out and was struck by a civilian vehicle. He was assigned to 1st Battalion, 30th Infantry Regiment, Fort Benning, Georgia. Died on April 28, 2003. April 25, 2003 Army 1st Lt. Osbaldo Orozco, 26, of Delano, California. Died when his vehicle rolled over while traveling through rough terrain. His unit was the quick reaction force and was responding to enemy fire. He was assigned to C Company, 1st Battalion, 22nd Infantry Regiment, Fort Hood, Texas. Died on April 25, 2003. Army Spc. Narson B. Sullivan, 21, of North Brunswick, New Jersey. Killed by a non-combat weapon discharge. He was assigned to 411th Military Police Company, Fort Hood, Texas. Died on April 25, 2003. April 24, 2003 Army Sgt. Troy David Jenkins, 25, of Ridgecrest, California. Died of Wounds received in action. On April 19, Sgt. Jenkins was on a dismounted patrol with other soldiers when he was injured as result of an explosion. He was assigned to B Company, 3rd Battalion, 187th Infantry Regiment, Fort Campbell, Kentucky. Died on April 24, 2003. April 22, 2003 Marine CWO Andrew Todd Arnold, 30, of Spring, Texas. Killed in a non-hostile accident with two other soldiers when a rocket-propelled grenade launcher they were firing for familiarization malfunctioned on a firing range near the city of Al Kut, Iraq. He was assigned to the 1st Battalion, 10th Marine Regiment, 2nd Marine Expeditionary Brigade, Camp Lejeune, North Carolina. Died on April 22, 2003. Army Spc. Roy Russell Buckley, 24, of Portage, Indiana. Buckley was aboard a M818 truck traveling in a convoy when he exited the passenger compartment, climbed into the trailer and did not return. Buckley was discovered lying on the side of the road with serious injuries. Medical aid was summoned and he was pronounced dead. Buckley was assigned to the 685th Transportation Company, Hobart, Indiana. Died on April 22, 2003. Marine CWO Robert William Channell, Jr., 36, of Tuscaloosa, Alabama. Killed in a non-hostile accident with two other soldiers when a rocket-propelled grenade launcher they were firing for familiarization malfunctioned on a firing range near the city of Al Kut, Iraq. He was assigned to the 1st Battalion, 10th Marine Regiment, 2nd Marine Expeditionary Brigade, Camp Lejeune, North Carolina. Died on April 22, 2003. Marine Lance Cpl. Alan Dinh Lam, 19, of Snow Camp, North Carolina. Killed in a non-hostile accident with two other soldiers when a rocket-propelled grenade launcher they were firing for familiarization malfunctioned on a firing range near the city of Al Kut, Iraq. He was assigned to the 8th Communication Battalion, 10th Marine Regiment, 2nd Marine Expeditionary Brigade, Camp Lejeune, North Carolina. Died on April 22, 2003. April 17, 2003 Army Cpl. John Travis Rivero, 23, of Gainesville, Florida. Rivero died from injuries sustained when his HMMWV turned over in Western Iraq. He was assigned to C Company, 2nd Battalion, 124th Infantry Division, Eustis, Florida. Died on April 17, 2003. April 14, 2003 (7) Army Pfc. John E. Brown, 21, of Troy, Alabama. Killed in Iraq when a grenade exploded inside his HMMWV . He was assigned to the 2nd Battalion, 44th Air Defense Artillery Regiment, Fort Campbell, Kentucky. Died on April 14, 2003. Army Spc. Thomas A. Foley III, 23, of Dresden, Tennessee. Killed in Iraq when a grenade exploded circumstances under continuing investigation. He was assigned to the 2nd Battalion, 44th Air Defense Artillery Regiment, Fort Campbell, Kentucky. Died on April 14, 2003. Marine Cpl. Armando Ariel Gonzalez, 25, of Hialeah, Florida. Killed in a non-hostile accident when a commercial refueler collapsed at Logistics Supply Area Viper in southern Iraq. Gonzalez was assigned to Marine Wing Support Squadron (MWSS)-273, Marine Wing Support Group (MWSG)-27, 2nd Marine Aircraft Wing, Marine Corps Air Station Beaufort, South Carolina. Died on April 14, 2003. Army Spc. Richard A. Goward, 32, of Midland, Michigan. Died in Iraq when his truck entered a dust cloud and rear-ended the truck in front of him. Goward was assigned to 1460th Transportation Company, Midland, Michigan. Died on April 14, 2003. Army Pfc. Joseph P. Mayek, 20, of Rock Springs, Wyoming. Died after being struck by an AP round that was discharged from an M2 Bradley vehicle. Mayek was assigned to C Company, 2nd Battalion, 6th Infantry Regiment, Smith Barracks, Germany. Died on April 14, 2003. Marine Cpl. Jason David Mileo, 20, of Centreville, Maryland. Killed after being mistaken for an enemy soldier. Emergency personnel were immediately dispatched to the scene, but Mileo died on site in the vicinity of Baghdad. He was assigned to the 3rd Battalion, 4th Marine Regiment, 1st Marine Division, Twentynine Palms, California. Died on April 14, 2003. Marine Lance Cpl. David Edward Owens, Jr., 20, of Winchester, Virginia. Died of wounds received in action on April 12 in central Iraq. Owens was assigned to the 3rd Battalion, 5th Marine Regiment, 1st Marine Division, Camp Pendleton, California. Died on April 14, 2003. April 13, 2003 Navy Cmdr. Joseph Acevedo, 46, of New York, New York. Acevedo died in Manama, Bahrain. He was assigned to the Naval Forces Central Command, Tampa, Florida. Died on April 13, 2003. Army Spc. Gil Mercado, 25, of Paterson, New Jersey. Killed by a non-combat weapon discharge in Iraq. Mercado was assigned to 3rd Battalion, 187th Infantry Regiment, Fort Campbell, Kentucky. Died on April 13, 2003. April 12, 2003 Marine Cpl. Jesus A. Gonzalez, 22, of Indio, California. Killed while manning a checkpoint in Baghdad. He was assigned to 1st Tank Battalion, 1st Marine Division, Twentynine Palms, California. Died on April 12, 2003. April 11, 2003 Marine Staff Sgt. Riayan A. Tejeda, 26, of New York, New York. Killed during combat operations against enemy forces in northeast Baghdad. He was assigned to the 3rd Battalion, 5th Marine Regiment, Camp Pendleton, California. Died on April 11, 2003. April 10, 2003 Marine Gunnery Sgt. Jeffrey E. Bohr, Jr., 39, of Ossian, Iowa. Killed in northern Baghdad while engaging enemy forces. He was assigned to the 1st Battalion, 5th Marine Regiment, Camp Pendleton, California. Died on April 10, 2003. Army Staff Sgt. Terry W. Hemingway, 39, of Willingboro, New Jersey. Killed in action in Iraq. Hemingway's Bradley Fighting Vehicle was traveling down a street when a car exploded next to it. Hemingway was assigned to C Company, 1st Battalion, 15th Infantry Regiment, Fort Benning, Georgia. Died on April 10, 2003. April 8, 2003 (6) Army Cpl. Henry L. Brown, 22, of Natchez, Mississippi. Died of wounds received from an enemy rocket attack south of Baghdad. He was assigned to Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 1st Battalion, 64th Field Armor Regiment, Fort Stewart, Georgia. Died on April 8, 2003. Marine Pfc. Juan Guadalupe Garza, Jr., 20, of Temperance, Michigan. Killed in action in central Iraq. He was assigned to the 1st Battalion, 4th Marine Regiment, 1st Marine Division, Camp Pendleton, California. Died on April 8, 2003. Army Sgt. 1st Class John W. Marshall, 50, of Los Angeles, California. Killed in action in Iraq. Marshall was struck by an enemy rocket propelled grenade during an enemy ambush in Baghdad. Marshall was assigned to 3rd Battalion, 15th Infantry Regiment, 3rd Infantry Division, Fort Stewart, Georgia. Died on April 8, 2003. Army Pfc. Jason M. Meyer, 23, of Swartz Creek, Michigan. Killed in action by enemy fire in Iraq. Meyer was assigned to B Company, 11th Engineer Battalion, Fort Stewart, Georgia. Died on April 8, 2003. Air Force Staff Sgt. Scott D. Sather, 29, of Clio, Michigan. Killed in action in Iraq. Sather was assigned to the 24th Special Tactics Squadron, Pope Air Force Base, North Carolina. Died on April 8, 2003. Army Staff Sgt. Robert A. Stever, 36, of Pendleton, Oregon. Killed in action by enemy fire in Iraq. Stever was assigned to Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 3rd Battalion, 15th Infantry Regiment, 3rd Infantry Division, Fort Stewart, Georgia. Died on April 8, 2003. April 7, 2003 (8) Marine Lance Cpl. Andrew Julian Aviles, 18, of Tampa, Florida. Killed in Central Iraq when an enemy artillery round struck the Amphibious Assault Vehicle in which he was riding. He was a member of the U.S. Marine Corps Reserve assigned to the 4th Assault Amphibian Battalion, 4th Marine Division, Tampa, Florida. Died on April 7, 2003. Air Force Capt. Eric B. Das, 30, of Amarillo, Texas. Das was the pilot of an F-15E that went down during a combat mission in Iraq. He was assigned to the 333rd Fighter Squadron, Seymour Johnson Air Force Base, North Carolina. Died on April 7, 2003. Army Staff Sgt. Lincoln D. Hollinsaid, 27, of Malden, Illinois. Killed by enemy fire in Iraq. He was assigned to B Company, 11th Engineer Battalion, Fort Stewart, Georgia. Died on April 7, 2003. Army 1st Lt. Jeffrey J. Kaylor, 24, of Clifton, Virginia. Killed in Iraq. He was assigned to C Battery, 39th Field Artillery Battalion, Fort Stewart, Georgia. Died on April 7, 2003. Marine Cpl. Jesus Martin Antonio Medellin, 21, of Fort Worth, Texas. Killed in Central Iraq when an enemy artillery round struck the Amphibious Assault Vehicle in which he was riding. He was assigned to the 3rd Assault Amphibian Battalion, 1st Marine Division, Camp Pendleton, California. Died on April 7, 2003. Army Pfc. Anthony S. Miller, 19, of San Antonio, Texas. Killed by enemy indirect fire in Iraq. He was assigned to Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 3rd Infantry Division, 2nd Brigade, Fort Stewart, Georgia. Died on April 7, 2003. Army Spc. George A. Mitchell, 35, of Rawlings, Maryland. Died of wounds received from an enemy rocket attack south of Baghdad. He was assigned to Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 3rd Infantry Division, 2nd Brigade Combat Team, Fort Stewart, Georgia. Died on April 7, 2003. Air Force Maj. William R. Watkins III, 37, of Danville, Virginia. Killed in action while supporting Operation Iraqi Freedom. Watkins was assigned to the 333rd Fighter Squadron, Seymour