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Origin of Modern Cows Traced to Single Herd
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A genetic study of cattle has claimed that all modern domesticated bovines are descended from a single herd of wild ox, which lived 10,500 years ago.
[partner team of geneticists from the National Museum of Natural History in France, the University of Mainz in Germany, and UCL in the UK excavated the bones of domestic cattle on archaeological sites in Iran, and then compared those to modern cows. They looked at how differences in DNA sequences could have arisen under different population history scenarios, modeled in computer simulations.
The team found that the differences that show up between the two populations could only have arisen if a relatively small number of animals -- approximately 80 -- had been domesticated from a now-extinct species of wild ox, known as aurochs, which roamed across Europe and Asia. Those cattle were then bred into the 1.4 billion cattle estimated by the UN to exist in mid-2011.
The process of collecting the data was tricky. Ruth Bollongino, lead author of the study, said in a press release: "Getting reliable DNA sequences from remains found in cold environments is routine. That is why mammoths were one of the first extinct species to have their DNA read. But getting reliable DNA from bones found in hot regions is much more difficult because temperature is so critical for DNA survival. This meant we had to be extremely careful that we did not end up reading contaminating DNA sequences from living, or only recently dead cattle."
The research has implications for the study of the history of domestication. Mark Thomas, geneticist and an author of the study, said in the release: "This is a surprisingly small number of cattle. We know from archaeological remains that the wild ancestors of modern-day cattle were common throughout Asia and Europe, so there would have been plenty of opportunities to capture and domesticate them."
However, it tallies with existing research on the matter. Jean-Denis Vigne, a CNRS bio-archaeologist and author on the study, said in the release: "A small number of cattle progenitors is consistent with the restricted area for which archaeologists have evidence for early cattle domestication 10,500 years ago. This restricted area could be explained by the fact that cattle breeding, contrary to, for example, goat herding, would have been very difficult for mobile societies, and that only some of them were actually sedentary at that time in the Near East."
What You Will Find Inside The Cattle Record Book
- Cattle Identification-Use this ID sheet to store the history, pedigree, and a photo of each animal. This record is great to have on hand during a sale and for general reference anytime.
- Medical Treatment- Keep track of the medications/treatments used on your animals with the Medical Treatment chart. Here you can list the date, animal ID number, type of medication, dosage, diagnosis, and any additional notes that you may need.
- Breeding Record-Keep a detailed account of your livestock breeding program using the Breeding Record Sheet. Document the names of the sire & dam, the breeding date, expected due date, actual calving date, number born, and any additional notes about the breeding.
- Calving Record- This sheet expands on the Breeding Record. It holds the names of the sire & dam, the kidding date, the offspring ID #s or names, number of males & females, birth weights, and any additional notes needed.
- Milk Production-Track your cow’s AM & PM milk production levels with this record sheet.
Analysis: A short history of herd immunity
Cows decorated with bells and flowers rest after the annual ceremonial "cattle drive" (Almabtrieb), on September 18, 2020 at Gramai-Alm in Tyrol's Karwendel Alpine nature park near Pertisau, Austria. - Farmers herd the cattle down from alpine summer pastures to Achensee valley barns for the winter. Disappearance of Austrian pastures as a visible phenomenon of global warming in the Alpine country, with consequences also on the cultural and traditions level. (Photo by JOE KLAMAR / AFP) (Photo by JOE KLAMAR/AFP via Getty Images)
JOE KLAMAR / AFP via Getty Images
This originally appeared as part of our daily coronavirus newsletter. Sign up here to get it delivered to your inbox.
Why is it called &ldquoherd immunity,&rdquo do you think?
A recent article in the journal Lancet offers a fascinating history of the phrase and, as it turns out, it&rsquos called &ldquoherd immunity&rdquo because it originated in reference to cows.
In the 1910s, a disease was spreading around U.S. cattle farms causing &ldquoepidemics of spontaneous miscarriage&rdquo (they called it &ldquoabortion disease&rdquo), and farmers were destroying cows as a way to solve the problem.
Enter veterinarian George Potter who, writing in the Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, apparently coined the phrase &ldquoherd immunity.&rdquo
&ldquoAbortion disease may be likened to a fire, which, if new fuel is not constantly added, soon dies down,&rdquo Potter wrote. &ldquoHerd immunity is developed, therefore, by retaining the immune cows, raising the calves, and avoiding the introduction of foreign cattle.&rdquo
A few years later, bacteriologist W.W.C. Topley did some experiments on mice and wrote about the results. When the mice stopped catching the introduced illness, Topley said they had gained &ldquoherd immunity.&rdquo
Topley thought the idea might also apply to children and in 1924, Sheldon Dudley, a professor of pathology at the Royal Naval Medical School, tested the concept at the Royal Hospital School in Greenwich, where there was a diphtheria outbreak.
