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Keresaspa Str - History

Keresaspa Str - History


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Keresaspa

A former name retained.

(Str: t. 3,019; 1. 360'; b. 48'; dr. 13'5"; s. 9 k.; cpl. 86;
a. 1 5")

Keresaspa, formerly Franconia, was launched 1903 by Northumberland Shipbuilding Co., Ltd., Newcastle, England. The cargo ship was acquired by the Navy from the Franconia S.S. Co., Ltd. and commissioned 31 October 1918, Lt. Comdr. James J. Boyce in command.

Assigned to NOTS, Keresaspa departed New York with a cargo of 400 horses and mules for transport to France. She discharged her cargo at La Pallice, France, and returned to Baltimore 20 January 1919. Following repairs Keresaspa decommissioned 11 February 1919 and was returned to her owners.


Keresaspa Str - History

That source, from Book Three of Saxo Grammaticus' History of the Danes, as translated by Peter Fisher in Hilda Ellis Davidson's edition, reads,


Hodur and the Wood-Women
Louis Moe

Of this latter, Rydberg says, op cit., p. 18,

The Parsi tradition explains the expression as Keresaspa falling in love with her beauty. He came under her influence. Consequently, the old Indo-Iranian myth spoke of an event in Keresaspa's life when he was ". degraded to a pawn in the service of darkness." So the Sorceress who Hodur came under the influence of was throwing nightmares and night-sicknesses at Balder that made it so he could not walk.

The Second Merseburg Charm, as it reads in Rydberg's text, op. cit., p. 45, says, in part :

Rydberg cites a parallel charm derived from the Merseburg, but later, and partially Christianized, which reads, in part (Rydberg, op. cit. p. 50):

". His foal's foot became sprained. "

So we have a myth of Baldur's horse's foot becoming sprained. Rydberg says (op cit. p. 47), ". Sinhtgunt rode closest to Baldur when the misfortune to his horse occurred, and that for this reason she is named first among those who seek to heal the injury thereafter comes her sister, then the pair of sisters, Frigg and Fulla, and finally Odin, who as "galder's father" and possessor of the most powerful incantations, succeeds in abolishing one of Jotunheim's ills conjured by witchcraft, against which the goddesses' galder-songs proved powerless."


The Healing of Baldur's Horse
Carl Emil Doepler Jr.

From Rydberg's standpoint, the Merseburg charm points to powerful sorcery coming out of Jotunheim being aimed at Baldur, and injuring his horse's foot.

In comparing Baldur to the saint Stephanus, Rydberg (op cit., p.56) says, "The Ballad of Steffan relates how Stephanus waters the horse he rides and four others by a "spring", while the stars still twinkle. This watering-ceremony is the ballad's actual subject. Baldur is the defender of springs and wells. Springs rise up under his horse's hooves and wells are called by his name."

Saxo, Book Three (Peter Fisher, tr.) tells us that "The victorious Balder, wishing to provide water as due refreshment for his thirsty soldiers, bored deep into the earth and discovered underground springs. From every direction the parched troops made for the gushing rills with parted lips. The site is confirmed by a permanent name. "

It is directly thereafter that it is mentioned that Baldur is so tormented by phantoms that he was unable to walk.

The Ballad of St. Steffan (Rydberg, op cit., p. 54) also says,

"Steffan rides to the well --
. He scoops out water with the ladle. "

-- just as Baldur bored into the earth to bring up water for his troops in Saxo.

Rydberg in Investigations into Germanic Mythology, Volume I, Chapter 92, says, "In the Danish popular traditions Baldur's horse had the ability to produce fountains by tramping on the ground, and Baldur's fountain in Seeland is said to have originated in this manner (cp. P. E. Muller on Saxo, Hist., 120)." He also says, same chapter, "I now return to the Merseburg formula: "Falr and Odin went to the wood, Then the foot was sprained of Balder's foal". With what here is said about Baldur's steed, we must compare what Saxo relates about Baldur himself: Adeo in adversam corporis valetudinem incidit, ut ni pedibus quidem, incedere posset (Book III). The misfortune which happened first to Baldur and then to Baldur's horse must be counted among the warnings which foreboded the death of the son of Odin."

So we have something happening to Balder's foot, and to the foot of Balder's horse.

Both people and horses wear shoes. We are back at shoes.

Before we leave this sub-topic, let us note some converging motifs :

Baldur, on a horse, exposes subterranean, deep-earth springs which rise up from the chasms beneath the soil. Then, assailed by sorcery, his horse stumbles and sprains his foot, so deeply that only Odin can heal it, and subsequently, Balder himself is unable to walk.

Rydberg, in Volume II of his opus, has more to tell us. While drawing out the Baldur-motifs beneath the Olaf Geirstadaalf-palimpsest, he translates a verse from Flateyjarbok : (and here let us understand that Baldur stands in for where it says "Olaf") :

"Olaf ruled Upsi in times past, widely famous . until a foot-disease by Fold's shore caused the death of the battle-dealer." (Rydberg, Volume II, p. 67.)

Rydberg comments, "What this verse says is that Olaf . was the "gods' equal" and a brave warrior, that "foot-ache became the death of him" . the "gods' equal" in question met his death via a foot-injury. Among the gods, only one exists about whom the story is told that some time before his death he was attacked by a disease. This god is Baldur. We may remind ourselves what Saxo says of him: that he fell so ill that ne pedibus quidem incedere posset. "he could not so much as walk". " (Ibid, p. 68.)

The relevant portion of the chapter reads,

Apparently Thangbrand praises God for the fact that he himself was not swallowed up.