Johnson Air Force Base, North Carolina. Died on April 7, 2003. April 6, 2003 Army Pfc. Gregory P. Huxley, Jr., 19, of Forestport, New York. Killed by enemy fire in Iraq. He was assigned to B Company, 317th Engineer Battalion, Fort Benning, Georgia. Died on April 6, 2003. Army Pvt. Kelley S. Prewitt, 24, of Alabama. Killed in action by enemy fire in Iraq. Prewitt was assigned to Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 2nd Battalion, 69th Armor Regiment, Fort Benning, Georgia. Died on April 6, 2003. April 5, 2003 Army Staff Sgt. Stevon A. Booker, 34, of Apollo, Pennsylvania. Killed by enemy fire in Iraq during a raid into Baghdad. He was assigned to A Company, 1st Battalion, 64th Armor Regiment, Fort Stewart, Georgia. Died on April 5, 2003. Army Spc. Larry K. Brown, 22, of Jackson, Mississippi. Killed in action in Iraq. He was assigned to C Company, 1st Battalion, 41st Infantry Regiment, Fort Riley, Kansas. Died on April 5, 2003. Marine 1st Sgt. Edward Smith, 38, of Chicago, Illinois. Died in Doha, Qatar as a result of wounds received while engaged with enemy forces in Central Iraq on April 4. He was assigned to FOX Company, 2nd Battalion, 5th Marine Regiment, 1st Marine Division, Camp Pendleton, California. Died on April 5, 2003. April 4, 2003 (10) Army Capt. Tristan N. Aitken, 31, of State College, Pennsylvania. Killed in action in Iraq. He was assigned to the 1st Battalion, 41st Field Artillery, 3rd Infantry Division, Fort Stewart, Georgia. Died on April 4, 2003. Army Pfc. Wilfred D. Bellard, 20, of Lake Charles, Louisiana. Killed when his vehicle fell into a ravine. He was assigned to the 41st Field Artillery Regiment, Fort Stewart, Georgia. Died on April 4, 2003. Army Spc. Daniel Francis J. Cunningham, 33, of Lewiston, Maine. Killed when his vehicle fell into a ravine. He was assigned to the 41st Field Artillery Regiment, Fort Stewart, Georgia. Died on April 4, 2003. Marine Capt. Travis A. Ford, 30, of Oceanside, California. Killed in action when his AH-1W Super Cobra helicopter crashed during combat operations near Ali-Ariziyal, Iraq. Assigned to the Marine Light Attack Helicopter Squadron (HMLA) - 267, Marine Aircraft Group 39, 3rd Marine Aircraft Wing, Camp Pendleton, California. Died on April 4, 2003. Marine Cpl. Bernard G. Gooden, 22, of Mt. Vernon, New York. Killed during a firefight in central Iraq. He was assigned to the 2nd Tank Battalion, 2nd Marine Division, Camp Lejeune, North Carolina. Died on April 4, 2003. Army Pvt. Devon D. Jones, 19, of San Diego, California. Killed when his vehicle fell into a ravine. He was assigned to the 41st Field Artillery Regiment, Fort Stewart, Georgia. Died on April 4, 2003. Marine 1st Lt. Brian M. McPhillips, 25, of Pembroke, Massachusetts. Killed during a firefight in central Iraq. He was assigned to the 2nd Tank Battalion, 2nd Marine Division, Camp Lejeune, North Carolina. Died on April 4, 2003. Marine Sgt. Duane R. Rios, 25, of Griffith, Indiana. Killed during a firefight in central Iraq. He was assigned to 1st Combat Engineer Battalion, 1st Marine Division, Camp Pendleton, California. Died on April 4, 2003. Marine Capt. Benjamin W. Sammis, 29, of Rehoboth, Massachusetts. Killed in action when his AH-1W Super Cobra helicopter crashed during combat operations near Ali Aziziyal, Iraq. He was assigned to Marine Light Attack Helicopter Squadron (HMLA) - 267, Marine Aircraft Group 39, 3rd Marine Aircraft Wing, Camp Pendleton, California. Died on April 4, 2003. Army Sgt. 1st Class Paul R. Smith, 33, of Tampa, Florida. Killed in combat in Iraq. He was assigned to the 11th Engineer Battalion, Fort Stewart, Georgia. Died on April 4, 2003. April 3, 2003 (11) Marine Pfc. Chad E. Bales, 20, of Coahoma, Texas. Killed in a non-hostile vehicle accident during convoy operations east of Ash Shahin, Iraq. He was assigned to 1st Transportation Support Battalion, 1st Force Service Support Group, Camp Pendleton, California. Died on April 3, 2003. Army Staff Sgt. Wilbert Davis, 40, of Hinesville, Georgia. Died in Iraq when his vehicle ran off the road into a canal. He was assigned to the 3rd Battalion, 69th Armor, 3rd Infantry Division, Fort Stewart, Georgia. Died on April 3, 2003. Marine Cpl. Mark A. Evnin, 21, of Burlington, Vermont. Killed in action during a firefight in Central Iraq. He was assigned to the 3rd Battalion, 4th Marine Regiment, 1st Marine Division, Twentynine Palms, California. Died on April 3, 2003. Army Capt. Edward J. Korn, 31, of Savannah, Georgia. Killed as he investigated the wreckage of an Iraqi T-72 tank destroyed by his unit in central Iraq. He was assigned to the 64th Armor, 3rd Infantry Division, Fort Stewart, Georgia. Died on April 3, 2003. Army Staff Sgt. Nino D. Livaudais, 23, of Utah. Died as a result of severe injuries in Iraq. He was assigned to A Company, 3rd Battalion, 75th Ranger Regiment, Fort Benning, Georgia. Died on April 3, 2003. Army Spc. Ryan P. Long, 21, of Seaford, Delaware. Died as a result of severe injuries in Iraq. He was assigned to A Company, 3rd Battalion, 75th Ranger Regiment, Fort Benning, Georgia. Died on April 3, 2003. Army Sgt. Donald Samuel Oaks, Jr., 20, of Harborcreek, Pennsylvania. Killed in action in Iraq. Assigned to C Battery, 3rd Battalion, 13th Field Artillery Regiment (Multiple Launch Rocket System), Fort Sill, Oklahoma. Died on April 3, 2003. Army Sgt. 1st Class Randall S. Rehn, 36, of Lawton, Oklahoma. Killed in action in Iraq. Assigned to C Battery, 3rd Battalion, 13th Field Artillery Regiment (Multiple Launch Rocket System), Fort Sill, Oklahoma. Died on April 3, 2003. Army Capt. Russell B. Rippetoe, 27, of Colorado. Killed when a car exploded at a checkpoint in western Iraq. He was assigned to A Company, 3rd Battalion, 75th Ranger Regiment, Fort Benning, Georgia. Died on April 3, 2003. Army Sgt. Todd James Robbins, 33, of Pentwater, Michigan. Killed in action in Iraq. He was assigned to C Battery, 3rd Battalion, 13th Field Artillery Regiment (Multiple Launch Rocket System), Fort Sill, Oklahoma. Died on April 3, 2003. Marine Cpl. Erik H. Silva, 22, of Holtville, California. Killed in action in Iraq. He was assigned to the 3rd Battalion, 5th Marines, 1st Marine Division, Camp Pendleton, California. Died on April 3, 2003. April 2, 2003 (10) Army Capt. James F. Adamouski, 29, of Springfield, Virginia. Killed when his UH-60 Black Hawk helicopter crashed in central Iraq. He was assigned to the 2nd Battalion, 3rd Aviation Regiment, Hunter Army Airfield, Georgia. Died on April 2, 2003. Marine Lance Cpl. Brian E. Anderson, 26, of Durham, North Carolina. Killed in a non-hostile accident west of An Nasiriyah, Iraq. Anderson was manning a .50 caliber rifle on top of a 7-ton truck when the vehicle passed under and apparently snagged low hanging power lines. He was assigned to the 2nd Light Armored Reconnaissance Battalion, 2nd Marine Division, Camp Lejeune, North Carolina. Died on April 2, 2003. Army Spc. Mathew G. Boule, 22, of Dracut, Massachusetts. Killed when his UH-60 Black Hawk helicopter crashed in central Iraq. He was assigned to the 2nd Battalion, 3rd Aviation Regiment, Hunter Army Airfield, Georgia. Died on April 2, 2003. Army Master Sgt. George Andy Fernandez, 36, of El Paso, Texas. Killed in action in northern Iraq. He was assigned to Headquarters, U.S. Army Special Operations Command, Fort Bragg, North Carolina. Died on April 2, 2003. Marine Pfc. Christian Daniel Gurtner, 19, of Ohio City, Ohio. Killed in southern Iraq by an accidental discharge of a personal weapon, unclear whether his own or someone else's. He was assigned to the 3rd Light Armored Reconnaissance Battalion, 1st Marine Division, Marine Corps Air-Ground Combat Center, Twentynine Palms, California. Died on April 2, 2003. Army CW4 Erik A. Halvorsen, 40, of Bennington, Vermont. Killed when his UH-60 Black Hawk helicopter crashed in central Iraq. He was assigned to Bravo Company, 2nd Battalion, 3rd Aviation Regiment, 3rd Infantry Division (Mechanized), Hunter Army Airfield, Georgia. Died on April 2, 2003. Army CW2 Scott Jamar, 32, of Sweetwater, Texas. Killed when his UH-60 Black Hawk helicopter crashed in central Iraq. He was assigned to the 2nd Battalion, 3rd Aviation Regiment, Hunter Army Airfield, Georgia. Died on April 2, 2003. Army Sgt. Michael F. Pedersen, 26, of Flint, Michigan. Killed when his UH-60 Black Hawk helicopter crashed in central Iraq. He was assigned to the 2nd Battalion, 3rd Aviation Regiment, Hunter Army Airfield, Georgia. Died on April 2, 2003. Army CWO Eric A. Smith, 41, of California. Killed when his UH-60 Black Hawk helicopter crashed in central Iraq. He was assigned to the 2nd Battalion, 3rd Aviation Regiment, Hunter Army Airfield, Georgia. Died on April 2, 2003. Navy Lt. Nathan D. White, 30, of Abilene, Texas. Killed in action. White was the pilot of an F/A-18C Hornet lost over Iraq. He was assigned to Strike Fighter Squadron One Nine Five (VFA 195), based in Atsugi, Japan, and currently deployed with Carrier Air Wing Five (CVW 5) aboard USS Kitty Hawk (CV 63). Died on April 2, 2003. April 1, 2003 Army Sgt. Jacob Butler, 24, of Wellsville, Kansas. Killed in action in Assamawah, Iraq, when his convoy came under attack by RPG and small arms fire. He was assigned to Headquarters Company, 1st Battalion, 41st Infantry Regiment, Fort Riley, Kansas. Died on April 1, 2003. Marine Lance Cpl. Joseph B. Maglione, 22, of Lansdale, Pennsylvania. Killed in non-combat weapon discharge at Camp Coyote, Kuwait. He was assigned to Bridge Company B, 6th Engineer Support Battalion, 4th Force Service Support Group, Folsom, Pennsylvania. Died on April 1, 2003. March 31, 2003 Army Spc. William A. Jeffries, 39, of Evansville, Indiana. Evacuated from Kuwait and died as a result of a sudden illness in Rota, Spain. He was assigned to National Guard Unit D Company, 1st Battalion, 152nd Infantry Regiment, Washington, Indiana. Died on March 31, 2003. Army Spc. Brandon Rowe, 20, of Roscoe, Illinois. Killed in action when his unit was ambused by the enemy in