Egyptian Cattle Herd - History
Australia's beef cattle industry
The beef cattle industry is one of Australia's major agricultural industries. It is an extremely diverse industry, ranging from intensively managed small holdings in the south-east of Australia, where more fertile soils and plentiful supplies of water allow high stocking rates, to extensive large scale unfenced cattle stations where cattle rarely see a human being, except for infrequent musters.
About a quarter of the approximately 133,000 farming establishments (with an annual estimated value of agricultural operations (EVAO) of $5,000 or more), derive their main income from beef cattle farming. Another fifth earned a significant portion of their income from beef cattle combined with grain growing and/or sheep farming.
In June 2004 the beef cattle herd was expected to number about 23.3 million, down 1% on the 23.6 million animals recorded in June 2003. During 2003-04, a total of 8.8 million cattle and calves were slaughtered with an estimated value of over $6.0b. This slaughter produced just over 2.0 million tonnes of beef and veal in the year. Exports of these products in 2003-04 earned $3.9b, which was about 3.5% of total merchandise exports, while sales of live cattle to foreign markets raised another $460m.
- . during the years immediately succeeding the first settlement, the growth of the number of livestock was slow and notwithstanding importations from India and the Cape of Good Hope, the total of the herd amounted in 1800 to 1,044 cattle. During the next fifty years, however, the pastoral industry made rapid strides and at the end thereof (1850) the total reached 1,894,834.
Despite the introduction of Brahman cattle in the 1930s, Australia's beef herd continued to be dominated by Bos taurus cattle of British origin, such as Hereford, Aberdeen Angus and Beef Shorthorn, well into the 1950s. During the 1950s more Bos indicus breeds were introduced and they, and their crossbred offspring, have proven to be well suited to the northern parts of the continent. These cattle have played a major role in the development of Australia's northern cattle herd and the growth of the live cattle trade to South East Asia. In the late-1960s, large European Bos taurus breeds such as Limousin, Charolais and Simmental were introduced and crossed with British breed stock to produce later finishing, larger animals.
With this new mix of breeds, beef cattle numbers increased rapidly through the 1960s and 1970s to reach a peak of 29.8 million in 1976. Due to high levels of world production of beef and the imposition of quantitative limitations on imports by major overseas buyers, world beef prices collapsed during 1974-75. Drought and continued low prices in the early-1980s led to a decline in the beef herd to 19.4 million by March 1984. For the next five years, the size of the herd remained relatively static. Between 1989 and 2002, beef cattle numbers gradually increased to a peak of 24.7 million in June 2002, but the recent drought has reduced the beef herd by nearly 1.4 million head over the past two years (graph S14.2 and table S14.3).
According to the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations, Australia had the tenth largest cattle herd in the world in 2003, with the top four being India (226 million), Brazil (190 million), China (103 million), and the United States of America (USA) (96 million). Despite its relatively modest herd (about 2% of the world's cattle population), Australia is currently the world's largest exporter of beef contributing nearly 25% of the total beef traded. However, as Australia only produces about 4% of the total world beef supply, its share and pricing ability in the world market has always been susceptible to the influences of production levels in other major beef producing nations. One such factor, which greatly influences the profitability of Australian beef production, is the USA cattle production cycle. Peaks in this cycle have occurred about every 10 to 12 years and are usually triggered by high levels of grain production in the USA.
Other international events in recent years have also affected the industry. The Asian economic crisis of 1997 saw the value of Australia's trade of live cattle fall 22% in the year to June 1998. Sales the following year were no better. However, the falls were partially offset by increases in live cattle exports to Northern Africa. This increase in demand from Northern Africa occurred because their traditional European suppliers had been unable to provide cattle due to outbreaks of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE or 'mad cow disease') and foot and mouth disease (FMD) in their herds.
Since 2000 a range of factors have contributed to fluctuations in Australia's beef and live cattle trade. These have included the detection of BSE in Japan, Canada and the USA (and associated falls in consumption), the value of the Australian dollar, a downturn in the USA food service sector (affecting the importation of manufacturing beef), changing attitudes to beef consumption in other markets, for example, the Philippines and Egypt, herd rebuilding in the USA, the war in Iraq and renewed economic growth in the USA and Asia in late-2003.