In the next chapter, Chapter 102, Thangbrand the Missionary kills a poet named Veturlidi, and there is a poem composed about it. Rydberg treats of this poem in his second volume, and points out that the poem refers to Baldur and Hodur. It is curious that we have an association of Baldur and Hodur here.

Chapter 102 poem reads, "The tester of the sword, the shield's Baldur (that is to say one of the two missionaries Thangbrand and Gudleif) in the land held the victory tools (ie., the cross, the baptismal font, and other religious objects) in the prayer-bed's workplace (ie. the place where the prayer and sacred duty are held). Thereafter the quick tester of belief (the second of the two missionaries), Hodur of the din of battle, broke the death-hammer on the hat-stand (ie. the head) of the skald Veturlidi." (Rydberg, Volume II, pp. 87 - 88.)

"The idea receives its poetic clothing in the usual manner: by referring to well-known mythological persons and circumstances. The one missionary, he who used the religious "victory-tools" is likened to Baldur the other missionary, who utilizes the violent weapon and kills the heathen skald is likened to Hodur (hauðr), who in the myth was portrayed as passionate and quick to act . The workplace of the missionary likened to Baldur is "the prayer bed's workplace". The one belonging to missionary likened to Hodur is a smithy in which he is depicted standing, hammer in hand, and letting it come down on the anvil, which is Veturlidi's head . Like the peaceful Baldur holds tools in the bed's workplace (where women in labor work), so the warlike Baldur (the missionary, Thangbrand, spoken of in Heimskringla as "very violent and murderous man") holds victory-tools in the prayer bed's workplace (i.e. the place where Christian worship is conducted). And like Hodur lets the hammer break on the anvil (so that it sinks down into the earth), so Hodur of the quick tester of faith (the second missionary, also a man of violence) lets the death-hammer break on the skald Veturlidi's hat-stand (his head, so that he sinks in death)." (Ibid, p. 88)

In other words, in the poem, Thangbrand is being compared to Baldur (and Gudleif to Hodur).

This is significant, because we can see that in the passage in the previous chapter, Chapter 101, Thangbrand the Missionary suffers something quite akin to the motifs we have been discussing :

1. He is assailed by sorcery.
2. That sorcery is associated with someone named Hedin (Hodur), who goes into a heath or forest.
3. The sorcery causes his horse to fall.
4. This is connected with an opening up of the chasms of the earth. (In Chapter 104, we read, "Thangbrand told King Olaf how badly the Icelanders had treated him, and said they were such sorcerers that the earth burst open under his horse and swallowed it up.") (Hreinsson, op. cit., p. 127)

We note that Thangbrand had to leap off his horse to climb up the rim of the cavern. Given the cataclysmic nature of the earth opening beneath him, could he --- or his mythological predecessor behind this saga-allusion --- have sprained or injured his own foot in so doing, so that he could not walk?

It seems no coincidence that two contiguous chapters associate Thangbrand with the myth of Baldur and Hodur.


We cannot be certain, but we do know that Odin's warnings in Havamal's Loddfafnismal are not for nothing. Every one of them pertains to predictions regarding Hodur that will lead to his doom, and therefore refer to actual mythological events that occurred. We know for certain that Hodur's shaftmakings led to Baldur's death and so we must assume that his shoe-smithing led to similar calamity when the shoes he made were ill-made. These, like the shafts, were not made for or by himself, but for someone else and by someone else. Hodur has failed to make his own arrows or shoes, and Baldur is the victim of this.

We must assume that Hodur in some way ended up either shoeing Baldur's horse or shoeing Baldur himself. Since the sorcery of "Hedin the Sorcerer" in Book 101 of Njal's Saga directly targets Thangbrand's horse, perhaps we ought to assume that Hodur ended up shoeing Baldur's horse, which led to the horse falling, getting sprained, and Baldur, in leaping off, was himself injured in the foot. The horse-shoes, therefore, were ill charmed (skapaðr illa) and since Rydberg supplies us with the identity of the sorceress behind Hodur's folly, we can assume they were ill-charmed by Gullveig herself. (We ought note that "skapa" does not only mean to "shape" or "make" it also has a strong connotation of assigning destiny, which implies a fate-power or magic. When the shoes were ill-shaped, we can assume sorcery here.)

Did the ancients have horse-shoes? "Mention of an iron horseshoe is made by Appian, a writer not indeed remarkable for accuracy but the phrase "brasen-footed steeds," which occurs in Homer's Iliad, is regarded by commentators as a metaphorical expression for strength and endurance. Wrappings of plaited fibre, as hemp or broom, were used by the ancients to protect the feet of horses. But the most common form of foot covering for animals appears to have been a kind of leathern sock or sandal, which was sometimes provided with an iron sole. This covering was fastened around the fetlocks by means of thongs, and could be easily removed. Iron horse-shoes of peculiar form, which have been exhumed in Great Britain of recent years, have been objects of much interest to archaeologists. In 1878 a number of such relics shaped for the hoof and pierced for nails were found at a place called Caesar's Camp, near Folkstone, England. In the south of Scotland, also, ancient horse-shoes have been found, consisting of a solid piece of iron made to cover the whole hoof and very heavy." (Robert Means Lawrence, M.D., The Magic of the Horse-Shoe, Houghton, Mifflin and Company, Boston and New York, 1898, Chapter 1.)

Lawrence's text also says, "The practical value of the horse-shoe is tersely expressed in the old German saying, "A nail preserves a country" for the nail keeps in place the horse-shoe, the shoe protects the foot of the horse, the horse carries the knight, the knight holds the castle, and the castle defends the country." This interpretation of the German proverb is very interesting, and perhaps the following Germanic fairy-tale can elucidate for us.

