Interesting

How did the Catholic Pope manage to become more powerful than Kings in old Europe?

How did the Catholic Pope manage to become more powerful than Kings in old Europe?


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In medieval Europe, the Roman Catholic Pope seemed to hold more power than the European kings. This is strange because monarchs can raise armies. Pope and their bishops are not exactly military men. How did the Catholic Pope manage to become more powerful than Kings in medieval Europe without the support of guns and barrels?


This question needs a great deal more substantiation, but we can look to three fundamental factors that provided the base for the power of the Church and the Papacy in Medieval Western Europe:


  • Catholic Justified Submission - precursor to The Divine Right of Kings was perhaps the most important single factor empowering the Church and the Pope in Medieval Europe:

Originating in Europe, the divine-right theory can be traced to the medieval conception of God's award of temporal power to the political ruler, paralleling the award of spiritual power to the church. By the 16th and 17th centuries, however, the new national monarchs were asserting their authority in matters of both church and state. King James I of England (reigned 1603-25) was the foremost exponent of the divine right of kings, but the doctrine virtually disappeared from English politics after the Glorious Revolution (1688-89). In the late 17th and the 18th centuries, kings such as Louis XIV (1643-1715) of France continued to profit from the divine-right theory, even though many of them no longer had any truly religious belief in it.

  • Divine right of kings - Catholic Justified Submission

Catholic thought justified submission to the monarchy by reference to the following:

The Old Testament, in which a line of kings was created by God through the prophecy of Jacob/Israel, who created his son Judah to be king and retain the sceptre until the coming of the Messiah, alongside the line of priests created in his other son, Levi. Later, a line of Judges (who were not kings as they only had the power to provide insight to the people and not to take action to enforce their rulings) was created alongside the line of High Priests created by Moses through Aaron. Later still, the Prophet Samuel re-instituted the line of kings in Saul, under the inspiration of God.

The New Testament, in which the first pope, St. Peter, commands that all Christians shall honour the Roman Emperor (1 Peter 2:13-17), even though, at that time, he was still a pagan emperor. Likewise, Jesus Christ proclaims in the Gospel of Matthew that one should "Render unto Caesar the things which are Caesar's"; that is at first, literally, the payment of taxes as binding those who use the imperial currency.

The endorsement by the popes and the church of the line of emperors beginning with the Emperors Constantine and Theodosius, later the Eastern Roman emperors, and finally the Western Roman emperor, Charlemagne and his successors, the Catholic Holy Roman Emperors.

Since during the period in question, religion in (Western) Europe was the virtual monopoly of the Catholic Church headed by the Pope, the sanction of the Pope was in many respects the source of any monarch's claim to the throne, and the power of any monarch was a function of that monarch's relationship with the Church.

Perhaps the most well known historical example of the intimate bond between Papal power and Monarchic Power is the English Henry VIII's formation of the Anglican Church in concert with Thomas Cromwell, the outcome of what came to be known as the King's great matter

From 1527 Henry pursued what became known as “the King's great matter”: his divorce from Catherine. He convinced himself that his first marriage had been against the divine law; that is, against the biblical injunction (Lev.) forbidding marriage with a brother's widow.

He appealed to Rome for a declaration of annulment. Popes had usually obliged kings in such matters, but Henry had picked both his time and his case badly. He was asking Pope Clement VII to help him discard the emperor's aunt, but Clement, the emperor's prisoner in 1527-28, never thereafter dared resist Charles, whose powerful feelings of familial honour and public prestige barred any concession to Henry's wishes. Moreover, the pope's reluctance was increased by the fact that he was being asked to declare illegal an earlier exercise of papal power-which had licensed Henry's marriage to his brother's widow-of a kind that brought a good deal of money to the papal coffers…

Action called for a revolution, and the revolution required a man who could conceive and execute it. That man was Thomas Cromwell, who, in April 1532, won control of the council and thereafter remained in command for some eight years. The revolution consisted of the decision that the English church should separate from Rome, becoming effectively a spiritual department of state under the rule of the king as God's deputy on earth. The revolution that he had not intended gave the king his wish: in January 1533 he married Anne Boleyn; in May a new archbishop, Thomas Cranmer, presided over the formality of a trial that declared the first marriage annulled; in September the princess Elizabeth was born. The pope retaliated with a sentence of excommunication; it troubled no one.

As long as Henry was beholden to the Pope in Rome, his situation as King was compromised. The only solution was to break ties with Rome and create a new church, which recognized Henry as King by Divine Right.


  • The Power of the Purse: Although indeed the Pope and the Church were "not exactly military men", the Church controlled massive amounts of wealth in Medieval Europe, accumulated through tribute, tithes, indulgences, and bequeathals and gifts that accumulated to the extent that the Church was the largest landowner in Europe and controlled vast stores of treasure, sequestered away in the Rome, and in churches, monasteries, convents, etc throughout Europe. (Some legends and traditions also claim that treasures looted by the legions of Rome are hidden in the bowels of the Vatican store-rooms, but I don't know how much of that is historically verifiable.)

The situation in England typified what was common in Europe at large during the period in question:

Typically, 11th and 12th century founders had endowed monastic houses with both 'temporal' income in the form of revenues from landed estates, and 'spiritual' income in the form of tithes appropriated from parish churches under the founder's patronage. In consequence of which, religious houses in the 16th century controlled appointment to about two-fifths of all parish benefices in England disposed of about half of all ecclesiastical income and owned around a quarter of the nation's landed wealth.

Along these lines, with the founding of the Anglican Church Henry instituted the Dissolution of the Monasteries

A set of administrative and legal processes between 1536 and 1541 by which Henry VIII disbanded monasteries, priories, convents and friaries in England, Wales and Ireland, appropriated their income, disposed of their assets, and provided for their former members and functions. He was given the authority to do this in England and Wales by the Act of Supremacy, passed by Parliament in 1534, which made him Supreme Head of the Church in England, thus separating England from Papal authority, and by the First Suppression Act (1536) and the Second Suppression Act (1539).

Wealth and territory bequeath power; Kings need money.


  • Rome was already the seat of power in Western Europe prior to the rise of the Church, as the capital city of the Roman Empire: Europe was accustomed to looking towards Rome for leadership and authority. In many respects, the Papacy and the Church filled the vacuum of power left in Western Europe after the fall of the Roman Empire. Although the Church did not have the legions of the empire, it had other ways of expressing power, as we have mentioned, thus paving the way for the Church to take up where the Roman Empire had left off, as the nexus of power in Western Europe.

Most nobles of the Middle Ages felt that they owed allegiance to TWO kings: 1) the king of their country, and 2) God, their heavenly king, for whom the Pope was the "viceroy" (vice-king) for Christians.

If anything, the Pope, as God's "representative" held greater sway over the nobles than the national king, because the Pope could quite literally tell the king (or the nobles themselves) to "go to Hell." And most Christian nobles believed that the Pope could send them there for all eternity, meaning that in a "forced choice," they would support the Pope over their king.

When the Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV got on the wrong side of the Pope in 1077 by trying to appoint bishops, the Pope excommunicated him. His "Electors" threatened to elect a new Emperor as a result. So Henry had to walk barefooted to the Pope's residence at Canossa and fast three days to get the Pope to remove the ex communication, so that he could maintain his political power.

In theory, the Pope only had authority over temporal matters, but in practice, there was a certain amount of overlap with secular matters. For instance, there were questions about whether the king or church could collect certain taxes, and how the money could be spent.

It was not until the time of Martin Luther, and the rise of Protestantism that people started to believe that the Pope did NOT have a monopoly on heavenly salvation, and therefore could be defied. But shortly afterward, during the time of Henry VIII, the Pope forebade his divorce from Catherine of Aragon on religious grounds, which had a bunch of political (secular) implications. Henry's response was to set up the Church of England and make himself a quasi Pope at the head of his own church.


It is unevident that he was. There were multiple instances when popes were desposed by various rulers.

For instance, Charles V took Rome and installed his own pope.

Since the position of a pope was electable, it was usually the most powerful state or alliance that influenced the decision on who shall be the pope.

The pope controlled the extensive church hierarchy and could excommunicate a king, but in return he could be desposed as well.


Another factor not mentioned in other answers seems to be something mentioned by Dan Carlin in a recent podcast: a trick played by Pope Leo III on Charlemagne, which had him place the crown on the kneeling king's head.

This basically confirmed that the Pope had the right to nominate/declare the king, and put the practical point on the "Catholic Justified Submission" theoretical argument discussed in an earlier answer.


Gregory the Great

Gregory, before he became pope, happened to see some Anglo-Saxon slaves for sale in a Roman marketplace. He asked about the race of the remarkable blond men and was told they were "Anglos." "Not Anglos, but angels," he was said to reply. As a result, it is said, Gregory was later inspired to send missionaries to England.

Timeline

Dionysius the Pseudo-Areopagite writes

Boethius completes Consolation of Philosophy

Justinian publishes his legal Code

Muhammad's hegira: birth of Islam

Though apocryphal, the story shows a devout Gregory concerned about the spread of Christian faith. But this was but one facet of Gregory's extraordinary talent and energies.

Noble beginning

Gregory was descended from Roman nobles with a strong legacy of Christian faith. He was related to two previous popes (Felix III and Agapitus I), his aunts were nuns, and his parents joined cloisters in their later years. He was raised in Rome when it was only a shell of its former glory.

By the age of 30, he was the chief administrative official of the city, responsible for finances, police, provisioning, and public works&mdashan experience that helped him hone his administrative skills and, together with his personal wealth, gave him the opportunity to create six monasteries.

Yet Gregory remained dissatisfied, and upon his father's death in 574, he converted his house into a monastery and retired to a life of contemplation and prayer. During these years, the happiest in Gregory's life, he began a detailed study of the Scriptures. Here he also ruined his health with fasting, a sacrifice that would precipitate his early death.

Called again to service

His administrative skills did not remain unappreciated. In 577 Pope Benedict appointed Gregory one of the seven deacons of Rome, and Pope Pelagius II sent him to Constantinople in 578 as representative to the imperial court, then later recalled him to serve as his confidential adviser.

In 589 a flood destroyed the grain reserves of Rome, instigating a famine and then a plague that swept through Rome and killed Pope Pelagius. Gregory was elected to succeed him. Though he had tried to refuse the office, once elected, he went to work with vigor.

To deal with the famine, Gregory instituted a city-wide penance, fed people from the church's granaries, and organized systematic relief for the poor.

Gregory then set himself reforming the church. He removed high officials "for pride and misdeeds," enforced celibacy, replaced lay officers with monks, and initiated a reorganization of "the patrimony of Peter," the vast land holdings of the church. The efficient and humane management of these estates brought in the revenue necessary to run the church as well as perform tasks the imperial government was neglecting.

An attack by the Lombard invaders in 592 and the inaction of the imperial representative forced Gregory to negotiate an end to the siege of Rome. When the imperial representative broke the truce in 593, Gregory purchased a separate peace treaty with tributes from the church coffers. By this time in Roman history, the pope had become the unofficial civil ruler of Italy, appointing generals, arranging relief, rallying cities to the defense, and paying the salaries of soldiers.

Pastoral care

Gregory also was actively concerned about the work of priests. He wrote a book of instruction for bishops, On Pastoral Care , in which he wrote, "Act in such a way that your humility may not be weakness, nor your authority be severity. Justice must be accompanied by humility, that humility may render justice lovable." It became a manual for holy life throughout the Middle Ages.

Gregory believed preaching was one of the clergy's primary duties, and he conducted a preaching tour of area churches. His Homilies on the Gospels was published in 591 and widely used for hundreds of years.