Al Hillah, Iraq. Assigned to C Company, 1st Battalion, 502nd Infantry Regiment, 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault), Fort Campbell, Kentucky. Died on March 31, 2003. March 30, 2003 Marine Capt. Aaron J. Contreras, 31, of Sherwood, Oregon. Killed in a UH-1N Huey helicopter crash in southern Iraq. He was assigned to Marine Light Attack Helicopter Squadron (HMLA)-169, Marine Aircraft Group-39, Marine Corps Air Station, Camp Pendleton, California. Died on March 30, 2003. Marine Sgt. Michael V. Lalush, 23, of Troutville, Virginia. Killed in a UH-1N Huey helicopter crash in southern Iraq. He was assigned to Marine Light Attack Helicopter Squadron (HMLA)-169, Marine Aircraft Group-39, Marine Corps Air Station, Camp Pendleton, California. Died on March 30, 2003. Marine Sgt. Brian D. McGinnis, 23, of St. George, Delaware. Killed in a UH-1N Huey helicopter crash in Southern Iraq. He was assigned to Marine Light Attack Helicopter Squadron (HMLA)-169, Marine Aircraft Group-39, Marine Corps Air Station Camp Pendleton, California. Died on March 30, 2003. March 29, 2003 (6) Marine Staff Sgt. James W. Cawley, 41, of Layton, Utah. Killed during a firefight with enemy forces. He was assigned to F Company, 2nd Battalion, 23rd Marine Regiment, 4th Marine Division, Salt Lake City, Utah. Died on March 29, 2003. Army Cpl. Michael Edward Curtin, 23, of Howell, New Jersey. Killed when a taxi carrying a car bomb drove up to an Army checkpoint in central Iraq. He was assigned to the 2-7th Infantry, 3rd Infantry Division, Fort Stewart, Georgia. Died on March 29, 2003. Army Pfc. Diego Fernando Rincon, 19, of Conyers, Georgia. Killed when a taxi carrying a car bomb drove up to an Army checkpoint in central Iraq. He was assigned to the 2-7th Infantry, 3rd Infantry Division, Fort Stewart, Georgia. Died on March 29, 2003. Army Pfc. Michael Russell Creighton Weldon, 20, of Palm Bay, Florida. Killed when a taxi carrying a car bomb drove up to an Army checkpoint in central Iraq. He was assigned to the 2-7th Infantry, 3rd Infantry Division, Fort Stewart, Georgia. Died on March 29, 2003. Marine Lance Cpl. William W. White, 24, of Brooklyn, New York. Killed in a non-hostile vehicle accident in Iraq. He was assigned to the 3rd Amphibious Assault Battalion, 1st Marine Division, Camp Pendleton, California. Died on March 29, 2003. Army Sgt. Eugene Williams, 24, of Highland, New York. Killed when a taxi carrying a car bomb drove up to an Army checkpoint in central Iraq. He was assigned to the 2-7th Infantry, 3rd Infantry Division, Fort Stewart, Georgia. Died on March 29, 2003. March 28, 2003 Army Sgt. Roderic A. Solomon, 32, of Fayetteville, North Carolina. Killed when a Bradley Fighting Vehicle rolled off a cliff in a non-hostile accident in Iraq. He was assigned to the 2-7th Infantry, 3rd Infantry Division, Fort Stewart, Georgia. Died on March 28, 2003. March 27, 2003 Marine Gunnery Sgt. Joseph Menusa, 33, of San Jose, California. Killed in combat. He was assigned to the 1st Combat Engineer Battalion, 1st Marine Division, Camp Pendleton, California. Died on March 27, 2003. Marine Cpl. Robert M. Rodriguez, 21, of Queens, New York. Killed in action when the tank he was riding in fell into the Euphrates River during combat operations northwest of An Nasiriyah. He was assigned to the 1st Tank Battalion, 1st Marine Division, Marine Corps Air-Ground Combat Center, Twentynine Palms, California. Died on March 27, 2003. Marine Lance Cpl. Jesus A. Suarez Del Solar, 20, of Escondido, California. Killed in combat. He was assigned to the 1st Light Armored Reconnaissance Battalion, 1st Marine Division, Camp Pendleton, California. Died on March 27, 2003. March 26, 2003 Marine Maj. Kevin G. Nave, 36, of Union Lake, Michigan. Killed in a non-hostile vehicle accident in Iraq. He was assigned to the 3rd Battalion, 5th Marine Regiment, 1st Marine Division, Camp Pendleton, California. Died on March 26, 2003. March 25, 2003 (5) Marine Pfc. Francisco A. Martinez-Flores, 21, of Los Angeles, California. Killed during convoy operations when the bridge his tank was travelling over collapsed into the Euphrates River. He was assigned to the 1st Tank Battalion, 1st Marine Division, Marine Corps Air-Ground Combat Center, Twentynine Palms, California. Died on March 25, 2003. Navy Hospital Corpsman 3rd Class Michael Vann Johnson, Jr., 25, of Little Rock, Arkansas. Killed in combat, when shrapnel from a grenade hit him in the head. He was assigned to Naval Medical Center, Third Marine Division Detachment, San Diego, California. Died on March 25, 2003. Marine Staff Sgt. Donald C. May, Jr., 31, of Richmond, Virginia. Killed during convoy operations when his tank plunged off a cliff into the Euphrates River. He was assigned to the 1st Tank Battalion, 1st Marine Division, Marine Corps Air-Ground Combat Center, Twentynine Palms, California. Died on March 25, 2003. Marine Lance Cpl. Patrick T. O'Day, 20, of Santa Rosa, California. Killed during convoy operations when his tank plunged off a cliff into the Euphrates River. He was assigned to 1st Tank Battalion, 1st Marine Division, Marine Corps Air-Ground Combat Center, Twentynine Palms, California. Died on March 25, 2003. Air Force Maj. Gregory Stone, 40, of Boise, Idaho. Died from wounds received by a March 22, 2003 grenade attack in a tent at Camp Pennsylvania, Kuwait. He was assigned to the 124th Air Support Operations Squadron, Idaho Air National Guard, Boise, Idaho. Died on March 25, 2003. March 24, 2003 Marine Sgt. Nicolas M. Hodson, 22, of Smithville, Missouri. Killed in a vehicle accident in Iraq. He was assigned to the 3rd Battalion, 2nd Marine Regiment, 2nd Marine Expeditionary Brigade, Camp Lejeune, North Carolina. Died on March 24, 2003. Marine Cpl. Evan T. James, 20, of La Harpe, Illinois. Drowned while trying to cross the Saddam Canal in southeastern Iraq. He was assigned to Engineering Company C, 6th Engineer Support Battalion, 4th Force Service Support Group, with the Naval and Marine Corps Reserve Center, Peoria, Illinois. Died on March 24, 2003. Marine Sgt. Bradley S. Korthaus, 28, of Scott, Iowa. Drowned while trying to cross the Saddam Canal in southeastern Iraq. He was assigned to Engineering Company C, 6th Engineer Support Battalion, 4th Force Service Support Group, Peoria, Illinois. Died on March 24, 2003. Army Spc. Gregory P. Sanders, 19, of Hobart, Indiana. Killed in action in Iraq. He was assigned to the 3rd Battalion, 69th Armor, Fort Stewart, Georgia. Died on March 24, 2003. March 23, 2003 (14) Army Spc. Jamaal R. Addison, 22, of Lithonia, Georgia. Killed when ambushed by enemy forces in Iraq. He was assigned to the 507th Ordnance Maintenance Company, Fort Bliss, Texas. Died on March 23, 2003. Marine Sgt. Michael E. Bitz, 31, of Ventura, California. Killed in action in the vicinity of An Nasiriyah. He was assigned to the 2nd Assault Amphibious Battalion, 2nd Marine Division, Camp Lejeune, North Carolina. Died on March 23, 2003. Marine Lance Cpl. Brian Rory Buesing, 20, of Cedar Key, Florida. Killed in combat in the vicinity of An Nasiriyah. He was assigned to the 1st Battalion, 2nd Marine Regiment, 2nd Marine Expeditionary Brigade, Camp Lejeune, North Carolina. Died on March 23, 2003. Marine Lance Cpl. David K. Fribley, 26, of Fort Myers, Florida. Killed in action in the vicinity of An Nasiriyah. He was assigned to the 1st Battalion, 2nd Marine Regiment, 2nd Marine Expeditionary Brigade, Camp Lejeune, North Carolina. Died on March 23, 2003. Marine Cpl. Jose A. Garibay, 21, of Orange, California. Killed in combat in the vicinity of An Nasiriyah. He was assigned to the 1st Battalion, 2nd Marine Regiment, 2nd Marine Expeditionary Brigade, Camp Lejeune, North Carolina. Died on March 23, 2003. Marine Pvt. Jonathan L. Gifford, 30, of Decatur, Illinois. Killed in action during operations on the outskirts of An Nasiriyah, Iraq. He was assigned to 1st Battalion, 2nd Marine Regiment, 2nd Marine Expeditionary Brigade, Camp Lejeune, North Carolina. Died on March 23, 2003. Marine Cpl. Jorge A. Gonzalez, 20, of Los Angeles, California. Killed in action in the vicinity of An Nasiriyah. He was assigned to the 1st Battalion, 2nd Marine Regiment, 2nd Marine Expeditionary Brigade, Camp Lejeune, North Carolina. Died on March 23, 2003. Army Pfc. Howard Johnson II, 21, of Mobile, Alabama. Killed when ambushed by enemy forces in Iraq. He was assigned to the 507th Ordnance Maintenance Company, Fort Bliss, Texas. Died on March 23, 2003. Marine Staff Sgt. Phillip A. Jordan, 42, of Enfield, Connecticut. Killed in action in the vicinity of An Nasiriyah. He was assigned to the 1st Battalion, 2nd Marine Regiment, 2nd Marine Expeditionary Brigade, Camp Lejeune, North Carolina. Died on March 23, 2003. Marine Cpl. Patrick R. Nixon, 21, of Gallatin, Tennessee. Killed in combat. He was assigned to the 1st Battalion, 2nd Marine Regiment, 2nd Marine Expeditionary Brigade, Camp Lejeune, North Carolina. Died on March 23, 2003. Marine 1st Lt. Frederick E. Pokorney, Jr., 31, of Nye, Nevada. Killed in action in the vicinity of An Nasiriyah. He was assigned to the Headquarters Battery, 1st Battalion, 10th Marine Regiment, 2nd Marine Expeditionary Brigade, Camp Lejeune, North Carolina. Died on March 23, 2003. Marine Cpl. Randal Kent Rosacker, 21, of San Diego, California. Killed in combat in the vicinity of An Nasiriyah. He was assigned to the 1st Battalion, 2nd Marine Regiment, 2nd Marine Expeditionary Brigade, Camp Lejeune, North Carolina. Died on March 23, 2003. Marine Lance Cpl. Thomas J. Slocum, 22, of Thornton, Colorado. Killed in action in the vicinity of An Nasiriyah. He was assigned to the 1st Battalion, 2nd Marine Regiment, 2nd Marine Expeditionary Brigade, Camp Lejeune, North Carolina. Died on March 23, 2003. Marine Lance Cpl. Michael J. Williams, 31, of Phoenix, Arizona. Killed in action on the outskirts of An Nasiriyah. He was assigned to the 1st Battalion, 2nd Marine Regiment, 2nd Marine Expeditionary Brigade, Camp Lejeune, North Carolina. Died