In 2002-03 there were 36,200 establishments classified as 'beef cattle' farms, accounting for 27% of the total 133,000 agricultural establishments. This compares with 5% in 1960, 19% in 1980, 15% in 1990 and 25% in 1995. Another 27,200 establishments were classified to the 'grain-sheep and grain-beef industry' and the 'sheep-beef' industry in 2002-03. This general trend toward increasing numbers of beef cattle establishments coincides with a decline in the numbers of 'dairy', 'sheep' and 'grain-sheep/grain-beef' establishments. In particular, the dairy industry has shed over 9,500 establishments (about 46%) since 1979-80.
In 2002-03, of the 23.6 million meat cattle herd, establishments classified to the beef cattle industry held 17.2 million head (or around 73% of the total herd), while establishments classified to the 'grain-sheep and grain-beef' industry and the 'sheep-beef' industry held 4.1 million head of cattle (or around 18% of the total herd). During the year, establishments with an EVAO of less than $200,000 accounted for 72% of all establishments with beef cattle but held only 30% of the beef herd. At the other end of the scale, establishments with an EVAO greater than $1m accounted for 3% of all farms with cattle and ran 32% of the beef herd.
In just over two decades, the size of the average cattle herd has increased by 52%. In 1979-80 the average herd numbered 218 and by 1989-90 it had risen to 301. By 1994-95, it had risen to 306 and in 2002-03 numbered 331. In 1979-80 small herds were common, with 72% of herds having less than 150 head. At the other end of the scale, just over 1% of herds contained over 2,000 head. By 1989-90 a move to larger herds had become apparent as the number of herds with less than 150 head had fallen to 60% while herds over 2,000 head had risen to 2%. In 2002-03 the situation remained about the same.
The production cycle of the beef industry has changed over the past 30 years with the introduction of feedlots. Feedlots are defined as 'a confined yard area with watering and feeding facilities where cattle are completely hand fed or mechanically fed for the purpose of production'.
Feedlots made their first appearance in the USA in the 1920s but it was not until the 1950s that Australia began experimenting with the concept. In the mid-1960s commercial feedlotting started on the Darling Downs in Queensland. This industry within an industry was born out of a demand from overseas customers, for a specifically tailored, consistently high quality, year round product.
Traditionally, Australian consumers have preferred leaner beef while some markets, especially the Japanese, prefer high levels of marbling in their beef. To meet these requirements, along with a growing domestic demand, cattle raised on pastures are 'finished' on a highly nutritious diet of grain feed prior to slaughter or live export. Barley and sorghum are the most common grains used. Cattle stay on this feed for periods varying from about 30 days up to about 300 days depending on the level of marbling and weight required by the particular customer.
Despite a setback to its evolution in 1975, when access to the Japanese market closed temporarily, the feedlot industry in Australia had grown to 830 feedlots by 1996 when accreditation first commenced. Since then, a significant number of mainly small lots have ceased operations or not achieved nor sought accreditation. As a result, the number of accredited feedlots was down to 710 by June 2000 and down further to 575 by March 2004. It is expected that over the next year or two this figure will increase slightly and eventually stabilise at about the 600 mark.
In contrast to the declining number of feedlots, total feedlot carrying capacity had risen to a record high of 926,000 head as at 31 March 2004. Numbers on-feed were reported to be 666,000 head (72% of total carrying capacity), nearly half of which was in Queensland and over a third in New South Wales. Of total capacity, 55% was held by 23 feedlots, each with a licensed capacity of 10,000 head or more. At the other extreme, 17% was held by about 481 feedlots, each with a licensed capacity of less than 1,000 head.
Most of the cattle being held on feedlots at 31 March 2004 were destined for the Japanese market (which was expected to consume 356,000 head or 53% of available supply). The next biggest market was the domestic market (which was expected to consume around 249,000 head or 37% of available supply).
Cattle slaughter rates have increased steadily over time as the cattle herd has grown and as consumer demands and preferences have changed. In 1901 about an eighth of the 8.6 million head herd were slaughtered while in 1950 a quarter of the then 9.7 million head herd were slaughtered. In 2003-04, 8.8 million cattle and calves were slaughtered, representing around 33% of the total cattle herd. In 2003-04 the dairy industry was estimated to have contributed nearly 1.7 million cattle to the total slaughter. This number was made up of 270,000 beef bred cattle, 860,000 bobby calves and 560,000 cull dairy cows.
Current average dressed carcass weight for cattle and calves stands at 232 kgs, a 36% increase on the 171 kgs in 1950. Slaughterings in 2003-04 were valued at over $6.0b while in 1949-50 slaughterings were valued (in 2004 prices) at $1.7b. Queensland slaughtered the most cattle and calves in 2003-04 (3.7 million) followed by Victoria (2.2 million), and New South Wales (1.8 million). Recent livestock slaughterings data show the effects of the 2002-03 drought. Beef production in 2003-04 fell 1.8% to 2.0 million tonnes over the previous year while veal production declined by 8% to 35,000 tonnes. The number of female cattle presented for slaughter dropped 6.2% in 2003-04 compared with 2002-03 while the number of male cattle slaughtered only dropped 1.9% as primary producers began the process of rebuilding herd numbers.