In 593 Gregory published his Dialogues, a history of the lives of Italian saints, as well as his sermons on Ezekiel and the Song of Songs. In 595 he published his allegorical exposition on Job, Moralia , and made changes to the liturgy. His interest in church music has been honored, as well: his name has been given to the plainsong ("Gregorian chant") that developed over the next few hundred years.

His frequent correspondence across the world shows him well aware of evangelistic opportunities in Britain. So it is not surprising that in 596 he sent Augustine, along with 40 monks, on a mission to "this far corner of the world."

Diverse legacy

Gregory set a high mark for the medieval papacy. He defended the primacy of the chair of Peter against even the smallest slight. He reconciled many independent bishops to Rome by humble appeals, not defending his personal rights but those of the institution. He was the first pope to call himself Servus Servorum Dei, "the servant of the servants of God," a title still in use today.

The administrative framework he set in place for the management of church lands made possible the development of the Papal States. His encouragement of the monastic life, his friendship with the kings of Spain and Gaul, and his deferential yet independent relationship with the emperor set a pattern for church-state relations for centuries.

He is one of the four great Latin doctors of the church (along with Ambrose, Augustine, and Jerome), and upon his death he was named a saint by popular acclaim.


A black or Latino pope? Or another Italian?

One obvious way to seek to reverse the Catholic church's decline in the developing world would be for the conclave of cardinals which appoints a successor to choose one of their Latino or African brethren as the next pope. If so, the leading contenders might include Cardinals Cláudio Hummes of Brazil, Oscar Andrés Rodríguez Maradiaga of Honduras or Francis Arinze of Nigeria. Cardinals seeking to safeguard John Paul's conservative legacy—eg, the refusal to accept married, female or openly gay priests and continued opposition to contraception—might support Joseph Ratzinger, the stern German cardinal who heads the Vatican's doctrinal watchdog.

However, John Paul II was the first non-Italian pope in 455 years and there is at least an even chance that the church will revert to tradition and select one of Italy's cardinals to succeed the Polish pontiff. Front-runners include Angelo Sodano, who is already the “deputy pope”, or Vatican secretary of state and Dionigi Tettamanzi, currently the Archbishop of Milan. Campaigning for the papacy is strictly forbidden, though there is bound to be much whispering in the cloisters about the strengths, weaknesses and policies of the various candidates. Two things seem certain: that this time, unlike on some past occasions, there is no clear front-runner and that the new pope would have to be an exceptionally strong personality if he wanted to take the church in a new direction, given the elderly and conservative cardinals that John Paul has bequeathed him.

The church is desperate to avoid a generalised confrontation between Islam and the Christian West

For the next pope, relations with Islam, both in the developing world and the European heartland of the Christian faith, will be high on the list of concerns. Senior church figures are deeply worried about the welfare of Christians in parts of the world where they coexist uneasily, and at times violently, with Muslims: Nigeria, Sudan, Indonesia, even Iraq. The church as a whole is desperate to avoid a generalised confrontation between Islam and the Christian West. That has prompted the Vatican to distance itself sharply from American policy in the Middle East, while reaching out where possible to moderate Muslims. These delicate calculations are a long way from the early days of John Paul's papacy, when the Vatican and America were aligned in defence of Polish freedom.

Whatever its diplomatic difficulties, the Catholic church remains a unique global community. It is both a small sovereign state with an impressive diplomatic service, and a transnational non-government organisation that makes every other NGO seem puny. Yet ever since the triumph of democracy in eastern Europe, the church has often appeared to the secular world to be slipping behind the train of history. In a world where freedom of choice, and therefore moral relativism, are very much in fashion, the Vatican's efforts to impose unity in its own ranks have seemed heavy-handed.

There may, perhaps, have been good doctrinal reasons why the church felt it must bar controversial leftist theologians like Leonardo Boff of Brazil and Sri Lanka's Tissa Balasuriya from speaking in its name. But in a world which expects to discover truth through open-ended discussion, the treatment of these turbulent priests made them into popular heroes. And in an era where sexual freedom and “reproductive rights” are widely acknowledged, the Vatican's adherence to a rigid line over contraception, homosexuality and the new challenges of bio-ethics has appeared unimaginative and uncharitable.

Nowhere is this more shocking than in the church's attitude towards the use of condoms in the developing world. For years, its opposition to condoms has pitched it against the sensible family-planning campaigns of the United Nations and the World Health Organisation. More recently, its attempts to deny that condoms help prevent the transmission of HIV/AIDS have jeopardised the lives of some of its most devoted members, the congregations of sub-Saharan Africa. Only very recently have a few senior figures in the church conceded that condoms may have a role in fighting disease.

As if this instance of moral blindness were not enough, the English-speaking Catholic countries, in particular, have been shaken to the core by allegations of child abuse by clergymen and cover-ups by their bishops. The proportion of erring priests is far lower than the eager press would have it. But both to victims of abuse and to people who observe church affairs from outside, the spate of disclosures has mocked the Vatican's claim to be a fount of moral authority and have made it harder to see why the church insists on restricting the priesthood to celibate males.


Mark Wahlberg

Has A Mark Vatican Cross In His Bedroom

  • Aznar’s government, along with the Bush administration,openly backed the April 2002 military coup against Chavez(Which probably had several psychological functions on the nations involved because Hugo Chavez is one of them as far as I know. See pics on this page.) , on the basis of false assertions about weapons of mass destruction.

Director of Rothschild Investment Trust Capital Partners plc since 1997

Interesting Fact: James Carville who accredited for getting Clinton elected president married someone who was instrumental in getting George HW Bush elected.


Minister Louis Farrakhan is currently the leader of a reconstituted Nation of Islam, the original organization having been renamed and eventually dissolved by Warith Deen Muhammad. The Nation of Islam’s National Center and headquarters is located in Chicago, Illinois and houses its flagship Mosque No. 2, Mosque Maryam in dedication to Mary, mother of Jesus. Inside of Mosque Maryam (Notice the eight pointed star which is associated with black magic). Farrakhan’s Early life

Check out this ARTICLE Called: “Louis Farrakhan claims he is both a Muslim and a Christian (Catholic)” Quote from article, “A packed house welcomed Minister Louis Farrakhan to St. Sabina Catholic Church on Friday night with a standing ovation and cheers for his health.

“Reverend” Jesse Jackson ————————————————————————————————————————————— – Joseph Retinger (Below) Joseph Retinger (Above)

Jesuit Trained William (Bill) Clinton who is supposed to be Baptist (maybe he means to say Papist) receives of the heretical ‘holy eucharist’.

Jesuit Trained, Liberal democrat, pro-abortion, Skull and Bones member John Forbes Kerry receives heretical ‘holy eucharist’ which only devout practicing Catholics may partake of.

WASHINGTON, D.C. – As a tribute to his outstanding service as a member of the United States House of Representatives, Georgetown University Law Center Professor Robert F. Drinan, S.J. was presented a Congressional Distinguished Service Award.

House Speaker Nancy Pelosi of Calif. greets Pope Benedict XVI, as President Bush and Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice look on. (AP Photo / April 16, 2008) ———————————————————————————————————————————————— – Hugo Chavez From the common man, to mainstream political entities, they must all kiss this man’s hand! This is an open act of worship the pope is receiving with complete agreement.

Hugo Chavez said: I am a Catholic and a Christian and a very committed Christian and I was talking to the Pope about the struggle against poverty -I call it Christ’s cause. Then he was talking about the first time he had met Fidel Castro. Former President of Mexico Vincent Fox ———————————————————————————————————————————————— – Ronald Reagan Ronald Reagan and his wife Nancy with Pope John Paul II.
Under Reagan’s presidency official diplomatic ties were reestablished between the Vatican and the U.S. they were broken in 1865 after President Lincoln’s assassination and for orchestrating the Civil War!! Knight of Malta and Future President Bush Sr was Vice president at the time (under control of the Jesuit s). Many say he was really running everything. George H. W. Bush was a ex CIA agent, the former director of the CIA, former director of the CFR (Council on Foreign Relations)the former ambassador to the United Nations and also the son of Prescott Bush who was a Nazi banker and senator. George Bush with Cardinal Egan and former Governor of the State of New York Hugh L. Carey, Cardinal Egan.

Donald Rumsfeld meets Pope Paul VI in 1964. Rumsfeld was a young member of the United States House of Representatives for the 13th Congressional District in Illinois at the time. Pope Paul VI with the Black Pope at that time, the twenty-eighth Superior General (1965-83) of the Society of Jesus, Fr. Pedro Arrupe, S.J. John F. Kennedy, Cardinal Spellman and Richard Nixon. Francis Cardinal Spellman – Jesuit -trained at Fordham University in New York and the American College in Rome Archbishop of Rome’s wealthiest and most powerful Diocese Military Vicar of the American Empire controlling the Knights of Malta, Shriner Freemasonry, the Knights of Columbus and the Mafia’s Commission the acting King of the Pope’s Fourteenth Amendment Holy Roman American Empire ruling from his Palace in the city of the Empire State along with his Papal Maltese Knights of the Roundtable overseen by the Professed Jesuit s Jesuit s under Extreme Oath of the Fourth Vow) at Fordham University including now Cardinal Avery Dulles, the nephew of past Secretary, Vice President, and President of the Cardinal’s Council on Foreign Relations (1933-1950), past CIA Director until fired by President Kennedy and member of the deceptive Warren Commission. Father Edmund A. Walsh, S.J. conferring with 33rd Degree Freemason General Douglas MacArthur in Tokyo, 1948.

33rd degree Freemason Gen. MacArthur and Military Vicar Cardinal Spellman Father Edmund A. Walsh, S.J.conferring with 33rd Degree Freemason General Douglas MacArthur in Tokyo, 1948. Strongly anti-Communist, it is alleged that Walsh was the man who first suggested to
Senator McCarthy hat he use this issue in order to gain political prominence.
Walsh vigorously promoted anti-Communist thought throughout his career.
Senator Joseph McCarthy who was a Graduate of a Jesuit University must have
been easy to manipulate at the hands of Jesuit Edmund Walsh who suggested to
McCarthy that he could make a name for himself by taking an extreme anti-communist
stance thus coining the term McCarthyism which also ended up with the Senators
total downfall.

Former Governor of Florida, Jeb Bush, meeting with Pope Benedict

The Hi story of The Society of Jesus in Malta – Our Presence, Houses and ApostolatesBy John Scicluna, S.J.

Al read y in St. Ignatius’ time, from 1553, the bishop of Malta, Dominic Cubelles, began repeatedly asking Ignatius Loyola, the founder of the new Order, the Society of Jesuits, also known as Jesuits, to send some members to Malta so as to help reform the diocese and the ruling Hospitalier Order of St John (Knights of Malta), as well as to start a College.

Ignatius saw the possibility of using Malta as a base to send Jesuits to Girba, near Tripoli. Given Malta’s geographic position and the proximity of the Maltese language to Arabic, Malta seemed to Ignatius an ideal stepping stone to train missionaries for the Muslim world.

In 1554, St Ignatius planned to send Fr Nicholas Bobadillia to carry out the diocesan apostolate and o the r Jesuits to open the College. Due to quarrels between the Bishop and the Order, however, the plan did not materialise.

In 1565 the newly elected Fr General, Francis Borgia, sent a group of Jesuits with the army that was put toge the r to relieve Malta from the Great Siege. It is not known if the y actually landed, and none fur the r is known on this second attempt.

The first known Jesuit to come to Malta was Fr G. Carminata, a well known preacher. In 1577, he was invited by the Grandmaster to give Lenten sermons to the knights of St John.