on March 23, 2003. March 22, 2003 Navy Lt. Thomas Mullen Adams, 27, of La Mesa, California. Killed when two Royal Navy Sea King helicopters collided over international waters. He was assigned as an exchange officer with the Royal Navy's 849 Squadron since October 2002. Died on March 22, 2003. Marine Lance Cpl. Eric J. Orlowski, 26, of Buffalo, New York. Killed by an accidental discharge of a .50 cal machine gun in Iraq. He was assigned to the 2nd Tank Battalion, 2nd Marine Division, Camp Lejeune, North Carolina. Died on March 22, 2003. Army Capt. Christopher Scott Seifert, 27, of Williams Township, Pennsylvania. Killed in a grenade attack while sleeping in a tent at Camp Pennsylvania, Kuwait. He was assigned to the 101st Airborne Division, Fort Campbell, Kentucky. Died on March 22, 2003. Army Spc. Brandon S. Tobler, 19, of Portland, Oregon. Killed in a non-hostile vehicle accident in Iraq. He was assigned to the Army Reserve's 671st Engineer Company, Portland, Oregon. Died on March 22, 2003. March 21, 2003 Marine 2nd Lt. Therrel Shane Childers, 30, of Harrison County, Mississippi. Killed in action in southern Iraq. He was assigned to the 1st Battalion, 5th Marine Regiment, 1st Marine Division, Camp Pendleton, California. Died on March 21, 2003. Marine Lance Cpl. Jose Gutierrez, 22, of Los Angeles, California. Killed in action in southern Iraq. He was assigned to the 2nd Battalion, 1st Marine Regiment, 1st Marine Division, Camp Pendleton, California. Died on March 21, 2003. March 20, 2003 Marine Maj. Jay Thomas Aubin, 36, of Waterville, Maine. Killed in a CH-46E helicopter crash in Kuwait. He was assigned to the Marine Aviation Weapons and Tactics Squadron 𔃉, 3rd Marine Aircraft Wing, Marine Corps Air Station, Yuma, Arizona. Died on March 20, 2003. Marine Capt. Ryan Anthony Beaupre, 30, of St. Anne, Illinois. Killed in a CH-46E helicopter crash in Kuwait. He was assigned to the Marine Medium Helicopter Squadron �, 3rd Marine Aircraft Wing, Marine Corps Air Station, Camp Pendleton, California. Died on March 20, 2003. Marine Cpl. Brian Matthew Kennedy, 25, of Houston, Texas. Killed in a CH-46E helicopter crash in Kuwait. He was assigned to the Marine Medium Helicopter Squadron �, 3rd Marine Aircraft Wing, Marine Corps Air Station, Camp Pendleton, California. Died on March 20, 2003. Marine Staff Sgt. Kendall Damon Waters-Bey, 29, of Baltimore, Maryland. Killed in a CH-46E helicopter crash on in Kuwait. He was assigned to the Marine Medium Helicopter Squadron, 3rd Marine Aircraft Wing, Marine Corps Air Station, Camp Pendleton, California. Died on March 20, 2003. Date Unknown (25) Army Spc. Edward J. Anguiano, 24, of Brownsville, Texas. Spc. Anguiano was in a six-vehicle convoy on Highway 7 in Iraq when enemy forces ambushed them on March 23, 2003. His remains were recovered on April 24, 2003. Anguiano was assigned to 3rd Forward Support Battalion, Fort Stewart, Georgia. Army Spc. Todd M. Bates, 20, of Bellaire, Ohio. Bates was on a river patrol on the Tigris River south of Baghdad, Iraq, December 10, 2003 when his squad leader fell overboard. Bates dived into the water and did not surface. He was originally listed in a duty status whereabouts unknown status. Bates' body was subsequently recovered and his status changed to deceased on December 23, 2003. He was assigned to the 135th Military Police Company, Army National Guard, based in Brookpark, Ohio. Marine Lance Cpl. Thomas A. Blair, 24, of Broken Arrow, Oklahoma. Killed in action. His unit was engaged in operations on March 24, 2003 on the outskirts of An Nasiriyah in Iraq. His remains were recovered on March 28, 2003. He was assigned to the 2nd Low Altitude Air Defense Battalion, Marine Control Group-28, 2nd Marine Aircraft Wing, Cherry Point, North Carolina. Army Sgt. George Edward Buggs, 31, of Barnwell, South Carolina. Killed in action after his convoy was ambushed in Iraq on March 23, 2003. He was assigned to the 3rd Forward Support Battalion, 3rd Infantry Division, Fort Stewart, Georgia. Army Staff Sgt. Christopher Bunda, 29, of Washington. Bunda was originally listed as Duty Status Whereabouts Unknown (DUSTWUN) when his boat capsized during a river patrol on the Tigris River on January 25, 2004. His remains were recovered on February 10, 2004. Bunda was assigned to the 2nd Battalion, 3rd Infantry, Fort Lewis, Washington. Marine Lance Cpl. Tamario D. Burkett, 21, of Buffalo, New York. Killed in action. Burkett was engaged in operations on the outskirts of An Nasiriyah on March 23, 2003. He was assigned to 1st Battalion, 2nd Marine Regiment, 2nd Marine Expeditionary Brigade, Camp Lejeune, North Carolina. Marine Cpl. Kemaphoom A. Chanawongse, 22, of Waterford, Connecticut. Killed in action during operations on the outskirts of An Nasiriyah on March 23, 2003. Chanawongse was assigned to 2nd Assault Amphibian Battalion, 2nd Marine Division, Camp Lejeune, North Carolina. Marine Lance Cpl. Donald J. Cline, Jr., 21, of Sparks, Nevada. Killed in action. Cline was engaged in operations on the outskirts of An Nasiriyah on March 23, 2003. He was assigned to 1st Battalion, 2nd Marine Regiment, 2nd Marine Expeditionary Brigade, Camp Lejeune, North Carolina. Army 1st Sgt. Robert J. Dowdy, 38, of Cleveland, Ohio. Killed in action after his convoy was ambushed in Iraq on March 23, 2003. He was assigned to the 507th Maintenance Company, Fort Bliss, Texas. Army Pvt. Ruben Estrella-Soto, 18, of El Paso, Texas. Killed in action after his convoy was ambushed in Iraq on March 23, 2003. He was assigned to the 507th Maintenance Company, Fort Bliss, Texas. Marine Cpl. Jeffrey G. Green, 20, of Dallas, Texas. Green was found deceased on May 5, 2004 in the Euphrates River, in Al Anbar Province, Iraq. Cause of death is under investigation. He was assigned to 2nd Battalion, 4th Marine Regiment, 1st Marine Division, I Marine Expeditionary Force, Camp Pendleton, California. Marine Pvt. Nolen R. Hutchings, 19, of Boiling Springs, South Carolina. Killed in action. Hutchings was engaged in operations on the outskirts of An Nasiriyah on March 23, 2003. He was assigned to 1st Battalion, 2nd Marine Regiment, 2nd Marine Expeditionary Brigade, Camp Lejeune, North Carolina. Army Spc. James M. Kiehl, 22, of Comfort, Texas. Killed in action after his convoy was ambushed in Iraq on March 23, 2003. He was assigned to the 507th Maintenance Company, Fort Bliss, Texas. Army Sgt. Elmer C. Krause, 40, of High Point, North Carolina. Krause had been unaccounted for since April 9, 2004, when his convoy came under attack in Iraq by individuals using rocket-propelled grenades and small arms fire. His remains were recovered on April 23, 2004. Sgt. Krause was assigned to the Army Reserve's 724th Transportation Company, Bartonville, Illinois. Navy Seaman Apprentice Robert D. Macrum, 22, of Sugarland, Texas. Macrum was lost at sea. He was last seen the evening of September 12, 2005 while the ship was underway. He was assigned to the USS Princeton, currently deployed to the Arabian Gulf conducting maritime security operations as part of the Nimitz Carrier Strike Group. Army CWO Johnny Villareal Mata, 35, of Pecos, Texas. Killed in action after his convoy was ambushed in Iraq on March 23, 2003. He was assigned to the 507th Maintenance Company, Fort Bliss, Texas. Army 1st Lt. Adam G. Mooney, 28, of Cambridge, Maryland. Mooney was listed as duty status unknown on January 25, 2004 in Mosul, Iraq, when his helicopter went down in the Tigris River during a search for a missing soldier. His remains were recovered on February 14, 2003. Mooney was assigned to the 1st Battalion, 10th Aviation (Fort Drum), however, in support of mission requirements, he was attached to 3rd Squadron, 17th Cavalry, 10th Mountain Division, Fort Drum, New York. Army Pfc. Kevin C. Ott, 27, of Columbus, Ohio. Ott and Sgt. 1st Class Gladimir Philippe failed to respond to a radio check South of Balad, Iraq on June 25, 2003. The soldiers' remains were located on June 28, 2003 in Taji, Iraq. He was assigned to Battery B, 3rd Battalion, 18th Field Artillery Regiment, Fort Sill, Oklahoma. Marine Sgt. Fernando Padilla-Ramirez, 26, of San Luis, Arizona. Killed in action. Sgt. Padilla-Ramirez was last seen conducting convoy operations in the vicinity of Al Nasiriyah on March 28, 2003. His remains were identified on April 10, 2003. He was assigned to Marine Wing Support Squadron-371, Marine Wing Support Group-37, Marine Corps Air Station, Yuma, Arizona. Army Sgt. 1st Class Gladimir Philippe, 37, of Linden, New Jersey. Philippe and Pfc. Kevin C. Ott failed to respond to a radio check South of Balad, Iraq on June 25, 2003. The soldiers' remains were located on June 28, 2003 in Taji, Iraq. He was assigned to Battery B, 3rd Battalion, 18th Field Artillery Regiment, Fort Sill, Oklahoma. Army Pfc. Lori Ann Piestewa, 23, of Tuba City, Arizona. Killed in action after her convoy was ambushed in Iraq on March 23, 2003. She was assigned to the 507th Maintenance Company, Fort Bliss, Texas. Marine Sgt. Brendon C. Reiss, 23, of Casper, Wyoming. Killed in action. His unit was engaged in operations on the outskirts of An Nasiriyah on March 23, 2003. His remains were identified on April 11, 2003. He was assigned to 1st Battalion, 2nd Marine Regiment, 2nd Marine Expeditionary Brigade, Camp Lejeune, North Carolina. Marine Cpl. Dustin H. Schrage, 20, of Brevard, Florida. Schrage was found deceased on May 6, 2004 in Al Anbar Province, Iraq. Cause of death is under investigation. He was assigned to 2nd Battalion, 4th Marine Regiment, 1st Marine Division, I Marine Expeditionary Force, Camp Pendleton, California. Army Pvt. Brandon U. Sloan, 19, of Cleveland, Ohio. Killed in action after his convoy was ambushed in Iraq on March 23, 2003. He was assigned to the 507th Maintenance Company, Fort Bliss, Texas. Army Sgt. Donald R. Walters, 33, of Kansas City, Missouri. Killed in action after his convoy was ambushed in Iraq on March 23, 2003. He was assigned to the 507th Maintenance Company, Fort Bliss, Texas.