Beef and veal exports
In 1901 Australia exported 43,600 tonnes of beef (about 25% of total production and 2% of total export trade) valued at $122.3m (in 2004 prices). The main destinations were the United Kingdom (50%), South Africa (36%) and the Philippines (8%). In 2003-04 Australia exported 886,400 tonnes of beef and veal (44% of total beef/veal production) worth $3,908m (3.5% of total merchandise trade). In tonnage terms, this was 5% less than the previous year due to the effects of BSE on Australian exports to Canada and a strong Australian dollar affecting some Asian markets. In value terms, there was virtually no difference in the return to producers in 2003-04 due to the higher prices for beef in the USA and north Asian markets. It is also interesting to note that the price per tonne paid for export beef in 1901 (in 2004 prices) was 60% of what farmers received in 2003-04.
Despite the overall decline in the tonnage of beef and veal exported, shipments to the largest customers, the USA and Japan, increased 3% and 19% respectively in 2003-04. However, Canada's take fell 87% from 69,000 tonnes to 8,900 tonnes and exports to the Republic of (South) Korea, Taiwan, Indonesia and the Philippines combined declined by 28,000 tonnes (18%). Total beef and veal exports in 2003-04 were 25% more than in 1989-90 and nearly five times those of 1959-60 (table S14.4).
Egyptian Clay Model of Cattle
Mention excavation in Egypt, and most of us see ourselves entering Tutankhamun&rsquos tomb, discovering the hidden treasures of the pharaohs and at a stroke rewriting history. Aspiring archaeologists should be warned that this happens only very rarely. Most archaeology is a slow, dirty business, followed by an even slower recording of what has been found. And the tone of archaeological reports has a deliberate, academic, almost clerical dryness, far removed from the riotous swagger of Indiana Jones.
In 1900 a member of the Egypt Exploration Society excavated a grave in southern Egypt. He soberly labelled his discovery Grave A23 and noted the contents:
Body, male. Baton of clay painted in red stripes, with imitation mace-head of clay. Small red pottery box, four-sided, 9 inches × 6 inches. Leg bones of small animal. Pots and stand of 4 clay cows.
The four horned cows stand side by side upon fertile land. They&rsquove been grazing on their simulated patch of grass for about five and a half thousand years. That makes them really ancient Egyptian, more ancient even than the pharaohs or the pyramids. These four little clay cows, hand-moulded out of a single lump of Nile river clay, are a long way from the glamour of the pharaohs, but you could argue that cows and what they represent have been far more important to human history. Babies have been reared on their milk, temples have been built to them, whole societies have been fed by them, economies have been built on them. Our world would have been a different and a duller place without the cow.
On these models you can still see faint traces of black and white paint applied after the clay had been lightly baked, making them like toy farm animals of the sort many of us played with as children. They stand only a few centimetres high, and the clay base that they share is roughly the size of a dinner plate. Like other objects we will encounter, the presence of these artefacts in Grave A23, where they were buried with a man in a cemetery near the small village 0f El Amra in southern Egypt, speaks of the consequences of climate change and human responses to it.
All of the objects found in this grave were intended to be useful in another world, and, in a way never imagined by the people who placed them there, they are. But they&rsquore useful for us, not for the dead. They allow us profound insights into remote societies, because the way of death casts light on the way of life of those people. They give us some idea not just of what people did but of what they thought and believed.
Most of what we know about early Egypt, before the time of the pharaohs and the hieroglyphs, is based on burial objects like these little cows. They come from a time when Egypt was populated only by small farming communities living along the Nile Valley. Compared to the spectacular gold artefacts and tomb ornaments of later Egypt, these little clay cows are modest. Funerals at that point were simpler they didn&rsquot involve embalming or mummifying, a practice that wouldn&rsquot come for another thousand years.
The owner of our four clay cows would have been laid in an oval pit, in a crouched position and lying on a mat of rushes, facing the setting sun. And around him were his grave goods &ndash items of value for his journey into the afterlife. Cow models like this one are quite common, so we can be quite confident that cows must have played a significant part in Egyptian daily life &ndash such a significant part that they couldn&rsquot be left behind when the owner passed through death and on into the afterlife. How did this humble beast become so important to human beings?