The first Maltese to join the Jesuits was Rev. Simon Bonnici, a diocesan priest. He entered the noviciate in Rome in 1578 and died in 1589.

The newly appointed bishop of Malta, Thomas Gargallo, in 1578, asked Fr Carminata, the n provincial of Sicily, tosend Jesuits to Malta to open a College. Fr Carminata obliged by sending three: Fr Casati, Fr Paraninfo and Br Longo. However, due to disputes between the Maltese authorities, the college was not built, and the three Jesuits were recalled back to Sicily.
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Expansion
The Sicilian Jesuits returned to Malta in 1590, on the bishop’s insistence, and settled helping victims of the plague the n ravishing the islands.

In March, 1592, Pope Clement VIII sent letters to the bishop and Grandmaster ordering the m to settle any differences at once and provide funds for the establishment of a Jesuit college. The college was founded instead of a seminary, the setting up of which was ordered by the Council of Trent, and confirmed in a 1591 diocesan synod. Two Jesuits arrived to make the necessary preparations.

The College opened on 8th March 1593in a house in Valletta which served both as the school and the residence for nine Jesuits. The construction of the “Collegium Melitense” (which until the 1970’s housed the Malta University) and the Jesuit Church in Valletta, started in 1595. Within two years, the Jesuits had al read y moved into the new building. Besides teaching within the college, the members of the Jesuit community distributed food to the poor, heard confessions, preached in the villages, taught Christian doctrine to children, worked for conversion of Turks, acted as intermediaries between rival families helping to resolve blood feuds, and established Marian congregations for different groups of people.

On two occasions the Jesuits were made scapegoats and had to leave Malta. The first occasion was in 1639 when tensions arose between the rigid and orthodox Grandmaster and a number of liberal knights. The knights used the Jesuits as a scapegoat: after several threats, the Jesuits were forced to leave. On intervention by the Pope , the situation promptly returned to normal, and the Jesuits were back by September, to reopen the College in December.
The second occasion was in 1768. After the Jesuits were expelled from different countries in Europe, it was the turn of Malta to expel the Jesuits. At the end of April, 1768, Grandmaster Pinto – who himself appreciated the work of the Jesuits in Malta – banished the Order from Malta, and consequently, against the Pope ’s wish, confiscated all its property. The Jesuits were put on a French ship and taken to a port near Rome.
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Suppression
The rulers of Europe, forced the Pope , on threat of schism, to ban the Jesuit Order. The Jesuits, who had considerable influence on all parts of society through the ir colleges, itinerant preaching, spiritual direction and were regarded as obstacles in the rise of absolute monarchies and opponents of the illuminist culture. On 21st July, 1773, Pope Clement XIV, issued an administrative decree by which he suppressed the Society of Jesus.

The decree was forwarded to the bishops to be communicated by the m to the Jesuits resident in the ir dioceses. In most of the countries of Europe the decree of suppression was carried out to the letter, the Jesuits as a body submitting loyally to the decision of the Pope .

However, Ca the rine II of Russia and Frederick II of Prussia were impressed so favourably by the work of the Jesuits as educators that the y forbade the bishops to publish the decree in the ir territories. Thus, providentially, the Society of Jesus continued to exist in White Russia and Prussia. In the o the r countries many of the Jesuits laboured as secular priests, o the rs of the m united in different congregations.
Gradually, Clement’s successors in 1778 allowed the Jesuits to open a noviciate in Russia, a community of former Jesuits in England at Stonyhurst in 1803 was allowed to affiliate with the Jesuits in Russia the following year the Society was re-established in Naples. In 1797, the duke of Parma, with the encouragement of Joseph, received permission from the pontiff to establish a Jesuit province in his duchy. The n the Pope allowed the Order to be restored in Naples. Schools and a college were opened in Sicily.

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Restoration and Growth
After several pleas from Bishops and Catholics worldwide, one of the first things that Pope Pius VII did after returning from Napoleonic exile to Rome was that on 7th August, 1814, almost exactly forty-one years to the day since Clement XIV suppressed the Society, he issued the Bull, Sollicitudo omnium Ecclesiarum formally re-establishing the Society.
In short time, from the few old Jesuits that remained, the Order grew and sp read at an immense rate. Many of the works established before suppression, not since taken up by o the r orders, were revived, and a number of new ones were added to the se, most of which were based in countries where Catholics were a mere minority.

After the re-establishment of the Order, the first Jesuits returned to Malta in 1839 but stayed only for a few days while in transit to o the r countries. At this period, Malta was a British colony, and the Maltese started to put pressure on the authorities to set up a Jesuit college in Malta once more. The government not onlydisagreed, but in 1846 set up a Protestant college that was doomed to close soon as the sons of the Maltese intelligentsia, for whom the college was aimed, ended up in the Jesuit college in Noto, Sicily.

Many Maltese, worried about the strong Protestant influence brought about by the British presence, petitioned Pope Clement XVI to intervene. The Holy Fa the r asked the Jesuit General, who in turn asked the Provincial in England, to open a College in Malta. a The government yielded to the opening of a Jesuit college in Malta, provided it was run by British citizens. In 1845, English Jesuits founded St Paul’s College in Mdina. This closed down in 1852 and after a brief restart in Valletta, the college shut its doors permanently in 1858.
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Jesuit Refugees
In 1848 and during the wars of Italian reunification (1860), the Jesuits in Naples and Sicily were threatened with expulsion, and many ended up in Malta. The Bishop welcomed the Jesuit refugees and gave the m lodging in part of San Calcidonio in Floriana. (San Calcidonio, also known as Our Lady of Manresa Retreat House, was opened by Fr Pier Francesco Rosignoli, SJ, in 1753 and closed in 1768 after the Jesuits’ expulsion when it fell into the hands of the Diocese of Malta. It may be mentioned that when the Jesuit returned in 1860, the y remained in residence at Floriana till 1918. Between 1860 and 1867, the Provincial Curia of the Sicilian Province was house in this Residence. From 1858 to 1910 and again from 1921 till 1977 the diocesan seminary was housed here. Now it is occupied by the Archbishop’s Curia.
But San Calcidonio did not have enough room for all the Jesuit refugees, so some of the m shifted to a large house near Annunciation Street, Hamrun. Later the y moved to ano the r house at Santa Venera, where the present Carmelite Priory is situated.

In 1867 a noviciate was opened in Gozo. In 1872 a large house in Lija was acquired to accommodate Jesuits from the French, Neapolitan and Sicilian Provinces.

In 1877, the noviciate was transferred from Gozo to Santa Venera, and in 1879 from Santa Venera to Notabile. In 1881, the Palazzo Parisio in Naxxar was rented to house the increasing number of Sicilian and Maltese young Jesuit Students in the Juniorate, philosophate and the ologate. San Luigi Gonzaga was chosen as the patron Saint of this new house of studies in Naxxar.

But the Jesuits were not content with the transfer of residences and the make-shift accommodation of the ir young students. The y wanted to build a large college, suitable and comfortable, that would take in all Jesuit students under one roof. The site chosen was at Mriehel in Birkirkara. The college was constructed with the funds acquired from the sale of the Sainte Pulcherie in Constantinople which belonged to the Sicilian Province. Once again the new College, which opened in January 1897, was also called Collegio San Luigi.
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Seminary and Colleges
The diocese of Gozo was established in 1864 and the following year the Bishop asked the Jesuits to open, take over the direction of and staff the Major Seminary and the secondary school which had to be opened. The seminary and school opened in October 1866 and was staffed by Fa the rs from the Sicilian Province. The students came from Malta and Gozo as well as from Sicily. But in 1903 difficulties started hitting the Seminary Jesuits hard. Efforts were made to resolve the difficulties and in August, 1909, after having run the Seminary and given the ir best to the Gozitan clergy and people for a span of 43 years, the Jesuits left unceremoniously.

In 1876 several Maltese families petitioned Pope Pius IX to open a Jesuit College in Malta. The request was passed on to the Jesuit General who agreed and in turn sent it to the English Provincial who also agreed to open the college.St Ignatius College at St Julian’s opened in 1877 in the building which was used by the Malta Protestant College which closed down in 1865 and bought by three Maltese gentlemen. The new College adopted the English system of education with English as its medium of instruction. A church adjoining the College was completed in 1881. The College flourished with good academic results and came to be recognised as one of the leading schools. The Jesuits also involved the mselves in various pastoral ministries especially among the members of the English communities and the Military.

Due to trouble from external forces, it was decided to close down St Ignatius College. The official reason was that the Bishops in England were asking the Jesuits to open a College in Leeds. The College closed down in July, 1907.
In the meantime, the political atmosphere in Sicily became sufficiently safe to justify the transfer in 1906 the Jesuit students to Acireale, and to Bagheria near Palermo. After the ir return to Sicily the Jesuits were planning to implement the promised to open a college at Palermo. But …
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An end and a new beginning
Thus the building of the Collegio San Luigi in Birkirkara was left vacant and open for sale.

When news about the possible closure of St Ignatius’ College began to circulate, many Maltese to Fr General, to the English Provincial and to the Pope to avoid such a decision. But at the beginning of 1907 the parents were informed that the College would close down in July 1907. The parents were worried and over three hundred parents signed a petition to Pope Pius X to intervene. The Pope passed on the request to Fr General who asked the Sicilian Provincial to postpone the opening of the college at Palermo and open the desired College at Birkirkara.

In the beginning of summer 1907, the Provincial appointed Fr Emmanuel Grima, the n the Rector at the Gozo Seminary, to prepare in three months for the opening of a College in the existing building of Collegio San Luigi. Most of the furniture, including the statue of the College Madonna were brought over from St Ignatius’ College. The new College at Birkirkara under the protection of St Aloysius opened on 8th October, 1907.

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Separation and new spring
At the turn of the 20th century the re were three Jesuit communities in the Maltese islands, at the Seminary at Gozo (till 1909), and in Malta at San Calcedonio (till 1918) and the College. The se, toge the r with Greece, formed part of the Sicilian Jesuit Province. In 1924, a second community was opened at Floriana when the Jesuits were entrusted by the Government with the administration of Sarria church, Floriana, with the adjoining residence, both government properties.

This link with Sicily continued until 7th September, 1940, when, through a telegram, Fr J. Delia, the College Rector, was informed that he is appointed as Fr General’s “Delegate for the administration of the College, thus effectively separating the two Jesuit communities from the Sicilian Province and made the m directly dependent on him.

At the end of the War the Jesuit Vicar General asked Fr Delia to prepare to open a Noviciate in Malta which was opened on 1st October, 1945.

Shortly after his election of the new Fr General informed Fr Delia about his decision to establish the Vice-Province of Malta. The Decree establishing the Maltese Vice Province was promulgated on 29th June, 1947. A few days later Fr Delia was appointed the first Vice Provincial. In 1983, the Vice-Province became a full-fledged Province.

The return of the Maltese Fa the rs, Scholastics and Bro the rs from Italy and the entrance of young men in the noviciate heralded a new bright future for the Jesuits in Malta. Existing apostolates and works were streng the ned and new openings were being planned.
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The Houses


– St. Aloysius’ College, Birkirkara

The College, inspired by Ignatian spirituality, imparts a holistic education. Through spiritual, cultural and social work experiences the College aims to enable the students to be persons for and with o the rs.

Seven years after the opening of the College as a Secondary school, in 1914 a church was built and in 1928 a the atre hall was inaugurated. The Scouts at the College were established in 1916.