Grimm's Fairy Tale # 184, "The Nail", would seem to relate to our inquiry :

"A merchant had done a good business at the fair he had sold his wares and lined his money-bags with gold and silver. Then he wanted to travel homeward and be in his house before nightfall. So he packed his trunk with the money on his horse and rode away. At noon he rested in a town, and when he wanted to go farther the stable-boy brought out his horse and said: "A nail is wanting, sir, in the shoe of its left hind foot." "Let it be wanting," answered the merchant "the shoe will certainly stay on for the six miles I have still to go I am in a hurry," In the afternoon, when he once more alighted and had his horse fed, the stable-boy went to him and said, "Sir, a shoe is missing from your horse's left hind foot shall I take him to the blacksmith?" "Let it still be wanting," answered the man, "the horse can very well hold out for the couple of miles which remain I am in haste." He rode forth, but before long the horse began to limp. It had not limped long before it began to stumble, and it had not stumbled Iong before it fell down and broke its leg. The merchant was forced to leave the horse where it was, and unbuckle the trunk, take it on his back, and go home on foot. And there he did not arrive until quite late at night. "And that unlucky nail," said he to himself, "has caused all this disaster." Hasten slowly."

Note that we have a horse, whose shoe was ill-made, and because of this, the horse was made to stumble, and it was all because of the nail missing in the shoe.

Let us note that this story informs us that it was blacksmiths who made horse-shoes, because they involved nails, and remember that Hodur was trained by Mimir as a smith. If it was the nail that was faulty in the horse-shoe that Hodur perhaps made for Baldur, it would have a symmetry with the dart that he threw at Baldur later.

Chapter II of The Magic of the Horse-Shoe says, "As a practical device for the protection of horses' feet, the utility of the iron horse-shoe has long been generally recognized and for centuries, in countries widely separated, it has also been popularly used as a talisman for the preservation of buildings or premises from the wiles of witches and fiends."

In other words, a horseshoe that has been made correctly is a protection against the evil of witches and sorcery. But that implies that one that is ill-shaped will not carry out the same function.

Lawrence continues, in the same chapter, "Among the Romans there prevailed a custom of driving nails into cottage walls as an antidote against the plague." In other words, a nail itself can be protective. There are many folk customs about an iron nail protecting against sorcery.

Our Grimm's tale has one of the nails missing from the horse's shoe.

Baldur is later killed by a dart, arrow-head, or nail that has been cursed.

Could Hodur, bewitched by Gullveig, and in a daze, have forgotten to put in one of the nails that made the horse-shoe a magical talisman against sorcery, thus exposing Baldur to injury and could Gullveig have taken this nail and used it to fashion the arrowhead of the arrow whose shaft was made of mistletoe?


Keresaspa Str - History

My ratings tend towards the high end of the scale although that's mainly because I tend to ignore music I know I won't like rather than my being easily pleased. Generally speaking I only rate that which I own or have owned, although I do make very rare exceptions to that rule. When rating an album release with bonus tracks I don't count those towards the overall rating. I pay absolutely no heed to an album's supposed "importance" when rating it. My ratings system can be approximately summarised thus:

spoiler: click to read ★★★★★: My untouchable favourites. A rating an album grows into I've yet to hear an immediate five.
★★★★½: Top class albums, filled with great music. The best albums at this level are in the main only separated from five stars due to personal significance of the latter.
★★★★: Very good albums, the real backbone of my collection.
★★★½: This is about my default rating for any album I like although occasionally I might use it for an album that is inconsistent but has one or two great songs on it.
★★★: Decent enough albums, although not something I’ll listen to very often. May contain a few gems or perhaps just consistently average but generally it means there was a little more about it that I liked than not.
★★½: Not for me. Nothing terrible about it but probably either from a genre I don't really care for or a weak example of a genre I like.
★★: Not good at all. The lowest mark I will give to an album with anything on it worth my time however.
★½: Bad albums, the sort of stuff I would go out of my way to avoid. If I have this in my collection it is likely to disappear pretty soon.
★: Really bad, not worth a second of my attention. I do my best to find some merit in everything I listen to so I only very rarely give out one star or half star ratings.
½: The worst of the worst. Why did this even happen?

Any dear heart or gentle person who wishes to call me friend on here will likely have the courtesy returned to them. I'm really not bothered about musical compatibility or anything along those lines so don't be put off by differences. Indeed if you're operating in areas beyond my ken you're more than welcome as I'm always keen to learn.

I don't digitise my records so I can't do you mp3s of any of my LPs. Sorry folks, nothing personal, I'm just a bit of a technophobe.

I'm not particularly interested in films so I'll not be rating those, ta. I've considered it but I can't think of any films I'd rate above 3.5 so I don't think I'm really qualified to participate. And when the video games come I certainly won't be involved in that nonsense.

Oh and, as I always lose these links, ☛note to self 1 and 2, not to mention Various Artists.☚

Note also, I'm having connection problems with my internet so if I disappear for a spell or drop out mid-conversation that's probably the reason. Don't use Virgin Media!


Robb Wilton

Robb Wilton, born Robert Wilton Smith (August 28, 1881 - May 1, 1957) was an English comedian and comic actor who was famous for his filmed monologues in the 1930s and 1940s in which he played incompetent authority figures.