The story begins more than 9,000 years ago, in the vast expanses of the Sahara. Then, instead of today&rsquos landscape of arid desert, the Sahara was a lush, open savannah with gazelles, giraffes, zebras, elephants and wild cattle roaming through it &ndash happy hunting for humans. But around 8,000 years ago the rains that nourished this landscape dried up. Without rain, the land began to turn into the desert that we know today, leaving people and animals to seek ever-dwindling sources of water. This dramatic change of environment meant that people had to find an alternative to hunting. Of all the different animals these humans had hunted, only one could be tamed: cattle.
Somehow they found a way to tame wild cattle. They no longer had to chase them down, one by one, for food instead they learnt how to gather and manage herds, with which they travelled and from which they could live. Cows became almost literally the lifeblood of these new communities. The needs of fresh water and pasture for the cattle now determined the very rhythm of life, as both human and animal activity became ever more intertwined.
What role did these early Egyptian cattle play in this sort of society? What did they keep cows for? Professor Fekri Hassan has excavated and studied many of these early Egyptian graves, and the villages associated with them. He and his colleagues found remains of animal enclosures, as well as evidence for the consumption of cattle. They found the bones of these animals. And he concludes that these particular items, these four models of cattle, were probably produced a millennium or more after cattle were introduced into Egypt.
Study of the cattle bones shows the ages at which the animals were killed. Surprisingly, many of them were old, too old if they were being kept only for food. So unless the early Egyptians enjoyed tough steak, these were not in our sense beef cattle. They must have been kept alive for other reasons &ndash perhaps to carry water or possessions on journeys. But it seems more likely they were tapped for blood, which, if it is drunk or added to vegetable stews, provides essential extra protein. This is something we find in many parts of the world, and it is still done today by the nomadic peoples in Kenya.
Our four cows may well therefore represent a walking blood-bank. We can rule out what seems at first sight the more obvious answer, that they were dairy cows, because for several reasons milk was unfortunately off the menu. Not only did these early domesticated cows produce very little milk but, more importantly for humans, getting nutrition by drinking cows&rsquo milk is an acquired skill. Martin Jones is an expert in the archaeology of food:
There is a range of other foods that our distant ancestors would not have eaten as readily as we do. Humans evolved the capacity to tolerate drinking milk as adults after cattle were domesticated, presumably because the ability to gain nutrients from cows&rsquo milk helped individuals to survive and to pass on that ability to their children. But even today a great number of modern peoples around the world can&rsquot tolerate drinking milk as adults.
So drinking cows&rsquo milk would probably have made these early Egyptians very ill, but over centuries their descendants and many other populations eventually adapted to it. It is a pattern repeated across the world: substances that are initially very hard for us to digest become, by slow adaptation, central to our diet. We are often told that we are what we eat it might be truer to say that we are what our ancestors, with great difficulty, learnt to eat.
In early Egypt, cows were probably also kept as a kind of insurance policy. If crops were damaged by fire, communities could always fall back on the cow for nourishment as a last resort perhaps not the best thing to eat, but always there. They were also socially and ceremonially significant, but, as Fekri Hassan explains, their importance went even deeper:
Cattle have always had religious significance, both the bulls and the cows. In the desert a cow was the source of life, and we have many representations in rock art where we see cows with their calves in a more-or-less religious scene. We also see human female figurines, also modelled from clay, with raised arms as if they were horns. It seems that cattle were quite important in religious ideology.
The cattle from Grave A23 don&rsquot show any outward signs of being particularly special. On closer inspection, however, they don&rsquot look like the cows you find on the farm today, anywhere across Europe, North America or even modern Egypt. Their horns are strikingly different &ndash they curve forwards and are much lower than those of any cows that we know.
All the cows alive in the world today descend from Asian stock. Our Egyptian model cows look different from the ones we know today because early Egyptian cows were descended from native African cattle, which have now become extinct.
Along the Nile Valley, the cow, a source of blood, meat, security and energy, eventually transformed human existence and became such a central part of Egyptian life that it was widely venerated. Whether actual cow worship started as early as the time of our little model is still a matter of debate, but in later Egyptian mythology the cow takes on a prominent role in religion, as the powerful cow-goddess Bat. She is typically shown with the face of a woman and the ears and horns of a cow. And the clearest sign of just how far cattle rose in status over the centuries is that Egyptian kings were subsequently honoured with the title &lsquoBull of his Mother&rsquo. The cow had come to be seen as the creator of the pharaohs.
WHERE AND WHEN IS THE CATTLE DRIVE?
The cattle drives are held daily at 11:30 a.m. and 4 p.m. along East Exchange Avenue in the Stockyards National Historic District.
Watch the Fort Worth Herd cattle drive from the sidewalks and restaurants on East Exchange Avenue. The longhorns reside in the corral located behind the Livestock Exchange Building where they eat, sleep and are well cared for.