At the beginning of World War Two an attempt to confiscate the College was successfully overcome. The n during the War almost half the College was used as a hospital. For some time the Bishop’s Curia and o the r church and health department offices were located here. Medical students and seminarians had the ir classes here.
After the establishment of the Vice-Province, the Provincial’s Offices were at the College till 1950 when the y moved to Floriana.

The fields opposite the College were bought in 1947 for a new playground which was inaugurated in 1954. That same year the College badge and uniform were changed. The CYLO was started in 1960. The n in 1962 the Sixth Form opened, only with an Arts section and suspended four years later. After four years it was reopened with the addition of two o the r sections: Languages and Maths. In 1972, girls were admitted in the Sixth Form. A new Complex for the Sixth Form was built and inaugurated in 1991.

The boarding system was abolished in 1963 and the day-boarding system finished in 1979. The College PTA and the College Newsletter were started in 1969.

The Church Schools caused by the government problem started in 1979 and dragged on for five years. First the re was the issue of the pupil-worker scheme and the capitation fees were stopped. The next move was that the fees were frozen and the n fees could not be charged. However, the parents voluntarily made donations. Big protest rallies were organised by the PTAs and Former Students. The Government withdrew the schools’ licence and classes were held in parents’ homes. At one time the Police placed chains on the College gates but the Parents and Old Aloysians stayed on to guard the College and the community. In November 1984, after an agreement between the Government and the Archbishop the Schools re-opened.

In the College church, Masses for the public are celebrated daily and it is often a preferred venue for weddings.
The College Sports Complex and Gym was opened in 1997. The Jesuit residence was completed in 2002. During the College Centenary Year in 2007 the weekly holiday was shifted to Saturday. In October Fr General Peter-Hans Kolvenbach presided over the Centenary celebrations.

Ano the r milestone in the College annals opened in June 2008 when the Jesuits took over Stella Maris School run by the nuns to serve as the Primary Section of the College.

The JRS (Malta) offices are housed in the College Gym.

Over the span of a century the College contributed in no small way to Maltese society and to the formation of many important Maltese personalities attended the college, including Presidents of the Republic, noteworthy politicians, priests, religious, artists, lawyers, journalists and scientists.

– Sarria Residence, Floriana

This residence was opened in 1924 when the Government entrusted the Jesuits with the administration of the church, which was built in 1677 by Martino de Sarria, a knight of St John.
Throughout the years, due to its central location, the church it used for various religious meetings. One was by the M– USEUM Society and its founder, Dun (Saint) Ġorġ Preca used to address the weekly meetintg of the members.

More than twenty different groups meet here every month. On weekdays, a Mass is celebrated for workers from the nearby various government offices. On Sunday a Mass in English is celebrated.

The “Teenagers Correspondence Club” was established here and was followed in 1964, by the “Teens and Twenties Trust” (4Ts) which started here. The “Friendship Groups” saw the ir beginnings here in 1972.

Between 1950 and 1962, the Provincial’s Offices were located here.
– Loyola House, Naxxar

The Jesuit Noviciate opened on 1st October, 1945, in a Villa belonging to Marquis John Scicluna who in 1950 the n donated it to the Province, was, for many years, the cradle of the Province where young men who decided to follow Christ began the ir spiritual journey
In 1952 the foundation stone for the new noviciate and juniorate building was laid. With the dwindling number of novices, it was decided, in 1971, to give part of the new building to the Little Sisters of the Poor for an Old People’s Home. Due to lack of vocations, the Sisters withdrew in 1992 and the Catholic Action began to run it.

The first floor of the old building was renovated in 1995 and called “Monserrat” to be used by the Vocations Team and o the r youth groups for meetings and live-ins.

The Province Infirmary is also housed here.

From 1975, the Provincial’s Office are in a section of the House.

The Sanctuary dedicated to Our Lady of the Way forms part of the House. Every day a number of Masses are celebrated and throughout the day many persons come here to celebrate the Sacrament of Reconciliation.

Various Fa the rs of the community give pastoral service in the parish and elsewhere.

– Manresa Retreat House, Victoria, Gozo

After 43 years’ service at the Bishop’s Seminary in Gozo, the Jesuits left the Island. After a lapse of 44 years, at the request of the Bishop of Gozo, the Society was entrusted with the administration of the Retreat House for the retreat apostolate and spiritual help to the faithful of the neighbourhood. It opened on 21st October, 1953.

The House was extensively refurbished in 1995 and it is very much sought after by priests, religious and lay persons from Gozo, Malta and abroad, for directed, preached or private retreats, meetings, seminars and for some rest in quiet surroundings.

In the church, which forms part of the House, Masses are celebrated daily for the public.
– St Philip’s Residence, Senglea
This was the next Residence to be opened. The Archdiocese and the Collegiate Chapter of the city entrusted the Church and Residence to the Jesuits. It was opened on 1st November, 1957.

The church, dedicated to Our Lady of Good Havens ( the Visitation), was built in 1640. It is known as the church of St. Philip Neri as it was given to the Oratorians who rebuilt it in 1741. When the Oratorians left Malta, the archpriest of Senglea became responsible for the church. During the cholera epidemic the friary adjacent to the church served as a hospital.

During the ir stay at Senglea, the Jesuits carried the ir pastoral ministry in the church, assisted the Archpriest and helped in the nearby parishes. Many people always found some priest available to help the m in the ir spiritual and material needs.

At the end of 1997, Fr General issued a Decree which “suppressed and dissolved” the community. At the end of March, 2008, the Jesuits handed the keys to the Archdiocese who passed the m on to the Salesians.

Two months later, the Archpriest organised a Thanksgiving Mass for the dedicated service the Jesuits gave at Senglea.
– Xavier House, Valletta
In the 19th century this building was a hotel and later leased out to various families. A benefactor of the Province donated this vacant building to the Province. In September, 1962, the community moved in. At the same time the Provincial’s Offices were also shifted here from Floriana.

This Residence who just opposite the building of the University of Malta (initially the Jesuit’s Collegium Melitense) which some years later shifted to Msida.
In 1965, during the time of Vatican II, John XXIII Librarty was started here. Many students, priests, male and female religious and o the r lay persons availed the mselves of the services it offered.

The office of the Benefactors Association is located here.

For a number of years the editorial office of the magazine Problemi ta’ llum and Regina et Mater were also in this House.

Everyday, some members of the community celebrate Mass in the Jesuits church (now government property). The Fa the rs are also available for confessions and spiritual direction.
– Mount St Joseph Retreat House, Mosta
In 1753 the Jesuits had built the Retreat House at Floriana which after the ir expulsion became diocesan property. When the Jesuits left San Calcidonio in 1918 the re was no retreat house in Malta. The need for a Jesuit retreat house in Malta was keenly felt by the Province and the Archbishop.

In 1961, on the outskirts of Mosta town, a property was bought in an area known as San Ġużepp tat-Tarġa (because of St Joseph’s statue on steps leading to the plain below ). Construction work started in early 1961
and inaugurated in December, 1964. Our Jesuit Bro the rs played a big part in procuring the materials for the construction and in o the r works.

The House was extensively refurbished and re-opened in December 2005. The huge concrete statute of St Joseph on the façade of the House developed cracks. It was replaced by ano the r exact replica in fibreglass.

The Retreat House is located in spacious and quiet surroundings with an enchanting wide view of the plain below and the blue sea in the distance. This is one of the reasons why many individuals and groups throughout the year seek this place for encountering the Lord. O the rs come here to participate in some course, seminar or live-in.

The Fa the rs in the community are always available to welcome and assist those who come for some spiritual nourishment and refreshment. The priests also assist in various parishes.
– Villa Pacis, Bugibba
In 1962 construction work started in a quiet area at Bugibba, St Paul’s Bay for a summer residence and for retreats during the o the r months. It was inaugurated in the summer of 1963. However, after a few years it was surrounded by a cluster of buildings which mushroomed in a short time. Thus the Province was forced to sell the house in 1969.
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O the r projects
In 1957 land was bought at Blata l-Bajda on the way to Valletta for a National Shrine in honour of the Sacred Heart toge the r with a residence for the staff and offices of the Apostleship of Prayer, the Christian Life Community and the Young Christian Workers. After Fr General asked to postpone this project, the land was sold in 1964.

With the approval of the Archbishop, Fr General approves the proposal to buy land in the region of “Savoy Hill”, Sliema, for a church and o the r apostolic works. Later Fr General approves the plans for a Residence and church here.

After a detailed study, in 1960 Fr General asks the Province to postpone the project at Blata l-Bajda and to abandon the Savoy Hill plan. Instead he suggests that it would be better to plan for a Retreat House and a new College.

Later he agreed with the Province to postpone opening a College at Ta’ Giorni, St Julians, in a property donated to the Province but advises to retain the property. Later in 1968 he approved the sale of the property and with the proceeds establish a Scholarship Fund at the College and pay off outstanding debts of o the r projects.
A house at Oxford was rented and opened in 1957 for Maltese Fa the rs and Scholastics studying at Oxford University. The n in 1965 it was later leased out and in 1972 it was sold and ano the r house in London was acquired. It was sold in 1995.
– Dar Manwel Magri SJ, Msida
The Collegium Melitense, later the University of Malta, started at Valletta in 1592. The n in 1968, the University shifted to Msida. At the end of 1968, the Province acquired a small plot of land near the main gate of the new university for a new Jesuit residence. In December, 1992, the first community settled in the new Residence named after Fr Manwel Magri, SJ, a Maltese ethnographer, archaeologist and writer.

Close to the Residence is the University Chapel. In 1971 a Jesuit was officially appointed the first full time Chaplain at the University. But when the University was still at Valletta Jesuit Fa the rs used to attend to the needs of the students.

The Jesuit Chaplain, assisted by o the r Jesuits, lay staff and volunteers, cater for a population of over 10,000 comprising Professors, o the r staff and students. The Chaplaincy organises various religious and cultural activities. During the summer months the inYgo Youth Network and the Chaplaincy organise voluntary work in Malta and in o the r countries. Long term voluntary service abroad has been launched.

The House is a venue for various meetings organised by the Jesuits and used by groups for the ir meetings.
– Fekruna Rest House
Two adjoining houses at St Paul’s Bay were acquired in 1980 to serve as a rest house for Jesuits. It is also used for meetings of apostolic sectors of the Province and by youth and CLC groups for live-ins.

– Marina Road, Pietà
In 1973, due to shortage of accommodation at the College, some Fa the rs took up Residence in a rented house on Birkirkara Hill, St. Julians. The n in 1975, it was closed and the community moved to ano the r rented house at Marina Road, Pietà.
– Dar Pedro Arrupe, Zejtun
This is the last House that was opened in the Province. The presence of the Church and of the Jesuits in the south of Malta was lacking. So in 1989, this Residence was started which houses the Jesuit Centre for Faith and Justice Centre.
The mission of the Centre is to link the service of the Christian faith with the promotion of social justice, to disseminate Gospel values and the social teachings of the Church, to train and form influential agents towards Christian social commitment, and to ensure presence, insertion and involvement among the grassroots. It works to support activities aimed at promoting social justice, to reflect on, raise consciousness and seek solutions to social problems and injustice in the light of the Christian faith.

The Formation/Reflection branch, made up mostly of non-Jesuits, organises and runs courses, focus groups, spiritual exercises with a social the me, public lectures, contributions to the media and at times action on a specific issue involving social justice. It reflects on current issues and receives ongoing formation.

Members of the Insertion branch ( the Jesuit community living at Zejtun) ensure Jesuit presence, witness and contact with the grassroots as a way of empowering the m and integrate the ir experience in the ir reflection and action in promoting social justice.