Wilton was born in Everton, Liverpool, and had a dry Lancashire accent which suited his comic persona as a procrastinating and work-shy impediment to the general public. Wilton's comedy emerged from the tradition of English Music Hall, especially popular in the North of England, and he was a contemporary of Frank Randle and George Formby, Jr.. He portrayed the human face of bureaucracy for example, playing a policeman who shilly-shallies his way out of acting upon a reported murder by pursuing a contrarian line of questioning. Wilton, rubbing his face in a world-weary way, would fiddle with his props while his characters blithely and incompetently 'went about their work', his humour embodying the everyday and the absurd - and the inherent absurdity of the everyday.

He has been acknowledged as an influence by fellow Lancashire comedians Ken Dodd and Les Dawson, and the film historian Jeffrey Richards has cited him as a key influence for the TV sitcom Dad's Army (1968-1977) he made several monologues in the person of a layabout husband who wryly takes part in the Home Guard. His gentle, if pointed, manner of comedy is similar to the wistful adventures of the more famous Walmington-on-Sea platoon.

Wilton's most popular catchphrase, imitated by many a man of advanced years in a late-20th-century bar-room with the right-hand little finger-end nervously in and out of the mouth, was "The day war broke out…". The phrase was taken from his opening routine for radio which was "The day War broke out, my missus said to me, 'It's up to you…You've got to stop it'. I said, 'Stop what?'. She said, 'The War'".

Another frequently reconstructed Wilton monologue was the ɿire station sketch', in which a bumbling fire officer takes a call reporting the location of a fire, but is sidetracked into trying to remember where it is instead of taking the details of the conflagration: "Grimshaw St… No, don't tell me… Oh, I could walk straight to it…", finishing with the classic line to the long-suffering householder: "Can you keep it going 'til we get there?"

Possibly his best-known character, Mr Muddlecombe, an incompetent J.P., appeared in a number of radio series during the 1930s and 1940s and was known for the phase "You shouldn't have done that!". He would also frequently make the comment: "Ee, what a to-do!"

He appeared in several films from 1934, generally in supporting comic roles. His last film appearance was in the Arthur Askey vehicle The Love Match in 1955.


STR, Inc

STR, Inc. is a division of CoStar Group that provides market data on the hotel industry worldwide, including supply and demand and market share data. The company has a corporate headquarters in Hendersonville, Tennessee, an international headquarters in London, England and offices in Italy, Dubai, Brazil, Singapore, Tokyo, Jakarta, Sydney and Beijing.

STR currently tracks 67,000 hotels with over 8 million rooms in 180 countries. [1]

The company is also the publisher of HotelNewsNow, a website with news on the hotel industry, headquartered in Rocky River, Ohio.

It is also the sponsor of the Hotel Data Conference.

STR was founded in 1985 as Smith Travel Research by Randell A. Smith and his wife Carolyn Smith from their kitchen table in Lancaster, Pennsylvania. [2]

They developed a database with names, addresses and phone numbers of hotels in the United States to create the Census Database. Randy Smith was contacted by Holiday Inn multiple times and urged to create a market share report.

In 1988, the company launched the first Smith Travel Accommodations Report (STAR), a monthly report that includes data from hotels and measures each property's market share performance against a self-selected competitive set.

In 2008, the company expanded internationally by acquiring HotelBenchmark, a division of Deloitte, and The Bench. [3] [4]

In 2008, the company launched HotelNewsNow, a website with news on the hotel industry.

In 2010, in partnership with Baird, the company launched the Baird / Smith Travel Research Hotel Stock Index, a stock market index which tracks the stock performance of 15 publicly traded companies in the hotel industry. [5]

In 2016, STR acquired LJ Research, a market research agency, [6] which was rebranded as Tourism Consumer Insights. [7] LJ Research was based in Edinburgh, Scotland, and established in 1998. [8] Lynn Jones, who led the Edinburgh and Lothian Tourist Board's research division, created a spin-off company, LJ Research. [8] Two of LJ Research's products were Visitrac, the company's online survey system that is used for customer feedback, and LJ Forecaster, a hotel benchmarking system that monitored trends based on achieved and future performance. [8]

In October 2019, the company was acquired by CoStar Group for $450 million. [9] [10] [11] [12] [13]


Contents

The methods for producing a DNA profile were developed by Alec Jeffreys and his team in 1984. [1]

Retired methods Edit

RFLP analysis Edit

The first true method of DNA profiling was restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. The first use of RFLP analysis in forensic casework was in 1985 in the United Kingdom. [2] This type of analysis used variable number tandem repeats (VNTRs) to distinguish between individuals. VNTRs are common throughout the genome and consist of the same DNA sequence repeated again and again. [3] Different individuals can have a different number of repeats at a specific location in the genome. [2] For example, person A could have four while person B could have 5 repeats. The differences were visualized through a process called gel electrophoresis. Smaller fragments would travel farther through the gel than larger fragments separating them out. [4] These differences were used to distinguish between individuals and when multiple VNTR sites were run together, RFLP analysis has a high degree of individualizing power. [5]

The process of RFLP analysis was extremely time consuming and due to the length of the repeats used, between 9 and 100 base pairs, [3] [6] amplification methods such as the polymerase chain reaction could not be used. This limited RFLP to samples that already had a larger quantity of DNA available to start with and did not perform well with degraded samples. [7] RFLP analysis was the primary type of analysis performed in most forensic laboratories before finally being retired and replaced by newer methods. It was fully abandoned by the FBI in 2000 and replaced with STR analysis. [8]