Best Places to View The Herd:
Any Stockyards Station Restaurant with Outdoor Seating. Standing on Eastxchange Avenue. The lawn in front of the Livestock Exchange Building.
You will find a variety of parking options in the Stockyards National Historic District.lick hereਏor a parking map and prices.
- From Downtown Dallas - Take I-30 West to I-35 West W north, exit (54-b) NE 28th Street (West). Traveling west on 28th street, go down approximately 5 traffic lights to N. Main Street and turn left. Travel 2 traffic lights to E. Exchange Avenue, turn left.
- From Downtown Fort Worth - Take Commerce Street North through downtown which will turn into N. Main Street at the light of the intersection of Commerce Street at Belknap. Proceed on N. Main Street approximately 3 miles north to the intersection of N. Main Street and E. Exchange Avenue, turn right onto E. Exchange Avenue.
Drives are not held on Easter Sunday, Thanksgiving Day or Christmas Day. The Trail Bossꃞtermines drive cancellationsue to inclement weather and necessary onsite changes. Longhorns are not pets or show animals, leaving drives subject to their temperament.
Beef brands in Japan
Wagyu is synonymous with the ultimate beef experience around the world, but the quality from Japan is unsurpassed. Numerous brands are well established and a seal of authenticity is provided at retail and information can be downloaded by keying a serial number into a mobile phone.
Elite brands are called "Sandai Wagyu" and are from the Tajima strain of Japanese Black. The best known are Kobe, Matsusaka and Ōmi beef.
Tajima-gyu (田島圭) is from pure Tajima beef &ldquomotoushi&rdquo which is processed at a Hyogo slaughterhouse from steers or virgin heifers between the ages of 28 and 60 months which have been sired by bulls exclusive to Hyogo Prefecture. Tajima-gyu must be either A or B grade for Yield and Quality grade inclusive of 1 to 5. About 5 500 head are certified each year.
Kobe beef (Kobe-gyu or Kobe-ushi) derives solely from Tajima-gyu steers or heifers and only 3,000 are certified annually. The following standards apply (Kobe Beef website):
- Meat quality score of 4 or above, and Yield grade of A or B.
- BMS score of 6 or above.
- Steers are 250 to 470 kg carcase weight and heifers range 230 to 470 kg.
- The carcase is evaluated for flaws by a Council commissioned consignee who confirms if it can be certified &ldquoKobe beef&rdquo.
Kobe beef may be the best known Wagyu brand outside Japan, but Matsusaka beef (Matsuzaka) is highly sought after within Japan. Matsusaka ushi 松阪牛 is certified by a seal which is attached to over-the-counter produce. A 10-digit reference number is downloaded onto the internet or by a mobile phone to obtain: date of birth, name of breeder, place of birth, pedigree, number of days on feed, place of fattening, name of farmer who finished, and quality specifications. &ldquoMatsusaka beef&rdquo comes from 8 month old heifer calves which are purchased across Japan then registered with the Matsusaka beef council. They are raised within the former municipality 22 which centred on the city of Matsusaka. Matsusaka beef has a very low melting point so it can melt in the palm of a hand (Matsusaka Beef website).
Ōmi beef is produced in the Shiga Prefecture in Kansai Region. The high level of marbling is characterised by softness and a mellow flavour and the meat &ldquojust melts&rdquo. This has earned Ōmi beef its reputation and the Ōmi beef trademark was registered in Japan on 11th May 2007. Carcases require to be graded A4 or A5 or higher at specific processors.
Yonezawa beef, cow Tamba, Kumamoto Sum King Black and a few other Kumamoto brands, Hitachi cow, Wagyu Kazusa and Miyazaka are amongst many other prestigious beef brands in Japan.
In April, 1921, The American Kerry and Dexter Cattle Club published Volume 1 of their herd book. Although both Kerry cattle and Dexter cattle are published in this book, the two types of cattle are separated into two separate breeds with different breed descriptions for each. This is the first record of Dexter cattle registrations in the United States. In 1957, the name American Kerry and Dexter Club was changed to the American Dexter Cattle Association. This began the formal recognition of the ADCA as a national association dedicated to the preservation of Dexter cattle and tasked with keeping a record of purebred Dexter cattle pedigrees.
At a special meeting on April 28, 1960, in Decorah, Iowa, John Logsdon, after serving as President for 20 years, stepped down and Otto C. Jensen (Tak-Sca-Du-Hav Herd) was elected President of the American Dexter Cattle Association. During Otto's six years as President, the regular annual shows at the Hamburg, New York Fair were held. In addition, a special exhibition of Dexters, including an ox team that toured the fairgrounds, was held in September 1960, in Allentown, at the Pennsylvania State Fair. Annual meetings were held at Hamburg and Cooperstown, New York.