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          Who has given us the freedom of speech.

          It is the soldier, not the campus organizer,
          Who has given us the freedom to demonstrate.
          It is the soldier, not the lawyer,
          Who has given us the right to a fair trial.


          Returning Home from Iraq and Afghanistan: Preliminary Assessment of Readjustment Needs of Veterans, Service Members, and Their Families (2010)

          Since the beginning of the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq in 2001, over 1.9 million US military personnel have been deployed in 3 million tours of duty lasting more than 30 days as part of Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) or Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) (Table 2.1). Those wars are fundamentally different from the first Gulf War and other previous wars (see Chapter 3) in their heavy dependence on the National Guard and reserves and in the pace of deployments, the duration of deployments, the number of redeployments, the short dwell time between deployments, the type of warfare, the types of injuries sustained, and the effects on the service members, their families, and their communities. Moreover, OEF and OIF together make up the longest sustained US military operation since the Vietnam War, and they are the first extended conflicts to depend on an all-volunteer military. This background chapter is divided into three sections. The first provides information about the demographics of the all-volunteer military. The second highlights some of the issues faced by the troops who have served in OEF or OIF and their families that are being reported in the popular press, government reports, and the peer-reviewed scientific literature. On the basis of available data, it is not known whether those issues are causally related to deployment, but the challenges confronting the troops and their families appear to be real, and Chapter 4 describes them in greater detail. The third section of this chapter provides a brief summary of the services that are available to meet readjustment needs of OEF and OIF service members, veterans, and their families when they return from theater. Chapter 5 describes in more detail the benefits and services and the programs that have been developed to meet those needs.