DQ alpha testing Edit

Developed in 1991, [8] DQ alpha testing was the first forensic DNA technique that utilized the polymerase chain reaction. [9] This technique allowed for the use of far fewer cells than RFLP analysis making it more useful for crime scenes that did not have the large amounts of DNA material that was previously required. [10] The DQ alpha 1 locus (or location) was also polymorphic and had multiple different alleles that could be used to limit the pool of individuals that could have produced that result and increasing the probability of exclusion. [11]

The DQ alpha locus was combined with other loci in a commercially available kit called Polymarker in 1993. [12] Polymarker was a precursor to modern multiplexing kits and allowed multiple different loci to be examined with one product. While more sensitive than RFLP analysis, Polymarker did not contain the same discriminatory power as the older RFLP testing. [12] By 1995, scientists attempted to return to a VNTR based analysis combined with PCR technology called amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AmpFLP). [8]

AmpFLP Edit

AmpFLP was the first attempt to couple VNTR analysis with PCR for forensic casework. This method used shorter VNTRs than RFLP analysis, between 8 and 16 base pairs. The shorter base pair sizes of AmpFLP was designed to work better with the amplification process of PCR. [6] It was hoped that this technique would allow for the discriminating power of RFLP analysis with the ability to process samples that have less template DNA to work with or which were otherwise degraded. However, only a few loci were validated for forensic applications to work with AmpFLP analysis as forensic labs quickly moved on to other techniques limited its discriminating ability for forensic samples. [13]

The technique was ultimately never widely used although it is still in use in smaller countries due to its lower cost and simpler setup compared to newer methods. [14] [15] By the late 1990s, laboratories began switching over to newer methods including STR analysis. These used even shorter fragments of DNA and could more reliably be amplified using PCR while still maintaining, and improving, the discriminatory power of the older methods. [8]

Current methods Edit

STR analysis Edit

Short tandem repeat (STR) analysis is the primary type of forensic DNA analysis performed in modern DNA laboratories. STR analysis builds upon RFLP and AmpFLP used in the past by shrinking the size of the repeat units, to 2 to 6 base pairs, and by combining multiple different loci into one PCR reaction. These multiplexing assay kits can produce allele values for dozens of different loci throughout the genome simultaneously limiting the amount of time it takes to gain a full, individualizing, profile. STR analysis has become the gold standard for DNA profiling and is used extensively in forensic applications.

STR analysis can also be restricted to just the Y chromosome. Y-STR analysis can be used in cases that involve paternity or in familial searching as the Y chromosome is identical down the paternal line (except in cases where a mutation occurred). Certain multiplexing kits combine both autosomal and Y-STR loci into one kit further reducing the amount of time it takes to obtain a large amount of data.

MtDNA sequencing Edit

Mitochondrial DNA sequencing is a specialized technique that uses the separate mitochondrial DNA present in most cells. This DNA is passed down the material line and is not unique between individuals. However, because of the number of mitochondria present in cells, mtDNA analysis can be used for highly degraded samples or samples where STR analysis would not produce enough data to be useful. mtDNA is also present in locations where autosomal DNA would be absent, such as in the shafts of hair.

Because of the increased chance of contamination when dealing with mtDNA, few laboratories process mitochondrial samples. Those that do have specialized protocols in place that further separate different samples from each other to avoid cross-contamination.

Rapid DNA Edit

Rapid DNA is a "swab in-profile out" technology that completely automates the entire DNA extraction, amplification, and analysis process. Rapid DNA instruments are able to go from a swab to a DNA profile in as little as 90 minutes and eliminates the need for trained scientists to perform the process. These instruments are being looked at for use in the offender booking process allowing police officers to obtain the DNA profile of the person under arrest.

Recently, the Rapid DNA Act of 2017 was passed in the United States, directing the FBI to create protocols for the implementation of this technology throughout the country. Currently, DNA obtained from these instruments is not eligible for upload to national DNA databases as they do not analyze enough loci to meet the standard threshold. However, multiple police agencies already use Rapid DNA instruments to collect samples from people arrested in their area. These local DNA database are not subject to federal or state regulations.

Massively parallel sequencing Edit

Also known as next-generation sequencing, massively parallel sequencing (MPS) builds upon STR analysis by introducing direct sequencing of the loci. Instead of the number of repeats present at each location, MPS would give the scientist the actual base pair sequence. Theoretically MPS has the ability to distinguish between identical twins as random point mutations would be seen within repeat segments that would not be picked up by traditional STR analysis.

When a DNA profile is used in an evidentiary manner a match statistic is provided that explains how rare a profile is within a population. Specifically, this statistic is the probability that a person picked randomly out of a population would have that specific DNA profile. It is not the probability that the profile "matches" someone. There are multiple different methods to determining this statistic and each are used by various laboratories based on their experience and preference. However, likelihood ratio calculations is becoming the preferred method over the other two most commonly used methods, random man not excluded and combined probability of inclusion. Match statistics are especially important in mixture interpretation where there is more than one contributor to a DNA profile. When these statistics are given in a courtroom setting or in a laboratory report they are usually given for the three most common races of that specific area. This is because the allele frequencies at different loci changed based on the individual's ancestry. https://strbase.nist.gov/training/6_Mixture-Statistics.pdf

Random man not excluded Edit

The probability produced with this method is the probability that a person randomly selected out the population could not be excluded from the analyzed data. This type of match statistic is easy to explain in a courtroom setting to individuals who have no scientific background but it also loses a lot of discriminating power as it does not take into account the suspect's genotype. This approach is commonly used when the sample is degraded or contains so many contributors that a singular profile cannot be determined. It is also useful in explaining to laypersons as the method of obtaining the statistic is straightforward. However, due to its limited discriminating power, RMNE is not generally performed unless no other method can be used. RMNE is not recommended for use in data that indicates a mixture is present.