At the annual meeting in Albany, New York, on June 11, 1966, Palmer Langdon (New Jersey Herd) was elected President. During his term, a bred Dexter cow was kept on display at the Central Park Zoo, in New York City, and rotated after her calf reached six months of age.
In 1978, Doris Crowe (Cranworth Herd), Ross Stone (Lockwood Herd), Larratt and Paddy Higgins (Trillium Herd), and Eric Lawlor (Aldebaran Herd) joined together to purchase four Dexter heifers from Beryl Rutherford's Woodmagic Herd in England and imported these animals into Canada. In 1978, Doris Crowe and some of her associates traveled to Pennsylvania to attend the American Dexter Cattle Association annual meeting. While there, Mrs. Crowe purchased a Dexter bull, Highland Perseus, and imported him into Canada.
In 1979, Doris Crowe imported six more Dexter heifers and a bull from Beryl Rutherford's Woodmagic Herd and these became the foundation of her Cranworth Herd. Many dun colored Dexters trace back to these imports from the Woodmagic Herd. The Cranworth Herd was dispersed in 1989. Descendents of Cranworth bulls and cows are found in many pedigrees of our Dexters today.
Frank McCabe (Alander Herd), a prominent New York State banker, was elected President at the annual meeting in Albany on October 5, 1968. During his term, a large meeting was hosted in Cooperstown for all the county agricultural agents of upstate New York.
At the November 10, 1974 annual meeting in Newburg, New York, William Carcaud (Melbourne Herd), an active Canadian breeder, became President, but he died two weeks later. Mark Davis (Colorado Herd) of Delaware succeeded him.
In 1977, with impetus from President Mark Davis, the American Dexter Cattle Association became a newly formed, non-profit Delaware corporation. Ten geographical regions were established, each represented by a member of the Board of Directors, elected for a term of three years by the members in good standing of the respective region.
ADCA Presidents after 1978 have beenV
- 1979-1987 James J. (Jim) Johnson (o'Briar Hill Herd) of Ohio.
- 1987 Dean Fleharty (Shome Herd) of Missouri
- 1988-1989 Sandra Thomas (Thomas' Herd) of Oregon
- 1990-1993 Philip Martz (Pretty Rolling Meadows, "P.R.M." Herd) of Pennsylvania
- 1993-1995 Wes Patton (Glenn Land Herd) of California
- 1995-1997 R.S. "Shep" Springer (Green Valley Herd) of Colorado and Missouri
- 1997-1999 Jim Johnson of Ohio served again
- 1999-2003 Patrick "Pat" Mitchell (Shamrock Herd) of Michigan
- 2003-2004 Kathy Smith (K-Ro Herd) of New York
- 2004-2006 Chris Ricard (Celestial Herd) of Oregon
- 2006-2007 Pat Mitchell served again
- 2007-2009 David Jones (Bar None Herd) of Texas
- 2010-2011 Roberta Wieringa (Wieringa Dexter Farm) was elected.
- 2012-2013 Pam Malcuit (Morning Star Ranch) of Texas
- 2013-2016 Jim Woehl (High Pines) of South Dakota
- 2016-2018 Greg Dickins (D2 Farms) of Missouri
- 2018-2019 Lesa Reid (Kirkhaven Farm) of Tennessee
- 2019-2020 Jim Woehl (High Pines) of South Dakota
Secretary, Treasurer, Registrar, and Webmaster positions have been:
Daisy Moore's daughter, Kay Moore Baker (Peerless Herd), became Secretary-Treasurer in September 1982 and served in that capacity until December 1986. Rosemary Fleharty (Shome Herd) became Acting Secretary-Treasurer-Registrar in January 1987, and then Secretary-Treasurer-Registrar in 1988. Rosemary served in that capacity until 2004.
In 2004, the American Dexter Cattle Association went through a reorganization, and Chuck Daggett (Daggett's Herd) of Minnesota became the Registrar and Webmaster, Bonnie Boudreau (R & B Herd) of Washington became the Secretary, and James Smith (Whistle Herd) of Missouri became the Treasurer. Bonnie Boudreau served as Secretary until June 2007, when Carol Ann Traynor (Hi-Country Herd) of Colorado became the Secretary. In 2012, Jill Delaney (Delaney Cattle Co.) became Registrar, Ray Delaney (Delaney Cattle Co.) the webmaster, and James Smith continued to serve as Treasurer. James Smith retired from the treasurer position in June, 2019.