          TABLE 2.1 Service Members Deployed by Component as of April 30, 2009

          a In contrast with the Army and Air Force, the Navy and Marine Corps do not have a National Guard component.

          SOURCE: Defense Manpower Data Center, 2009b.

          DEMOGRAPHICS OF THE ALL-VOLUNTEER MILITARY

          Of the military personnel serving in OEF and OIF, 89% are men and 11% women. Nearly all troops who served in Vietnam were men (only 7,494 women served) compared with over 200,000 women serving in OEF and OIF (Jacobs, 2000 Tanielian and Jaycox, 2008). Today&rsquos service members are also somewhat older 1 and more likely to be married than their Vietnam-era counterparts (Jacobs, 2000). The distribution of personnel ages varies among components of the military. According to the 2007 Demographics Report, over 40% of active-component officers are over 35 years old compared to 15% of active-component enlisted personnel (DOD, 2007). The numbers of active-component officers and enlisted members by age and service branch are summarized in Table 2.2. Members of the Marine Corps have the lowest average age, 25.0 years, and the Air Force has the highest, 29.6 years. The reserve-component officers and enlisted members are much older than the active-component officers and enlisted members, respectively (DOD, 2007). Among reserve-component officers, 73.6% are over 35 years old compared with 44.2% of active-component officers. Similarly, 55.3% of the reserve-component enlisted members are 30 years old or younger compared with 72.6% of the active-component enlisted members. Table 2.3 summarizes the numbers of reserve-component officers and enlisted personnel by age group and service branch.

          Average ages of active-duty officers and enlisted members are 34.6 years and 27.1 years, respectively. The average ages of reserve officers and enlisted members are 40.6 years and 31.2 years, respectively (DOD, 2007).

          TABLE 2.2 Percentage of Active-Component Members by Age and Service Branch in 2009

          a Total numbers do not include the US Coast Guard. The Coast Guard is part of the armed forces but during peacetime is under the authority of the Department of Homeland Security rather than DOD. During wartime, the Coast Guard is under the authority of DOD through the Department of the Navy. About 4,000 members of the Coast Guard have been deployed to OEF or OIF (see Table 2.1).

          SOURCE: Defense Manpower Data Center, 2009b.