The Centre has al read y shown practical commitment in favour of asylum seekers and refugees. Migration, and its darker dimensions of racism and xenophobia, is one of the priority areas of the whole Society of Jesus. Toge the r with the Jesuit Refugee Service, both on the local and the European level, it has also participated in international initiatives.

As part of the Centre, in January, 2001, the Paulo Freire Institute was opened at Zejtun for the promotion of literacy and community development. It aims to encourage children to improve the ir read ing and writing skills. It is also vital to empower the ir parents with important skills. Thus the main activities presently carried out at the Institute are: Non-Formal Educational Activities for children Literacy Project for children Literacy for Employment Project Parental skills programmes Female empowerment courses Community Social Work and Energy-conservation educational programme.

The priests in the community, besides helping in parish, on Sundays the y celebrate Mass at the Refugee Detention Centres.
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Apostolates
– International Apostolates

The mission of the Society of Jesus is indeed a universal one, without any kind of frontiers. According to the Formula of the Institute, a Jesuit is one who desires to serve as a soldier of God beneath the banner of the cross to serve the Lord alone and the Church, his spouse, under the Roman Pontiff, the vicar of Christ on earth. Thus the Jesuits consider the mselves as servants of Christ’s mission. Concretely its aim is the defence and proclamation of the faith, which leads us to discover new horizons and to reach new social, cultural and religious frontiers.

Long before the Maltese Province was established always lived this awareness of sharing in the universal mission of the whole body. Individual Jesuits served in Tunis, in Canada and British Guyana.
The major missionary enterprise in the hi story of our Province is surely the beginning of the mission in India among the Santal tribals. The seed sown the re in 1925 has grown into a sturdy tree and given fruit. The Santal Mission has developed. Today the territory has been divided into three dioceses which are co-extensive with Dumka-Raiganj Province, one of the many Jesuit Provinces in India, with its own noviciate, colleges and o the r centres.

Maltese Jesuits also served in Vatican Dicasteries in Rome, as well as in the Jesuit headquarters, as Directors of the Centre for Ignatian Spirituality, in the office of the General Treasurer, in the Christian Life Community office and in the Historical Institute. Maltese Jesuits also serve in the international ecclesiastical Jesuit institutions. With dedication and zeal the y also rendered apostolic service in China, the Philippines, Japan, Australia, Sri Lanka, Egypt, Uganda, Kenya, Libya, Ethiopia, Tanzania, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Lebanon, Israel, Italy, Albania, Romania, France, United Kingdom, Chile, Brazil, Canada and the United States.
National
At some time some Maltese Jesuits served the Holy Fa the r in the Apostolic Nunciature in the Archbishop’s Curia as the Archbishop’s Delegate for Religious, in the Workers’ Secretariat, for Youth in the Secretariat for Education, Ecclesiastical Assistant for the Catholic Action Movement, National Chaplain for the German-speaking community, as Public Relations Officer, as President of the Historical Commission for Causes of Saints and as Judges in the Metropolitan and Regional Ecclesiastical Tribunals. Worth mentioning is that in 1940, the Archbishop appointed one Maltese Jesuit as the Superior of the Missionary Society of St Paul until in 1948 one of the members was elected Superior General.
Spiritual
From the time of its foundation, the main spiritual ministries have always been preaching the Word of God, administering the sacraments, giving the Spiritual Exercises to individuals or groups, and spiritual direction. O the r means of the ir spiritual apostolates were the founding and animating the Sodalities of Our Lady (today known as Christian Life Community), the Eucharistic Crusade and the Apostleship of Prayer. During Lent the Fa the rs preach Lenten Sermons in different parishes and groups.

Before and after the War, during the summer holidays, the Province organises retreats for youth.

Regularly the Fa the rs help in various parishes where the y celebrate Masses and in hearing confessions. Some Fa the rs carried our pastoral work in the Dockyard and in Industrial Estates. For 33 years one Fa the r served as the Chaplain of the German-speaking community in Malta. A number of Fa the rs are involved in Prayer Groups and youth groups. Jesuit Fa the rs also serve as Chaplains in State and Church schools.

The Sacred Heart of Jesus had entrusted to the Jesuit Fa the rs to promote and sp read the devotion to his heart. The Society accepted this “sweet mandate”. Accordingly, through the Apostleship of Prayer with the monthly intentions proposed by the Holy Fa the r, through the Consecration of Families and Groups to the Sacred Heart and through the periodical Il-Messaġġier tal-Qalb ta’ Ġesú as well as through radio programmes it continues to fulfil its mandate.

In October, 1927, the Director of the Apostleship of Prayer began to organise the corege in honour of Christ the King.

In the Maltese Province, the Centre for Ignatian Spirituality was established. It organises three-year courses to train lay persons to direct the Spiritual Exercises and be qualified as spiritual guides. An offshoot of this Course has been the establishing of the “Parish Ignatian Ministry”.
Diocesan Clergy Formation
The Maltese Jesuits have made a significant contribution to the formation of the diocesan clergy. In Malta, in the Archbishop’s Seminary, except for two years, from 1934 to 1988, the Spiritual Fa the r was a Jesuit. Afterwards the re were Assistant Spiritual Fa the rs. O the r Jesuits were involved in lecturing in the Faculty of The ology at the University.

When, between 1978 to 1988, the Faculty of The ology at the University of Malta was suppressed, and the Holy See established a Pontifical Faculty at the Seminary, a Jesuit Fa the r was elected President of the Faculty.

After the Diocese of Gozo was established, in 1866 the Jesuits were invited to take over the direction and staffing of Bishop’s Seminary. This continued till 1908. The n in 1970, the Bishop of Gozo invited the Jesuits to provide a Rector for the Seminary. In 1997 this responsibility was passed on to the diocesan clergy.

O the r Maltese Jesuits worked in Seminaries in Kenya and Sudan.
Chaplaincy at the University
When the University of Malta was still at Valletta, various Jesuits used to attend to the spiritual needs of the students. After the University in 1968, moved to Msida, in January, 1971, a Jesuit was officially appointed the first full time Chaplain.

The Archbishop of Malta donated funds for the building of St Thomas More chapel where the re are the offices of the Chaplain, his assistants and staff.

After teaching Religion at the Junior College for some years, a Jesuit was appointed as Spiritual Fa the r the re in 1984, But the following year the government stopped the ministry he had been rendering for the past seven years. After a petition by more than a hundred staff members and by over one thousand students, the Education Minister refused to re-consider his decision. He was re-appointed in 1988 and continued till 1998. He was succeeded by ano the r Jesuit till 2004.
Intellectual apostolate

In 1961, for the first time since the Society lost the University during the Suppression, a Jesuit was appointed Lecturer in the Faculty of Philosophy at the University, and continued till 1964. The n in 1965 Fr Maurice Eminyan was appointed part-time Lecturer of Dogmatic The ology and Ecumenical The ology at the University and in 1968 he was elected Dean of the Faculty of The ology.

When the Foundation for The ological Studies was founded in 1990, Fr M. Eminyan was appointed its first Director.
In subsequent years o the r Jesuit Fa the rs were appointed Lecturers in the Departments of Biology, of Psychology, of Spiritual The ology, of Moral The ology, of Church Hi story , of Law, of Spirituality and Pastoral Psychology, of Philosophy and of Latin and Greek.

O the r Maltese Jesuits also fulfilled the ir intellectual apostolate abroad. One Fa the r lectured at Nairobi University, ano the r at the Oriental Institute in Rome. At the Gregorian University the y lectured in the Departments of The ology, Philosophy and Church Hi story . Ano the r Fa the r lectured in the The ological Faculty at Naples. One Fa the r was Professor of The ology at the University of Detroit. Two o the rs lectured at Heythrop College of the University of London. One Fa the r lectured in Philosophy at the Pontifical A the naeum in Pune, India.
In 1968 the Province established the Institute of Religious Studies to provide course in the ology.
Besides lecturing some the Fa the rs in the Intellectual Apostolate also published books and articles related to the ir specialisation.
Social Apostolate
Two Maltese Jesuits were involved in the Young Christian Workers movement. Fr Michael Galea found the Żgħażagħ Ħaddiema Nsara in Malta 1948. Ano the r established a branch in the Archdiocese of Calcutta in India. In 1959, the ŻĦNbegan to publish the Il-Ħaddiem newspaper.

Al read y in 1955, the Province founded the “Catholic Social Guild” and in 1970 the Istitut Edukazzjoni Soċjali.

In April 1967, the Province accepted the Maltese Government’s invitation to provide a Principal, a Deputy Principal and two teachers for St Philip Neri’s School, a correctional home for boys at Santa Venera. This continued till December, 1972, when our services were terminated by mutual accord.

Ano the r major step by the Province was taken in 1989 when it opened a Residence at Żejtun toge the r with the Centre for Faith and Justice. An offshoot of this Centre was the establishment of Paulo Freire Institute in the town.
The Centre has been organises courses about the Social Teaching of the Church. It also organised Conferences and Seminars for which speakers from abroad are invited.

Some Jesuits did some work experience at the Malta Drydocks.

Due to the arrival of asylum seekers and refugees arriving in Malta from Bosnia, Iraq and Sudan, the Province established the Jesuit Refugee Service in the Island. Over the years it has been rendering yeoman service in assisting refugees in the ir needs, especially through legal assistance by qualified lawyers to legalise the ir situation especially in applying for refugee status. Social workers also see top the ir o the r needs.
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Media
The first periodical in Maltese was Il-Messaġġier Malti tal-Qalb ta’ Ġesú which started publication in 1912 and wound up in 1973. After the War, before the opening of the Noviciate and the establishment of the Province, the periodical Lil Ħbiebna saw the light of day in 1945. Three years later, the Communities of Christian Life began to publish Regina et Mater for is members. In 2005 the se the latter magazine were merged.
In keeping with the times, the Province started a social reflection magazine Problemi ta’ llum which ceased publication in 2000 to be replaced two years later by Orbis which for various reasons was also discontinued in 2007.

St Aloysius’ College till recently used to publish its illustrated annual magazine to record the year’s events in the life of the College.

In 1948, The Maltese Jesuit, an in house monthly newsletter started publication.

A 74-page booklet Books byMaltese Jesuits: a Bibliography was published in 2002. It contains the titles of books and articles in the original language and translations.

Various Jesuits took part in Radio Programmes and when Television was introduced in Malta some Jesuits are invited to take part in regular programmes.
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Youth

Through its educational apostolate and its Catholic movements, the Jesuits in Malta and Gozo have always played a very important and influential role in the holistic formation of youth. The contact and apostolate with youth increased considerably through the work of the University Chaplaincy.
At the College, the Catholic Young Leaders Organisation (CYLO) was founded in 1960.

O the r organisations established for youth were the Teenagers Correspondence Club established in 1963 and the n the Teens and Twenties Talent Trust (4Ts) started in 1969.

The n in 2004, the Ignatian Youth Network, inYgo was established as a part of inYgo International. inYgo brings toge the r young people, ages 16-26, who are in touch with Jesuits and Ignatian spirituality through St Aloysius’ College, the University Chaplaincy, Paulo Freire Institute, the Christian Life Communities and the Saturday evening Mass in Sarria Church.

inYgo seeks to accompany young people in the ir relationship with God, in building community and in the ir preferential option for the poor.

During the summer holidays inYgo organises voluntary work in Malta and overseas. Recently, long-term volunteer work abroad was launched
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Collaborators
Collaboration with the laity has always been a characteristic of Jesuit apostolate. In recent years this Jesuit-Lay and Lay-Jesuit collaboration has been very much stressed and has become one of the aims of our mission as Jesuits.