Talk:Ramble Inn attack

Cusack and McDonald mention a North Antrim Brigade in passing. I've not found any more mention of it elsewhere and, annoyingly, they don't develop the point at all but, who knows, it might even have been them if they existed. Keresaspa (talk) 00:53, 22 October 2012 (UTC) Nice one, Keresaspa. I think you hit the nail on the head. However, we cannot use it as we would need a source which specifically names the North Antrim Brigade as the perps.--Jeanne Boleyn (talk) 05:57, 22 October 2012 (UTC) I don't even know when they came into existence as, like I said, the book only mentions them in passing. Still it is just about in the area so maybe. Keresaspa (talk) 19:03, 22 October 2012 (UTC)

To the best of my knowledge North Antrim is strong UDA turf.The big loyalist towns like Ballymoney and Ballymena always had a UDA presence.The UVF were in smaller pockets of the loyalist estates.I recall reading a snippet about a North Antrim UVF brigade but I doubt they were well organised as other brigades.Maybe just a local company or unit designed to have a visible presence more than anything.Probably following orders from the Belfast leadership or coordinated along the lines with Larne/Carrickfergus UVF.In general during the course of the troubles North Antrim didnt see too much activity.A North Antrim brigade of the IRA was in existance but wasn't as active as other areas.The majority of towns and villages are predominately Protestant so actual sectarian attacks or tit for tat murders were pretty rare.DColt (talk) 19:38, 22 October 2012 (UTC)

It's part of the "Londonderry and North Antrim Brigade" of the UDA. Gerard Casey (Irish republican) was a big wheel in the North Antrim IRA. Apparently the UVF in the area has been fairly dissident in recent years [1]. Keresaspa (talk) 23:42, 22 October 2012 (UTC)


Keresaspa Str - History

My ratings tend towards the high end of the scale although that's mainly because I tend to ignore music I know I won't like rather than my being easily pleased. Generally speaking I only rate that which I own or have owned, although I do make very rare exceptions to that rule. When rating an album release with bonus tracks I don't count those towards the overall rating. I pay absolutely no heed to an album's supposed "importance" when rating it. My ratings system can be approximately summarised thus:

spoiler: click to read ★★★★★: My untouchable favourites. A rating an album grows into I've yet to hear an immediate five.
★★★★½: Top class albums, filled with great music. The best albums at this level are in the main only separated from five stars due to personal significance of the latter.
★★★★: Very good albums, the real backbone of my collection.
★★★½: This is about my default rating for any album I like although occasionally I might use it for an album that is inconsistent but has one or two great songs on it.
★★★: Decent enough albums, although not something I’ll listen to very often. May contain a few gems or perhaps just consistently average but generally it means there was a little more about it that I liked than not.
★★½: Not for me. Nothing terrible about it but probably either from a genre I don't really care for or a weak example of a genre I like.
★★: Not good at all. The lowest mark I will give to an album with anything on it worth my time however.
★½: Bad albums, the sort of stuff I would go out of my way to avoid. If I have this in my collection it is likely to disappear pretty soon.
★: Really bad, not worth a second of my attention. I do my best to find some merit in everything I listen to so I only very rarely give out one star or half star ratings.
½: The worst of the worst. Why did this even happen?

Any dear heart or gentle person who wishes to call me friend on here will likely have the courtesy returned to them. I'm really not bothered about musical compatibility or anything along those lines so don't be put off by differences. Indeed if you're operating in areas beyond my ken you're more than welcome as I'm always keen to learn.

I don't digitise my records so I can't do you mp3s of any of my LPs. Sorry folks, nothing personal, I'm just a bit of a technophobe.

I'm not particularly interested in films so I'll not be rating those, ta. I've considered it but I can't think of any films I'd rate above 3.5 so I don't think I'm really qualified to participate. And when the video games come I certainly won't be involved in that nonsense.

Oh and, as I always lose these links, ☛note to self 1 and 2, not to mention Various Artists.☚

Note also, I'm having connection problems with my internet so if I disappear for a spell or drop out mid-conversation that's probably the reason. Don't use Virgin Media!


Keresaspa Str - History

My ratings tend towards the high end of the scale although that's mainly because I tend to ignore music I know I won't like rather than my being easily pleased. Generally speaking I only rate that which I own or have owned, although I do make very rare exceptions to that rule. When rating an album release with bonus tracks I don't count those towards the overall rating. I pay absolutely no heed to an album's supposed "importance" when rating it. My ratings system can be approximately summarised thus:

spoiler: click to read ★★★★★: My untouchable favourites. A rating an album grows into I've yet to hear an immediate five.
★★★★½: Top class albums, filled with great music. The best albums at this level are in the main only separated from five stars due to personal significance of the latter.
★★★★: Very good albums, the real backbone of my collection.
★★★½: This is about my default rating for any album I like although occasionally I might use it for an album that is inconsistent but has one or two great songs on it.
★★★: Decent enough albums, although not something I’ll listen to very often. May contain a few gems or perhaps just consistently average but generally it means there was a little more about it that I liked than not.
★★½: Not for me. Nothing terrible about it but probably either from a genre I don't really care for or a weak example of a genre I like.
★★: Not good at all. The lowest mark I will give to an album with anything on it worth my time however.
★½: Bad albums, the sort of stuff I would go out of my way to avoid. If I have this in my collection it is likely to disappear pretty soon.
★: Really bad, not worth a second of my attention. I do my best to find some merit in everything I listen to so I only very rarely give out one star or half star ratings.
½: The worst of the worst. Why did this even happen?