          TABLE 2.3 Percentage of Active-Component Members by Age and Service Branch in 2009

          Army National Guard (N = 239,336)

          Marine Corp Reserve (N = 37,602)

          Air National Guard (N = 65,295)

          Air Force Reserve (N = 38,056)

          a Total numbers do not include Coast Guard reserve.

          SOURCE: Defense Manpower Data Center, 2009b.

          Of service members serving in OEF and OIF, about 66% are white, 16% black, 10% Hispanic, 4% Asian, and 4% other race (Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center, 2009) compared with 75% white, 12% black, 4% Asian, 9% other race, and 12.5% Hispanic of any race in the general population (US Census Bureau, 2000). During the Vietnam War, of the roughly 3.4 million service members who were deployed (one-third of them through the draft), close to 90% were white (Summers, 1985).

          Marital status also differs somewhat by component and service branch. Of the active-component force, 55.2% are married (DOD, 2007) the Air Force has the highest proportion of married members, 60.6%. Senior enlisted and senior officers are also more likely to be married. In addition, 6.7% of active-component military personnel are reported to be married to other military personnel (dual-military marriages) again, the Air Force has the highest percentage, 12.8% (DOD, 2007). A higher percentage of female military personnel is in dual-military marriages than males: over 26% of female Marine Corps members and 30% of female Air Force members are married to members of the military. In the most recent DOD demographic report, about 3% of those who indicated that they were married in 2006 were divorced in 2007.

          Among the reserve-component members, 49% are married. The proportion of members reporting to be married varied by service component: the Air Force reserve reported the highest percentage, 60.6%, and the Marine Corps reserve the lowest, 30.8%. As in the active component, senior enlisted and senior officers were more likely to be married (DOD, 2007).

          Some 43% of active-component members have children, two on the average. 1 Similarly, reserve-component members who have children have an average of two. The breakdowns of active-component and reserve-component members with children by service branch are summarized in Table 2.4. About 5% of active-component members are single and have children. (In comparison, according to the US Census, 17% of US households were single-parent households in 2007.) In addition, another 3% are dual-military with children. The largest percentage of minor dependents of active-component members is 5 years old and younger (41%) in the reserve component, the largest percentage is children 6&ndash14 years old (DOD, 2007). The distributions are shown in Figure 2.1.

          TABLE 2.4 Active-Component Members with Children by Service Branch in 2007

          a Total numbers do not include the Coast Guard.

          b In contrast with the Army and Air Force, the Navy and Marine Corps do not have a National Guard component.

          In the active-duty component, children include dependents 23 years old and younger. In the reserve component, children include dependents 22 years old and younger.

          FIGURE 2.1 (A) Age of children (active component) (B) Age of children (reserve component).

          Over 1.1 million active-component members are stationed in the United States. Of them, 54.5% are in six states: California (12.9%), Virginia (11.4%), Texas (10.7%), North Carolina (8.4%), Georgia (6.0%), and Florida (5.1%) (DOD, 2007). Figure 2.2 illustrates the geographic distribution of states to which Army personnel return after deployment to OEF or OIF. The 10 states where the greatest number of reserve-component members reside are California (6.9%), Texas (6.4%), Florida (4.3%), Pennsylvania (4.2%), New York (3.6%), Georgia (3.5%), Ohio (3.4%), Alabama (3.1%), Illinois (3.1%), and Virginia (3.0%) (DOD, 2007). Figures 2.3 and 2.4 show the geographic distribution in the Army National Guard and Army Reserve, respectively.

          FIGURE 2.2 Counties of residence of deployed OEF and OIF Army (active-component) military personnel.

          SOURCE: Defense Manpower Data Center, 2009a.

          FIGURE 2.3 Counties of residence of deployed OEF and OIF Army National Guard military personnel.

          SOURCE: Defense Manpower Data Center, 2009a.

          FIGURE 2.4 Counties of residence of deployed OEF and OIF Army reserve military personnel.

          SOURCE: Defense Manpower Data Center, 2009a.

          OPERATION ENDURING FREEDOM AND OPERATION IRAQI FREEDOM: UNIQUE CHARACTERISTICS

          In addition to differences from previous wars in the demographic composition of the current all-volunteer force, deployment to OEF and OIF has some unique characteristics. Because the number of troops in the active component of the military is smaller than in past conflicts, DOD has had to send military personnel on repeat tours in theater to meet the demands of an extended conflict. Overall, about 40% of current military service members have been deployed more than once (Defense Manpower Data Center, 2009b) 263,150 service members have served more than two tours. Figure 2.5 illustrates the number of tours of duty to OEF or OIF of active-component members by branch of military service, and Figure 2.6 shows the number of tours of reservists. The repeat deployments have created more frequent transitions for the service members and their families to navigate, which in turn can create additional stress and

          possible gaps in care&mdashthe stresses may not be the same for all service members, and there appear to be differences between members of the active component and members of the reserve component. Moreover, pressure on troops needed for deployment has resulted in some combat units spending longer tours and shorter periods at home between tours (referred to as dwell time) than the benchmark set by DOD (CBO, 2005). The stated policy for the active component units is 2 years of dwell time as of August 1, 2008, service members were not to be deployed for more than 12 months (Davis et al., 2005). For the reserve component, the policy is 1 year deployed and 5 years at home (Davis et al., 2005). Figures 2.7 and 2.8 show the average time deployed and the average dwell time by branch for both components, respectively. The average dwell times are substantially shorter than the established policies. According to a 2007 Government Accountability Office (GAO) report, the demands of the conflicts have made implementation of the &ldquonew&rdquo policy difficult (GAO, 2007).

          Another substantial difference in how troops are being used to fight in Iraq and Afghanistan compared with past conflicts has been the growing reliance on the National Guard and reserves (Table 2.1). Since the early 1990s, with the end of the Cold War, there has been a steady reduction in the total number of troops in the US military. 2 Although the decline was halted briefly at the time of Operation Desert Shield and Operation Desert Storm, thereafter the US military continued to reduce its active and reserve forces. 3 Despite the drawdown of military forces, the number of operational deployments increased for frequent peacekeeping missions and humanitarian operations (Jacobs, 2000). For example, the Army National Guard&rsquos combat brigades have been deployed since January 2003 at a rotation ratio 4 of 4.3, which is higher than the stated goal of seven Army National Guard units at their home stations for every one deployed (CBO, 2007b). Furthermore, the Army National Guard has long had more personnel slots in its structure than it has been able to fill, and this has led to understaffed units. The pre-existing personnel shortage has been exacerbated by OEF and OIF. When a unit is mobilized and deployed, it must be brought up to at least 100% of its authorized strength this is accomplished by transferring personnel from other, &ldquodonor&rdquo units. 5 The resulting undermanning of donor units is exacerbated when donor units themselves are deployed (CBO, 2007b).

          There has been a 36% reduction in the size of the military since the end of the Cold War (Jacobs, 2000).

          By the end of 1993, the US Army had reduced to 10 combat divisions from the 18 combat divisions it had in the late 1980s (Jensen, 2002).

          Rotation ratio is the number of units necessary to support one unit on a rotational deployment.

          Units are commonly deployed at 105% or more of their authorized strength to compensate for personnel who become ill or injured during deployment.

          FIGURE 2.5 Number of times deployed to OEF or OIF by branch of military service (active component).

          SOURCE: Defense Manpower Data Center, 2009b.

          FIGURE 2.6 Number of times deployed to OEF or OIF by branch of military service (reserves).

          SOURCE: Defense Manpower Data Center, 2009b.

          FIGURE 2.7 Average time deployed in days by branch of military subdivided by active component and reserve component.

          SOURCE: Defense Manpower Data Center, 2009b.

          FIGURE 2.8 Average dwell time in days by branch of military subdivided by active component and reserve component.

          SOURCE: Defense Manpower Data Center, 2009b.