In 2001 a Jesuit Fa the r was appointed to oversee the formation of our Lay Collaborators. The n once a year, Jesuits and the ir collaborators come toge the r to pray, reflect and celebrate the ir collaboration in the one mission of Christ.
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Some Recent Events…
In December, 1997, Fr General appointed Fr Alfred Darmanin as the President of the Conference of European Provincials.

The first Jesuit General to visit Malta was Fr Pedro Arrupe in 1973. His successor, Fr Peter-Hans Kolvenbach, paid three visits to Malta: in 1986, in 1997, for the Golden Jubilee of the Province and in October, 2007, three months before his resignation, for the Centenary Celebrations of St Aloysius’ College.

The present General, Fr Adolfo Nicolàs, visited the Province in October, 2009.
In November, 2009, at Siġġiewi, a statue of Fr Ġużé Delia was inaugurated the re.

In September, 2010, an inter-Jesuit Conference project was launched in Malta. The Jesuit Conference of Africa and Madagascar (JESAM) sent one Jesuit from Tanzania and the Conference of European Provincials sent one Scholastic from Poland to work with the Jesuit Refugee Service in Malta.


Singing for the Pope: Dana Scallon Recalls WYD ’93, Shares Hopes for Ireland

Irish singer reflects on faith and the state of the Emerald Isle as Ireland gathers for World Meeting of Families 2018.

Below, Dana Scallon was blessed to meet Pope St. John Paul II at World Youth Day 1993, when she performed the theme song (above). In addition, in 1987, she met Mother Teresa when the holy nun came to London to found a house in the city for the homeless and poor. (photo: DSMusic Productions )

Still an Irish schoolgirl, Dana Scallon won the 1970 “Eurovision Song Contest” with All Kinds of Everything. It became an international best-seller and launched her music career. Thereafter, she became a household name across Europe, with regular appearances in the pop charts as well as on television, in film and in theater.

From the early 1990s, Dana, as she is known, has appeared regularly on EWTN. At the 1993 Denver World Youth Day, she wrote and sang the theme song, We Are One Body, for Pope St. John Paul II.

In 1997 and 2011, Dana ran for the office of president of Ireland on a pro-life, pro-family ticket. She served as an Irish member of the European Parliament from 1999 to 2004.

Today, Dana continues to sing and speak at events and conferences throughout the United States, affirming Catholics in their faith. Register correspondent K.V. Turley spoke to Dana as pilgrims from around the world began to gather in Ireland preceding Pope Francis’ visit during the World Meeting of Families 2018 in Dublin.

The first papal visit to Ireland was almost 40 years ago. What are your memories of Ireland then, especially in regard to the faith?

The Charismatic Renewal had swept through Ireland in the early 1970s. As a result, very active Catholic and ecumenical prayer groups and communities sprang up throughout the country, perhaps particularly in Dublin, Belfast and Derry, my hometown. These prayer groups were still thriving when our Holy Father came in 1979.

There was disbelief that a pope would actually visit our little country and for the “ordinary” Catholic layperson, young or old, there was tremendous happiness and joy at his visit and at the inspiring words spoken by this incredibly charismatic, loving Holy Father.

The Catholic community in the North had really hoped that the Pope would include a visit there, but it was still a very tense and violent time, and opposition was loud and threatening from leaders in the Protestant community. This was a great disappointment, as the Holy Father was seen as a ray of hope in a very dark time.

However, after the Pope’s visit, my husband, Damien, and I wrote a song, inspired by his motto, called Totus Tuus. During interviews in Dublin about the inspiration for the song, it was apparent that there was resentment from some media people at what they saw as the power and influence enjoyed by the hierarchy of the Catholic Church since the foundation of the Irish state. I was surprised at this however, I have seen this resentment grow and become more outspoken over the years.

How significant were Pope St. John Paul II’s words on the Northern Ireland conflict?

His words were of great importance. As he said, he came as a pilgrim of Christ’s peace, and he begged men and women involved in violence to return to the ways of peace. Although many of those involved in violence may have shut their ears and hearts to his words, there were many who heard them and took them to heart. They were greatly needed and appreciated by the ordinary men, women and young people who were struggling to survive and keep hope alive in a seemingly endless war zone, where bombs, threats and deaths were a daily occurrence.

And, today, how do you see matters — both secular and sacred — across Ireland?

The Church has been deeply wounded by the disclosures of abuse, but perhaps particularly by the cover-ups and denial of that abuse. It is clear that many feel the well-being of the “institution” was more important to Church leaders than the well-being of the victims of abuse. Added to that, we have very little media coverage of the work done by good priests and religious who have faithfully served and shown Christian love to those in their care. This has had a devastating effect on the faith in Ireland, especially of our young people.

What are your hopes for the visit of Pope Francis?

My hope is that for those attending the World Meeting of Families and for the world watching and listening, there will be clear teaching of the truths of the Catholic Church and that many will be blessed and encouraged.

Did you think that the recent referenda — same-sex “marriage” (2015) and abortion (2018) — are a major departure from Ireland’s past?

Yes, the results of these recent referenda are a major departure from the constitutional and legal protection previously afforded to the family, based on the marriage of a man and a woman and to the unborn child from the moment of its conception. In the run-up to both of these referenda, which were decided by the public vote, there was a unique opportunity to clearly and in a loving way explain the teachings of the Church on the vital matters of Christian marriage and protection of life from conception to natural death. Many, like me, feel that, with a few greatly appreciated exceptions, this opportunity was lost, or abandoned, or left until too late by most of our Church leaders.

Why are Irish Catholics voting in these ways?

That’s a question many Irish people are asking themselves. In the past, the teaching of the truths of our Church took place initially in the home it was then reinforced in the churches and in the schools, which were generally run by nuns or priests. Also in society at that time, parents did not face the fierce opposition to Catholic teaching that we experience today and, indeed, now have faced over many years. Today, of course, there are few nuns or priests teaching in Irish schools, and the undermining of people’s trust in the protection and care of the Church, combined with an almost-daily highlighting by the media of the failings in the Church, has had a devastating effect on the way the people of Ireland feel about the Catholic Church and its teachings. This, in turn, has a direct effect on how the people have voted on matters central to the teachings of the Catholic Church.

Where do you think modern Ireland is heading, and how do we renew the Catholic faith in Ireland?

There is still a deep faith in Ireland, especially perhaps among those who remember a more innocent time. There is also, I believe, a recognition that our faith cannot depend on the actions or the non-action of individuals in the Church, but on our personal relationship with God and on our personal holiness.

We need the Church and the healing sacraments of the Church to fully live our lives. We have some wonderful priests who are working so hard, often alone in their parishes and although fewer in number than in the past, our newly ordained priests are outstanding men: prayerful, Eucharistic and with a deep love of our Blessed Mother.

I have also found the young people of Ireland to be generally kind and thoughtful. They are not afraid to stand up for what they believe to be right and fair. They also have a wonderful, if at times devastating, sense of humor. As with most young people, they long for the truth they’re not afraid of being challenged. They have a deep spiritual capacity.

For the Catholic faith to be renewed in Ireland, or anywhere else for that matter, people need and long for strong, positive leadership that will speak the truth and confront and deal with the problems and the evils that have so damaged and hurt the Church and its members. To revive our own faith, and therefore the faith of the Church in Ireland (and elsewhere), we all need a strong prayer life and the sacraments, daily Rosary and Eucharistic adoration.

The incredible apparition of Knock encapsulated these faith-saving gifts without speaking a word. Just look at the images and see how clearly they spoke to the Irish people of that time and throughout the following years.

The Irish presidential election — an office you were nominated to run for in 1997 and 2011 — takes place later this year. How do you see the coming election? It is a largely symbolic role, so does it matter to Ireland’s future?

The Irish Constitution upholds that the people have the right to directly vote for their president and that the president’s primary duty is to uphold and protect the Irish Constitution on behalf of the Irish people. The preamble of our constitution begins with the words, “In the name of the most Holy Trinity from Whom is all authority and to whom, as our final end, all actions both of men and states must be referred …” This is a Christian constitution based on natural law. The choice of president is, therefore, of great importance.

As was explained to me when I ran for the office of president, no government would choose to put a constitutional amendment before a president they felt was likely to reject that amendment, as it would lead to a constitutional crisis. I had not thought of that scenario, but it made me acutely aware of the importance of the kind of person chosen to be president of Ireland and protector of the Irish Constitution.

There will be an election in November 2018. At this stage, it is impossible to predict the outcome.

Do you think it is important that faithful Catholics continue to engage fully, both as voters and politicians, in Irish and European politics?

Yes, I do believe it’s important to vote or, in some cases, to run for elected office. The right to vote was a hard-won right. In the North of Ireland, “one man, one vote” only became law in the late 1960s, following in the footsteps of African-Americans in the United States. However, it’s very disheartening to feel you have no one to vote for because no one seems to share your beliefs and your concerns. However, if faithful Catholics fail to vote, they in effect have no voice, no representation for the kind of society they want to live in and raise their families in. We have to engage with our political candidates and elected politicians. There are often cases where a politician is constrained by party whip and needs our public voice to give him or her the support they need to vote with their conscience. The power of the voice of the grassroots voter should never be underestimated, and it is important to network and unite the voices of like-minded voters.

What advice would you give anyone thinking of entering politics?

Pray very hard before deciding. Then have people supporting you that you feel you can trust. Seek advice from those who have experience in political campaigning. Decide on the “platform” you’ll run on. Know your subjects and be able to answer questions clearly on a number of levels. Know who you’ll be interviewed by and, in particular, who you’ll be debating with. If possible, only do “live” media interviews, as editing can misrepresent your views and beliefs. There are many other points, but the bottom and most important line is this: If you believe God is calling you to run for office or to speak out, then remember you are told not to be afraid, because he will put his words on your lips.

It has been 25 years since you performed at World Youth Day in Denver. What are your memories of that day?

It was a very challenging road to Denver, and I truly thought I’d be lucky to even see the Pope there, never mind sing before him. I was waiting at the side of the stage area when his helicopter flew overhead. The pilot later said that the cheers from the crowd caused such air turbulence that it reminded him of flying under fire in Vietnam.

My choir of teenagers was from Birmingham, Alabama. They were also waiting at the side of the stage. One of them was a beautiful young girl in a wheelchair. As soon as the Holy Father saw her, he immediately made his way over to her and blessed her, along with the other young people in the choir. They were all in tears.

When my name was called from the stage, I walked out to a breathtaking view of almost 100,000 jubilant faces before me. Colorful flags and banners from every diocese in the U.S. and every country in the world seemed to dance in the air throughout the stadium. I took a deep breath and began to sing We Are One Body.

Nothing could have prepared me for the incredible reaction when we all finished singing the last line of the song, hands clasped and arms raised in the air, “We are one body, one Body in Christ. And he came that we might have life.” There was a moment of silence then the stadium erupted with prolonged applause and cheers. I think I was in shock. Suddenly, I felt a tap on my shoulder, and as I looked up, a priest said, “Follow me. The Holy Father would like to meet you.”

Then I really was in shock, for I’d been told I definitely wouldn’t meet the Pope. I followed the priest up the stairs of the podium behind me, but when I got a few steps from the Holy Father himself, I couldn’t move at all, as tears ran down my face. The Pope stretched out his arms to me, and the next moment my head was on his shoulder. He kissed the top of my head and thanked me for my song.

It’s a moment I’ll never forget, and it was a moment that millions shared with me in a personal way, for so many people have told me that when the Pope put his arms around me, they felt as though he had put his arms around them, too.