Any dear heart or gentle person who wishes to call me friend on here will likely have the courtesy returned to them. I'm really not bothered about musical compatibility or anything along those lines so don't be put off by differences. Indeed if you're operating in areas beyond my ken you're more than welcome as I'm always keen to learn.

I don't digitise my records so I can't do you mp3s of any of my LPs. Sorry folks, nothing personal, I'm just a bit of a technophobe.

I'm not particularly interested in films so I'll not be rating those, ta. I've considered it but I can't think of any films I'd rate above 3.5 so I don't think I'm really qualified to participate. And when the video games come I certainly won't be involved in that nonsense.

Oh and, as I always lose these links, ☛note to self 1 and 2, not to mention Various Artists.☚

Note also, I'm having connection problems with my internet so if I disappear for a spell or drop out mid-conversation that's probably the reason. Don't use Virgin Media!


The Northern Ireland Housing Trust & Rathcoole estate (1945-1971)

The Rathcoole Estate.
Rathcoole as seen from Cavehill., John Pollock – Licence CC BY-SA 2.0

Between the wars, a big public housing build in other parts of the United Kingdom was not replicated in Northern Ireland. Nor had there been grants for slum clearance. What public housing there was, had been built on a small scale, generally by the private sector, often in rural locations. In the interwar years, only 2,500 houses of all types had been built per annum in the province.

In 1944 a report was published by the Housing Committee of the Planning Advisory Board. 44% of the houses in the county borough of Belfast were in need of extensive repairs. Belfast suffered the most crowded living conditions of a major industrialised city in the UK, with 28 people per acre and 847 people per acre of open (recreational) space. The figures for Glasgow were 27 and 333, Sheffield, 13 and 200. The report estimated that 100,000 new houses were needed in the province, immediately.

Belfast had the highest levels of tuberculosis in the UK. One in ten babies died before their first birthday. 60% of Belfast’s population of 438,000 lived in wards so overcrowded that two-thirds of the inhabitants would have to be rehoused elsewhere in order to meet health standards.

The Northern Ireland Housing Trust was set up in February 1945, tasked with providing 25,000 of the required houses, whilst the other 75,000 would be provided by local authorities and the private sector. Wary of Belfast Corporation’s need of urban land for its own build, the Trust would embark upon the construction of a series of suburban housing developments around the periphery of the city. One of these was the Rathcoole estate.

The Trust was governed by appointees, advertised as five charitable, unpaid positions for “good men and women”. It was chaired by Sir Lucius O’Brien. They began from a standing start, with neither plans nor any administrative or technical staff. In their first year of existence, the Trust was able to place contracts for over 3,000 houses in 14 locations but simultaneously struggled with a lack of supplies, building materials and skilled labour.

Northern Irelnad Housing trust built properties in 1960s Glengormley.
© Always Worth Saying, Going Postal 2020

In order to speed up the construction process, non-traditional building techniques were adopted, such as the use of No-Fines concrete and the Easiform and Orlit “system built” methods. These were no cheaper than traditional housing but did have an advantage. Being prefabricated, factory-built and then assembled on-site, homes could be completed quickly, in all weathers and with the use of low-skilled workers.

The trust mass-produced a large number of these dwellings from a small number of designs. They were of a lower standard than would be allowed in England and were smaller, about 900 sq ft in floor size, rather than 1000 sq ft. As a more flattering comparison, in the Soviet Union under the comparable “Khrushchyovka” mass-production method, the standard apartment size was only 320sq ft.

The Trust was funded by government loans which attracted interest and had to be re-paid. This made the cost of construction, and the level of rents that could be charged, all important. Pre-war and wartime accommodation in Belfast had been miserable but rents had been very low.

Although system built houses were no cheaper to build, flats and apartments were, because of the lower expenditure required on roads and other connecting infrastructure. Savings were also made by making the dwellings more basic than in other parts of the UK. Sir Lucius observed,

“The visitor [from over the water] will, however, regard some of the houses as being smaller and more austere, with few of the fitments to which he is accustomed in such housing at home. This is the result of the Trust’s deliberate policy to keep down the rents, and the visitor will probably be astonished at how low these are, although they may seem high to Northern Ireland tenants.”

Rathcoole panorama.
Newtonabbey from Cavehill., Keith Ruffles – Licence CC BY-SA 3.0

Construction of the Rathcoole estate began in 1952. Intended to be a self-contained neighbourhood, it covered 366 acres, 6 miles northeast of Belfast city centre. It was to consist of 3,800 dwellings housing 10,000 people. Employment would be provided by thirteen Ministry of Commerce factories which were to be built nearby.

A large number of system build houses and old peoples bungalows were constructed, as well as ‘M’ style low rise blocks. Some system built designs were factory-made prefabricated concrete slabs assembled on site. Others were assembled via a removable metal frame which was filled with concrete. In both cases, there was a ‘single skin’ exterior, rather than a wall, then a cavity, then another wall.

By 1955 the population of the Rathcoole estate had swollen sufficiently to allow for the advertising of door to door salesman and insurance premium collectors,

“The Prudential Insurance Company invites applications from Men between 23 – 40, of good appearance and reasonable standard of education for a progressive and pensionable appointment on the Outdoor Staff.”

Although the estate was dry there were pubs nearby also quaintly advertising for staff,

“An attractive young lady to manage a Lounge bar in Whiteabbey district.”

Dry or not, other opportunities were available for women. The Housing Trust estates, including Rathcoole, had an onsite housing office with an all-female staff.