          CURRENT IMPACT ON OPERATION ENDURING FREEDOM AND OPERATION IRAQI FREEDOM SERVICE MEMBERS

          Throughout history, service members have faced challenges in readjusting to civilian life. Obstacles in navigating the range of available DOD and Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) benefit programs have been consistently reported in connection with each conflict since World War I. In addition, each generation of soldiers has faced challenges specific to its experiences in readjusting to civilian society. The features noted in the previous section&mdashthe shift in demographics, the smaller active-duty all-volunteer force, the greater reliance on the reserve component, and the repeated and extended deployments&mdashhave also led to issues that did not have to be addressed in previous conflicts. For example, greater reliance on older, married soldiers creates a new array of concerns related to family-life readjustment and the well-being of older children. Repeat deployments can also lead to additional financial and employment-related burdens, although for personnel with skills in great demand special pay and allowances may provide additional compensation beyond the combat- and deployment-related pay (such as imminent-danger pay, hardship-duty pay, and family-separation allowances) (CBO, 2007a). The direct effect of deployment on the service members and their families is not known, but this section briefly summarizes some of the challenges related to readjusting after deployment that have been reported in the popular press, government reports, and the peer-reviewed literature. The issues are discussed in greater detail in Chapter 4.

          Overview of Health Outcomes

          The proportion of service members who have been killed or wounded in Iraq and Afghanistan has been lower than that in past conflicts. As of November 24, 2009, 5,286 6 US troops had died and 36,021 7 had been wounded (DOD, 2009). Fatality-to-wounded ratios have been 1:5.0 for OEF and 1:7.2 for OIF (DOD, 2009) compared with 1:2.6 in Vietnam and 1:1.7 in World War II (Leland and Oboroceanu, 2009). The lower number of fatalities is attributable to the improved body armor provided to service members and improved emergency medical care in the war zone (such as rapid evacuation to a trauma center). Consequently, more service members survive to return home with severe combat-related injuries that require additional care. For example, a large number of military personnel have survived blasts that resulted in such injuries as hearing loss and traumatic brain injury (TBI) (Myles, 2008). An estimated 10&ndash20% of OEF and OIF Army and Marine Corps service members have sustained mild TBI that has been associated with various long-term health outcomes (IOM, 2009b). According to a study by Hoge et al. of 303,905 soldiers and marines, 19.1% of troops returning from Iraq and 11.3% of those returning from Afghanistan reported mental health problems compared with 8.5% of those returning from deployments elsewhere (Hoge et al., 2006).

          Repeated deployments themselves have also contributed to mental health issues. About 27% of those who have been deployed three or four times have received diagnoses of depression, anxiety, or acute stress compared with 12% of those deployed once (MHAT-V, 2008).

          The number includes those who were killed in action and those who died under nonhostile circumstances.

          The number includes those who were wounded in action by hostile actions and returned to duty and those who were wounded and not returned to duty. It does not include injuries from nonhostile actions, such as pregnancy or illness.

          Another troubling consequence of OEF and OIF deployment is the increase in the number of suicides reported in soldiers serving in Iraq and Afghanistan since the start of the conflicts. Historically, the suicide rate has been lower in military members than in civilians matched by age and sex. In 2003, the suicide rate in the US military was estimated at 10&ndash13 per 100,000 troops, depending on the branch of the military (Allen et al., 2005), compared with 13.5 per 100,000 civilians 20&ndash44 years old and 20.6 per 100,000 civilian men 20&ndash34 years old, the demographic that covers most US soldiers in Iraq (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2009). However, recent data from the National Violent Death Reporting System indicate that male veterans 8 18&ndash29 years old had a suicide rate of 45.0 per 100,000 in 2005 compared with 20.4 in males in that age group in the general population. As of October 2009, there were already 133 reported suicides (90 confirmed and 43 pending), which is the record for a year in the same period in 2008, there were 115 confirmed suicides of active-duty soldiers (Department of the Army, 2009) hence, 2009 might well see a new record. A new National Institute of Mental Health&ndashsponsored study of suicide in the US armed forces has been started to investigate the risk factors for soldier suicide.

          Problems with substance abuse, particularly alcohol, have also been reported in OEF and OIF military personnel and veterans in the peer-reviewed literature and in the popular press. It is unknown whether the alcohol problems differ between the military population and the civilian population. In the United States, about 1 in 12 adults abuses alcohol or is dependent on alcohol alcohol problems are highest among people 18&ndash29 years old (NIAAH, 2007). On the basis of data from the 2001&ndash2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, between 1991&ndash1992 and 2001&ndash2002, alcohol abuse 9 increased in the US civilian population from 3.03% to 4.65% while the rate of alcohol dependence 10 declined from 4.38% to 3.81% (Grant et al., 2004).

          A recent study found that 43% of active-component service members reported binge drinking within the preceding month (Stahre et al., 2009). Moreover, on the basis of mass-media reports, diagnoses of alcoholism and alcohol abuse increased from 6.1 per 1,000 soldiers in 2003 to an estimated 11.4 as of March 31, 2009. Another emerging substance-abuse issue is that many of today&rsquos military personnel are more likely to be addicted to prescription medications, such as opiates for pain control (Curley, 2009). However, because of the long-standing policy whereby self-referral for substance abuse can be reported to the chain of command, the numbers being reported are probably underestimates of the true number. The readjustment needs associated with these health outcomes are discussed in greater detail in Chapter 4.

          Overview of Social Outcomes

          Employment, Financial Hardships, and Homelessness

          Several non-health-related problems faced by service members have been documented. Gaps in pay and benefits that have resulted in debt and other hardships have been reported. For example, there is evidence that service members have been pursued for repayment of military

          The suicide rate includes veterans of all conflicts.

          Diagnosis of alcohol abuse required a respondent to meet at least 1 of the 4 DSM-IV criteria defined for abuse in the past year.

          Diagnosis of alcohol dependence required the respondent to meet at least 3 of the 7 DSM-IV criteria for dependence during the past year.

          debt, such as unpaid expenses for lost or damaged military equipment, medical services, household moves, insurance premiums, and travel advances. Often times, however, they were pursued for collection of military debts that were incurred through no fault of their own those included overpayment of pay and allowances, pay calculation errors, and erroneous leave payments (GAO, 2006). The service members have also been prevented from obtaining loans (GAO, 2005). Moreover, there have been reports in the popular press that National Guard and reserve members have been unable to return to the civilian jobs that they left before their deployments (60 Minutes, November 2, 2008) despite protective provisions in the Uniformed Services Employment and Reemployment Rights Act of 1994, a federal law intended to ensure that persons who serve or have served are not disadvantaged in their civilian careers because of their service. According to the Pentagon, over 10% of the National Guard and reserve members report such employment-related problems (60 Minutes, November 2, 2008). The problem is especially common among those employed by small businesses: Veterans for America found that some small businesses avoid hiring citizen soldiers (Veterans for America, 2008). Almost 20% of recent veterans are unemployed, and 25% of those who are employed earn less than $21,000 per year (Myles, 2008).

          According to the National Coalition for Homeless Veterans (2009), veterans are more likely to become homeless because their work skills may not be readily transferable to the civilian sector. In addition, although there are no data on the number of homeless OEF and OIF veterans, because of the large number of troops returning from Iraq and Afghanistan with mental health problems or TBI, there is concern that they may be at higher risk for homelessness.

          Women

          Women have made up a greater percentage of the military force during OIF and OEF than in previous conflicts. Because in most families mothers have primary responsibility for arranging for and providing care for children, large-scale deployments have raised concerns about the effects of mothers&rsquo deployments on their children and about the possible strains on families if both partners must maintain careers to preserve their living standards (McFarlane, 2009). A recent study by Vogt et al. (2008) found that active-component women were more susceptible to stressors of deployment than women in the reserve component. The study also found that the longer a parent is absent, the greater the risk of family dysfunction after deployment, and the risk is greater when the deployed parent is the mother.

          Family Relationships

          Deployments and frequent relocation are inherent in military life. The physical separation, especially when the deployments are to combat zones, is difficult for families. Often, families have little warning of a deployment, and the deployments extend beyond the originally stated duration. Adjusting to the different roles that each partner plays before and after deployment (for example, going from an interdependent state to an independent state and back to an interdependent state) is one of the challenges that married couples face. Service members are expected to work long and unpredictable hours, especially in preparation for deployment, and this puts additional stresses on couples and families. Moreover, when service members return from deployment with physical injuries or cognitive deficits, these problems may contribute to marital conflict. Although those effects have not been studied extensively in the military population, data on marital satisfaction in civilian populations suggest that depression,


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