I then told the Holy Father that Mother Angelica and all at EWTN sent him their love. It was a little joke Mother and I had shared before we left Birmingham for World Youth Day. Although I’d been told I’d never meet him, she said with a laugh, “Don’t forget to tell the Pope that I send love from us all at EWTN.” I said I would, but I never dreamed I’d actually be able to do it.

The 1993 World Youth Day was so powerful that it has been recognized as a turning point in the history of the Catholic Church in the United States and the real starting point of the New Evangelization (see related story on B1). Countless vocations have come from that wonderful World Youth Day, and the words Pope St. John Paul spoke to us are as true today as they were then: “Do not be afraid to go out on the streets and public places, like the first apostles who preached Christ and the Good News of salvation in the squares of cities, towns and villages. This is no time to be ashamed of the Gospel. … It is time to preach it from the rooftops.”


7 Unusual Crusade Beneficiaries

Titles won by Crusade did tend to go to landless nobility, but CK3 often transforms its Kingdoms of Jerusalem into realms of female and bastard rulers. While interesting, it doesn't reflect history. So, why does this happen? It is, seemingly, due to two reasons.

The hard stance against Primogeniture which CK3 has stressed in Early-High Medieval Europe leads to most sons becoming heirs. And the game's low birthrate exacerbates this effect. In reality, in the 11th century, the majority of sons stood to inherit nothing. One of the motivations behind the First Crusade was, in fact, occupying the violent aimlessness of younger noble sons. They had become something of a thuggish epidemic and needed a distraction.


Mary I (1516 - 1558)

Mary I © The first queen to rule England in her own right, she was known as 'Bloody Mary' for her persecution of Protestants in a vain attempt to restore Catholicism in England.

Mary was born at Greenwich on 18 February 1516, the only surviving child of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon. Her life was radically altered when Henry divorced Catherine to marry Anne Boleyn. He claimed that the marriage was incestuous and illegal, as Catherine had been married to his dead brother, Arthur. The pope disagreed, resulting in Henry's break with Rome and the establishment of the Church of England.

Henry's allegations of incest effectively bastardised Mary. After Anne Boleyn bore Henry another daughter, Elizabeth, Mary was forbidden access to her parents and stripped of her title of princess. Mary never saw her mother again. With Anne Boleyn's fall, there was a chance of reconciliation between father and daughter, but Mary refused to recognise her father as head of the church. She eventually agreed to submit to her father and Mary returned to court and was given a household suitable to her position. She was named as heir to the throne after her younger brother Edward, born in 1537.

Edward VI succeeded his father in 1547 and, under the protectorate of the Duke of Northumberland, zealously promoted Protestantism. Mary, however, remained a devout Catholic. When it became clear that Edward was dying, Northumberland made plans for his daughter-in-law, Lady Jane Grey, to take the throne in Mary's place.

On Edward's death in 1553, Jane was briefly acclaimed queen. But Mary had widespread popular support and within days made a triumphal entry into London. Once queen, she was determined to re-impose Catholicism and marry Philip II of Spain. Neither policy was popular. Philip was Spanish and therefore distrusted, and many in England now had a vested interest in the prosperity of the Protestant church, having received church lands and money after Henry dissolved the monasteries.

In 1554, Mary crushed a rebellion led by Sir Thomas Wyatt. Making the most of her advantage, she married Philip, pressed on with the restoration of Catholicism and revived the laws against heresy. Over the next three years, hundreds of Protestants were burned at the stake. This provoked disillusionment with Mary, deepened by an unsuccessful war against France which led to the loss of Calais, England's last possession in France, in January 1558. Childless, sick and deserted by Philip, Mary died on 17 November 1558. Her hopes for a Catholic England died with her.


Was the medieval church more powerful than kings?

There were many times when kings or emperors tried to take power away from the Church. One way they did this was to insist that they had the right to appoint bishops or even popes, and the question of whether the kings could do this was called the Investiture Controversy. When they tried to appoint bishops, they got away with it, sometimes, for a while. They even succeeded in appointing their own popes, though doing so split the Church in what was called the Great Schism of the West.

There were many kings and emperors who ran antagonized popes and found it was a big mistake. The problem they had was that the whole fabric of society was regulated by oaths, which were effectively binding contracts, and which could only be nullified by permission from the Church. Everything, from the support the nobility gave to the kings, to treaties the kings had with each other, could be rendered invalid, if a king was excommunicated. Since every king had his enemies, having this happened could cause rebellions and invasions. Great kings like Henry II of England, King John of England, and Emperor Henry IV of the Holy Roman Empire both suffered from this sort of problem. In the case of King John, the result was sufficiently difficult that he allowed himself to become a vassal of the pope to get out of it.

On the other hand, the Church had little secular power. It usually had no military to command, and was at the mercy of the kings to some degree. When Pope Leo III was attacked by a mob that was enraged at his election, because his father was an ordinary farmer, Charlemagne had to send a military force to come to his rescue.


The Vatican Deception

The Vatican is the holy seat of the Catholic world, also officially called State of the Vatican City that is located in the city of Rome. The city is known worldwide for its Museums, the Sistine Chapel, St. Peter’s Square and St. Peter’s Basilica.

The Vatican is the home of the pope and the Roman Curia, and the spiritual centre for some 2.5 billion followers of the Catholic Church. It also is the world’s smallest independent nation-state, it covers 44 hectares within a 3,2 KM border, and possesses another 65 hectare of holdings in remote locations. Along with the centuries-old buildings and gardens, the Vatican maintains its own banking and telephone systems, post office, pharmacy, newspaper, radio and television stations. Its citizens include the members of the Swiss Guard, a security charged with protecting the pope since 1506. As the seat of Catholicism, the Vatican has a very important cultural influence that can be discovered especially through the eleven Vatican museums and its many monuments and sights.

The Vatican’s history as the holy seat of the Catholic Church began with the construction of a basilica over St. Peter’s grave in Rome in the 4th century A.D. The area developed into a popular pilgrimage site and a commercial district, although it was abandoned following the move of the papal court to Avignon in France in 1309. After the Church returned in 1377, famous landmarks such the Apostolic Palace, the Sistine Chapel and the new St. Peter’s Basilica were constructed within the city limits. Vatican City was established in its current form as a sovereign nation with the signing of the Lateran Pacts in 1929. Comprising of agreements between the Kingdom of Italy and the Holy See, to settling the “Roman Question”, that has been ratified by the Italian parliament.

The Vatican, seat of the papacy from St. Peter, was established on February 11th, 1929 as a consecutive representation of the Holy See, including all the institutions of the Roman Catholic Church. Christianity is the most widely practiced religion in the world, The Christian faith centres on beliefs regarding the birth, life, death and resurrection of Jesus Christ. While it started with a small group of devotees, many historians regard the spread and adoption of Christianity throughout the world as one of the most successful spiritual missions in human history.

Succeeding Pontiffs

Following an attack by Saracen pirates that damaged St. Peter’s in 846, Pope Leo IV ordered the construction of a wall to protect the holy basilica and its associated precincts. Completed in 852, the 12 meter -tall wall enclosed what was inaugurated Leonine City, an area covering the current Vatican territory and the commercial Borgo district. The walls were continually expanded and modified until the reign of Pope Urban VIII in the 1640s.

Although the pontiff traditionally lived at the nearby Lateran Palace, Pope Symmachus 498 – 514 built a residence adjacent to the St. Peter’s in the early 6th century. It was expanded hundreds of years later by both Eugene III and Innocent III, and in 1277 a half-mile-long covered passageway was constructed to link the structure to Castel Sant’Angelo, built in‎: ‎123–139 AD. However, the buildings were all abandoned with the move of the papal court to Avignon, France, in 1309, and over the next half-century the city fell into disrepair. Following the return of the Catholic Church in 1377, the clergy sought to restore the walled city’s lustre.

Nicholas V circa 1450 commenced construction of the Apostolic Palace, eventually the permanent home of his successors, and his collection of books became the foundation of the Vatican Library. In the 1470s, Sixtus IV began work on the famed Sistine Chapel, featuring frescoes created by such leading Renaissance artists as Botticelli and Perugino.

Significant changes to the city took place after Julius II became pope in 1503. Julius commissioned Michelangelo to paint the Sistine Chapel ceiling in 1508, and appointed architect Donato Bramante to design the Belvedere Courtyard. The pontiff also chose to tear down the 1,200-year-old St. Peter’s Basilica and have Bramante to build a new one in its place.

The death of Julius in 1513 and Bramante’s in the following year led to a decades-long dispute over how to continue the project, until Michelangelo ended the deadlock in 1547 with his choice to follow Bramante’s original design. Giacomo della Porta completed St. Peter’s celebrated dome in 1590, and work on the grand structure finally finished in 1626.

History of Vatican City and Catholic Church

Situated on the spot where St Peter was martyred and buried almost 2000 years ago this has always been an important area for the Holy See. Prior to 1860 most of Central Italy was governed by the Papal States of which the Pope was the head. Their lands were protected by hired mercenaries and international armies. By 1860, however, most of the Papal states had been absorbed into the Kingdom of Italy with the city of Rome last to capitulate in 1870. In 1929 the Lateran Treaty allowed the State of the Vatican City to be formed, and thenceforth ruled by the Bishop of Rome – the Pope.

The Catholic Church became unfortunately not a shining example of financial prudence and simplicity. The wasteful behaviour of church princes and ordinary priests had taken such forms in the 16th century that it stimulated the rise of Protestantism.

In the Middle Ages, the Roman church has grown into a well-oiled and, above all, money-wasting machine. Rome itself became a bottomless pit in financial terms. This, to the horror of our pennywise ancestors. Because the populace was obliged to make substantial contributions to ecclesiastical wastes and wealth. Certainly in the time 1506 – 1626 that the St. Peter’s was built, Catholics around the world had to pay large sums of money to Rome, called the St. Peter’s tokens.

Reports are known of parties, orgies, gambles, and other horrible consequences of wealth. Continually, excess and debauchery at the papal circle were the rule. In short, Rome was and still is throwing with money. With the construction of St Peter’s, the successive Popes, provided Italian painters and sculptors with lifelong work, not least for their own burial monuments.

For example, Pope Leo X had been granted many privileges as a member of the Medici family, in 1513, only 37 years of age, he was elected Pope. In 1517 he commissioned church-collections to raise the souls of the dead to heaven instead to hell, to supposedly finance with that money the construction of the St Peter’s, although above all to easily obtain money for his own use. It is at the time that Michelangelo completed the frescoes on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel.

In this climate of ecclesiastical abundance and waste, Adrian Florenszoon Bishop of Utrecht was chosen on January 9, 1522 to become pop, being the successor to Pope Leo X. He preferred his own name Adrian VI. How different would history have been if this simple professor from Utrecht could have implemented his reforms. Unfortunately, it will never be known. His goal was to drastically reform the Catholic Church, by wiping out all decadence and corruption. The church had to restart again in simplicity with preaching charity. Because of this reason, Pope Adrian VI has never been declared saint.

Twenty months later, Pope Adrian VI, who was hated in Italy, died by poisoning. After his death, the Vatican household returned, as if nothing had happened, and Saint Peter’s was completed in all its glory. It will be until 1978 before the second non-Italian, is elected Pope: Pope John Paul II, the successor of Pope John Paul I who was murdered after 33 days in office, because he had envisioned to reform the Vatican. – Pope John Paul II also died involuntarily after 27 years of service in 2005, as he thought about to lift the veil on paedophilia in the Vatican. Nonetheless, although with delay, he finally was declared saint in 2014. His successor, Joseph Ratzinger, the third non-Italian by the name of Pope Benedict XVI, is a cabal member, who therefore was disposed of in a more human way by sending him in retirement. To become succeeded by number four in the line of non-Italians, the current Pope Francis named Bergoglio, an Argentinian and also cabal connected. Making sure, the Vatican could continue in its old footsteps, although alienated by the populace at large, as he is surrounded by plenty of splendour and financial waste.