Contact between tenants and the housing trust was intended to be contractual. The trust was obliged to keep the houses in good repair and to provide facilities locally. The tenant must take proper care of the house, pay the rent and keep the garden in order. Sir Lucien commented,

“It must be remembered that few Trust tenants have ever had a house before, and the Housing Manager undertakes a great deal of educational and welfare work. It is her ambition to be regarded as a friend and not as a rent collector.”

The lady housing officers served an apprenticeship and were trained up to Certificate of Housing Estate Management level, awarded by the Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors. As well as education and rent collecting, their duties included choosing the tenants. Tenancies were offered on a strict points system with tuberculosis sufferers, ex-servicemen and those without an indoor toilet receiving the most points. Allocation of tenancies was not supposed to be sectarian, unlike local authority housing, where locally elected officials would allocate housing in accordance with the province’s religious divide.

As such, the Trust estates, including Rathcoole, became religiously mixed. The Housing Trust being seen as a benevolent public body, MA Neill noted,

“The primary objective of the planners was to create a balanced neighbourhood within a new urban community.”

In April 1955 Rathcoole received, at first glance, an unusual visitor. The Malayan commissioner in the United Kingdom, Mr Enche Othman Bin Mohamed, on a seven-day tour of Northern Ireland, wanted a guided tour. The Malay States and outer North Belfast may seem a strange combination, however, the Belfast Telegraph provided an explanation,

Mr Athman Bin Mohamed to-day saw round Rathcoole housing estate – a visit that was of particular interest to him. When he was Prime Minister of Selangor, a state of Malaya, he was concerned in the development of such a satellite town.

At the very south of the then Malay States lay Singapore, with its own 1950s satellite towns and its own version of the Northern Ireland Housing Trust. Called the Housing and Development Board (or HDB), it still exists to this day. Singapore had its own post-war problems, having been recently occupied by the Japanese. It also had its own sectarian divide, caused by a mixed population of Chinese, Malays and Indians. HDB housing was and still is, seven decades later, strictly and deliberately ethnically mixed, a policy which, as we shall see, proved to be unsustainable in Northern Ireland.

Kim Cheng Street, Singapore, H&DB 1950s housing.
Kim Cheng HDB, Nicolas Lannuzel – Licence CC BY-SA 2.0

In 1964, a cluster of four 15 story Sectra constructed blocks of flats were approved for Rathcoole. They were added to the estate in 1965. The towers, or ‘multis’, contained 65 flats each, were 140ft high and became an iconic local landmark.

These were named Carncoole House, Abbotscoole House, Monkscoole House and Glencoole House. They were built by John Laing Construction, who owned the patent for the Sectra construction method. My father was an employee of Laing’s. We lived on the third floor of Abbotscoole.

There were some problems with the flats from the outset. They had unreliable lifts, open access (and therefore insecure) ground floor entrances and rubbish chutes on each landing which were liable to become blocked.

Sectra flats.
Flats, Rathcoole. Multi-storey flats at Rathcoole in Newtownabbey as seen from Cave Hill. Known locally as the ‘Multies’, Ross – Licence CC BY-SA 2.0

Likewise, elsewhere on the estate the single skin nature of the construction made the houses cold to start with, difficult to heat and prone to condensation and damp. There were also problems with the location. Rathcoole was both too close and too far away from Belfast to be able to sustain its own facilities. There was a shopping centre called “The Diamond”, which was brutalist, bleak and windswept. There was no community centre and, the estate being dry, no pubs.

All of these problems were exacerbated further by the emergence of the Civil Rights movement, and associated disturbances, towards the end of the 1960s. Only a few years after the multis had been built, the continuing difficulties of sectarian inequality in housing in Northern Ireland had very serious consequences both for the Northern Ireland Housing Trust and for the Rathcoole estate.

In 1969 Lord Cameron’s Commission drew the following damning conclusions regarding housing in the province,

(a) inadequacy of housing provision by certain local authorities

(b) unfair methods of allocation of houses built and let by such authorities, in particular refusals and omissions to adopt a ‘points’ system in determining priorities and making allocations

(c) misuse in certain cases of discretionary powers of allocation of houses in order to perpetuate Unionist control of the local authority.

The Northern Ireland Housing Trust’s days were now numbered and it was replaced by a much bigger organisation, the Northern Ireland Housing Executive in 1971. This was a single all-purpose housing authority, which not only replaced the Trust but also took responsibility for the housing departments of 61 local authorities and new towns.

By this point, the Civil Rights movement had become a low-intensity civil war between Irish nationalists and the British state. In 1971 there were 171 deaths related to these ‘troubles’ and in 1972, 476. As Protestant families were displaced from their homes in other parts of Belfast, they moved to Rathcoole which in turn saw its Catholic population leave. Author and retired police officer Johnston Brown, who lived in 5a Abbotscoole, recalls,

“there was an exodus of decent Catholic families from the notorious Rathcoole estate due to the blatant intimidation by unruly thugs. Local vigilante and UDA patrols were in evidence on the street corners as rumours of civil war circulated.”

Rathcoole had now changed from being a mixed-religion area to being one of the provinces most infamous estates. Under the influence of the Ulster Defence Association, the Ulster Volunteer Force and vigilante groups, it retained this reputation across the next five decades.

UDA mural, Rathcoole.
Mural in support of the South East Antrim Brigade of the Ulster Defence Association/Ulster Freedom Fighters, Bencrom Park, Rathcoole estate, Newtownabbey, Keresaspa – Licence CC BY-SA 3.0



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