With Pope Francis, the Dark interests are even better served. Pope Francis is portrayed as a “progressive pope,” because he serves the interests of the “liberal” Deep State imperialism. In Argentina, Bergoglio was an obedient servant to his imperialist masters working with the U.S. backed military government that came to power in 1976. Bergoglio supported and concealed the death squads, torture and disappearances of up to thirty- thousands children and revolutionaries during that period.

He also has been linked to the murders of Catholic priests who worked with the guerrillas. Recently, new exposures of the widespread rape, sexual abuse and cover-ups inside the Church-exposures have been coming out, but are not published in the mainstream media: Sexual abuse is not the result of a few bad priests. It has permeated in the church’s structure and hierarchy whose extensive assets are hidden in the secret Vatican bank. Accumulating an enormous wealth coming from centuries of direct participation in the trade in African human beings, theft of land, gold, silver -resources from around the world, as well of the confiscated wealth of Indigenous peoples through genocide. To underline the seriousness the crimes of the Catholic church are so deep rooted that an internet search for this article brought up more than 20 million leads.

Vatican’s Satanic Paedophile followers

It was around the end of eighteens century, when the Rothschilds came across the potential of the private Vatican Bank without any oversight to be adequately used for there private money laundering activities. So they offered like before to the Secret Societies, the Vatican great amounts of money and a lucrative financial participation, to further finance the Vatican’s never ending spendthrift.

On behalf of the Deep State, worldwide tax monies are laundered by the Vatican Bank under the management of Pope Francis, and then passed on to all central banks around the world, after which the population can borrow it back via the debt money system.

These funds, among other things, are used for illegal actions such as false flag operations, bribery of politicians and to buying off everyone in important positions, as is currently happening, to attacking President Trump with false deposition procedures.

Meanwhile, the Patriots are in the process to replacing the world reserve currency – the fiat US Petrodollar – because the current final fiat system is completely out of control. This urgently has to be changed with the new QFS system containing all sovereign currencies supported by gold or assets. Known as the Global Currency Reset (GCR), which has since been signed by all 209 sovereign countries.

This also means, America will return to its original constitution being the Republic of America and be being restored. Similarly, the European Union is being abolished in its current form facilitating all European nations to return to their respective sovereign constitution and currency.

Deceptively, on Instruction of the Deep State Globalists, Pope Francis has invited religious leaders from all over the world to the Vatican to sign a global pact on May 14 2020. This New Humanism initiative would create a World Religion designed to better control the world population. According to a Catholic Whistleblowing Nun the pact would ruin our society because it placed man, rather than Christ, at the centre of the initiative. Watch the first three minutes of this video.

Their Satan-Paedophile-followers became trained and specialised in snatching children on Satan’s Birthday of Halloween for use at their child sex abuse parties and Child Sacrifices, scheduled throughout the year including Easter, Christmas, plus Fall, Winter, Spring and Summer Solstices.

Satanic ritual abuse (SRA) survivors have testified in international courts that global elites including well known politicians, Hollywood Stars, European Royals and Private Bankers in the US, Canada, UK, Netherlands, Switzerland and Australia have traumatised/Mind Controlled babies and toddlers through teens in their Satanic Pedophiles and Human Hunting Parties that ended in Child Sacrifice rites.

Known as the Cabal-puppets, Politicians, Executives of Multinationals, Third Degree Masons, Illuminati, and members of Secret Societies have become Satan worshipping proponents of the New World Order. They are blackmailed through recordings of paedophilia parties, Child Sacrifice rites, murder, threats, torture of loved ones and throwing vast amounts of money to everyone of influence, in order for them to do their bidding with the result to gaining more power over world affairs.

The Truth will come out, but will be difficult to accept!

Before, the Deep State cabal can be publicly dismantled and the truth presented, the majority of the population must be awake to prevent the world from turning into chaos. For the same reason to prevent widespread civil war and global confusion the taking down of the Deep State is executed step by step. Be assured President Trump and the Alliance have the situation under full control.

Although, the cabal is throwing around everything they have to cause delay and chaos, but that also doesn’t work anymore. Their hiding places have been exposed, and their clones are disintegrating. Their wealth is being confiscated, and to be being redistributed under the populace. In reality their empire has collapsed. Their total termination is approaching.

It is essential that everyone is informed about what is about going to happen and what is wrong in our society today. A world that has been completely manipulated by Deep State puppets from A to Z amongst others the harm inflicted by the central banks, the central banking economy, the fact ‘justice’ doesn’t exist, governments’ lies, total deception and fake information by mainstream media.

The truth is hard to understand. False propaganda is more easily accepted, nonetheless to believe in the truth, evidence and facts are necessary for conviction. As, in the beginning, most people will not accept the truth.

The deceptiveness by the Globalist Deep State Mafia is downright criminal and hard to understand and to believe. Politicians such as Obama, Clintons, Theresa May, Merkel, Macron, Rajoy, Rutte, Sanchez, to name a few, will fall from their pedestal. Even the background and role Royalty plays is difficult to fathom as it is a resounding crime against humanity that has to be understood.

The best way anyone can find out, is to read the book The Great Awakening. Wherein the vast majority and variety of facts are explained in an understandable way. Self-study is necessary to become delighted about the new people’s economy, which is already being prepared and presently in progress meant for step by step introduction.

Life and well-being for everyone will become more joyful, easier and healthier no wars, no famine, no poverty, no chemtrails or food poisoning. The abolishment of taxes, provides everyone with ample available income.

Our world will change more than rigorously no more taxes will be levied on earned money. Exclusive, the sales tax on major new items, but not on food or holistic health care to mention some aspects. – Prepare and educate yourself, so you can also help others struggling with the changes that are coming.


Popes in the Middle Ages

Popes in the Middle Ages became central figures of power and influence. During this time many people from all walks of life flocked to the Holy Land to see the pope. The overly aggressive religious fanaticism of the popes and the promise of redemption of sin made the popes and the crusades popular.

In effect of this, the Catholic Church soon became the collective, uniting religious institution. Conflicts between church and state eventually weakened the Pope’s power. Also, the end of the feudal system and the Protestant Reformation led to a further weakening of the Pope’s power.

List of Popes in the Middle Ages

1061 – 1073: Pope Alexander II
1073 – 1085: Pope Gregory VII
1086 – 1087: Pope Victor III
1088 – 1099: Pope Urban II
1099 – 1118: Pope Paschal II
1118 – 1119: Pope Gelasius II
1119 – 1124: Pope Callistus II
1124 – 1130: Pope Honorius II
1130 – 1143: Pope Innocent II
1143 – 1144: Pope Celestine II
1144 – 1145: Pope Lucius II
1145 – 1153: Pope Eugene III
1153 – 1154: Pope Anastasius IV
1154 – 1159: Pope Adrian IV
1159 – 1181: Pope Alexander III
1181 – 1185: Pope Lucius III
1185 – 1187: Pope Urban III
1187: Pope Gregory VIII
1187 – 1191: Pope Clement III
1191 – 1198: Pope Celestine III
1198 – 1216: Pope Innocent III
1216 – 1227: Pope Honorius III
1227 – 1241: Pope Gregory IX
1241: Pope Celestine IV
1243 – 1254: Pope Innocent IV
1254 – 1261: Pope Alexander IV
1261 – 1264: Pope Urban IV
1265 – 1268: Pope Clement IV
1271 – 1276: Pope Gregory X
1276: Pope Innocent V
1276: Pope Adrian V
1276 – 1277: Pope John XXI
1277 – 1280: Pope Nicholas III
1281 – 1285: Pope Martin IV
1285 – 1287: Pope Honorius IV
1288 – 1292: Pope Nicholas IV
1294: Pope Celestine V
1294 – 1303: Pope Boniface VIII
1303 – 1304: Pope Benedict XI
1305 – 1314: Pope Clement V
1316 – 1334: Pope John XXII
1334 – 1342: Pope Benedict XII
1342 – 1352: Pope Clement VI
1352 – 1362: Pope Innocent VI
1362 – 1370: Pope Urban V
1370 – 1378: Pope Gregory XI
1378 – 1389: Pope Urban VI
1389 – 1404: Pope Boniface IX
1404 – 1406: Pope Innocent VII
1406 – 1415: Pope Gregory XII
1417 – 1431: Pope Martin V
1431 – 1447: Pope Eugene IV
1447 – 1455: Pope Nicholas V
1455 – 1458: Pope Callistus III
1458 – 1464: Pope Pius II
1464 – 1471: Pope Paul II
1471 – 1484: Pope Sixtus IV
1484 – 1492: Pope Innocent VIII

History of Popes in the Middle Ages

Gregory the Great- 540-604
Gregory reformed the church. Gregory had a family with a very old Roman heritage and customs and, as such, was a strict disciplinarian during his rule. His rule was representative of the shift from classical Roman rule to the new Medieval style. Gregory’s writings included many demons, angels, ghosts, dramatic miracles and the coming end of the world.

The Exarch of Ravenna
After Gregory, most popes were dominated by the Exarch of Ravenna. The Exarch of Revenna was the Byzantine emperor’s representation in Italy. The empire was weakened during this time, as it was in the midst of the Muslin expansion.

Because of this, the current pope, Pope Stephen II, no longer trusted the current emperor, Constantine V. Later, when Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne emperor (circa 800 AD), he decided that no man, at least in the West, could be emperor without the pope’s anointment.

Byzantines
As far back as the 600s AD, most of the southern Mediterranean area had been conquered by the Islamic Caliphite. This was a threat to the Christians. Pope Urban II was asked to aid the current emperor, Alexius I, against Muslim invasions. At the council of Clermont, Urban called for the first crusade. He did this to assist the Byzantine Empire in regaining old Christian areas. The most important of these was Jerusalem.

Low point of the papacy- 867-1049

Popes in the Middle Ages came under political scrutiny from 867-1049. During this time, popes in the Middle Ages were starved, imprisoned, murdered, and forced to step down from their positions. One official controlled the papacy for half a century. Pope John XII, the great-grandson of this official, held numerous decadent and sinful parties in the Lateran palace. John was accused in an ecclesiastical court by Emperor Otto I of Germany and he was forced to step down from his position.

He was then replaced by layman Pope Leo VIII. Through malicious acts John made his way back into the position of pope. Conflicts continued between church and state to the point where popes were elected through monetary means almost openly by those in power.

Leo IX- 1049
Leo was the last pope with the ability to face the problems that popes in the Middle Ages were up against. He made appearances across Europe to deal with the conflicts between church and state directly. Two notable problems included concubines and marriage in the clergy. Through his patience and travel he was able to restore the authority and respect once shown to the papacy.

Monarchs and Popes in the Middle Ages

From 600’s AD onward it was common for European monarchies to invest in churches and the papacy. They also sometimes housed clergy in their manors or fiefdoms, though their personal beliefs and interests caused distaste among clergy members. The reason for this practice was that the clergy members were also participants in public life.T

This practice was seen as corruptive to the church and, as such, the church began to promote ecclesiastical reform. Centres were built for this purpose. A notable centre was the Abbey of Cluny. Pope Gregory VII, who was elected in 1073, promoted this movement further when he spread the Gregorian Reform. Gregorian Reform pushed celibacy, tried to restore clerical discipline, and preached against the abuse of civil power.



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