National Dexter shows, in conjunction with an Annual General Meeting (AGM), have been held in these locations:
- 1988 Oregon
- 1989 Pennsylvania
- 1990 Colorado
- 1991 Texas
- 1992 Wisconsin
- 1993 Vermont
- 1994 California
- 1995 Michigan
- 1996 Missouri
- 1997 Alberta, Canada
- 1998 North Carolina
- 1999 Kansas
- 2000 Missouri
- 2002 Oregon
- 2003 Oklahoma
- 2004 Pennsylvania
- 2005 Missouri
- 2006 Missouri
- 2007 The ADCA celebrated its 50th Anniversary, Celebration" in Grand Junction, Colorado
- 2008 Texas
- 2009 Iowa
- 2010 Tennessee
- 2011 Oklahoma
- 2012 Indiana
- 2013 Missouri
- 2014 Texas
- 2015 Virginia
- 2016 Kansas
- 2017 Kansas
- 2018 Kansas
- 2019 Nebraska
Dexter cattle have steadily increased in popularity in America through the years as indicated by the increasing number of registrations and members in the Association. In 1952 there were only 38 Owner/Breeders located in 18 different states. By year-end in 1982 there were a total of 183 Owner/Breeders located in 41 different states and two Canadian Provinces. By year-end in 2005 there were a total of 797 American Dexter Cattle Association members located in 45 different states and four Canadian Provinces. By the end of 2014, there were over 1400 ADCA members in 46 states (including Hawaii) and four Canadian Provinces. Today, the ADCA membership continues to stay above 1,000 with the population of American Dexter cattle continuing to prosper in the agricultural community.
Lifetime memberships are awarded to ADCA members that have been breeding Dexters for many years, have served the ADCA membership faithfully, have exhibited a passion for the preservation of the breed, and have stewarded their own herds with excellence. We are grateful for their service to our Dexter community and appreciate the wisdom, patience, and practical help they have offered other Dexter owners throughout the years.
ADCA Lifetime Members:
- 1993 Mabel Ingalls – Clove brook Farm
- 2003 Marvin Johnson – Smiling Johnson Dexter HDQTRS
- 2003 John and Belle Hays – Talisman Herd
- 2014 David Jones – Bar None’s Dexters
- 2014 Pam Malcuit – Morning Star Ranch
- 2014 Lee and Roberta Wieringa – Wieringa Dexter Farm
- 2014 Pat and Linda Mitchell – Shamrock Acres
- 2019 John Potter – Spruce Grove Farm
- 2019 Sandra Thomas – Thomas’ Dexters
- 2019 Jim and Linda Smith – Whistle Ranch
- 2019 Carol Ann Traynor – Hi-Country Achers Farm
The ADCA Talisman Farm Award is given in memory of John Hays of the Talisman Herd. An attorney and accomplished musician, John and his wife Belle purchased their first Dexters in 1974. John was integral in the reorganization of the &ldquoAmerican Kerry and Dexter Club&rdquo into the American Dexter Cattle Association in 1978, writing the original Articles of Incorporation and By-Laws. John also acted as a Regional Director for the Pacific Region. In 2004, Before John&rsquos passing, he and Belle wrote the 4th Edition of Dexter Cattle. Belle presented this book to the association in memory of her husband.
John and Belle were strong supporters of black, horned Dexters and have 78 cattle registered in the ADCA national pedigree database. Both John and Belle were awarded honorary lifetime memberships in the ADCA and will always be remembered for their passionate service to our community and to the preservation of this special cattle breed.
The Talisman Farm Award is presented annually at the ADCA National Dexter Expo. It recognizes the ADCA Dexter family, couple, or individual that stewards an exemplary herd of Irish Dexter Cattle with honesty, integrity, and faithfulness. It includes recognition at the Expo, an award plaque, and recognition in the ADCA Bulletin.
ADCA Talisman Farm Award Winners:
- 2020 Norman and Mary Hoover
- 2019 Vicki Jones
- 2018 Jim & Peggy Woehl
- 2017 Debra Hawkins
- 2016 Rick Seydel
- 2015 Jim Smith
- 2014 Pam Malcuit
- 2013 Charles Townson
- 2012 Sandi Thomas
- 2011 Marvin Johnson
- 2010 Sally Coad
- 2009 Peerless Herd
- 2008 Marcia Read
- 2007 Carol Davidson
- 2006 Diane Mills-Frank
The Chuck Daggett Good Citizen award is given in honor of Chuck Daggett, former ADCA Registrar and Webmaster. Chuck started the Daggett&rsquos Dexters herd in 1997. He became an active member of the ADCA, serving as Regional Director for Region 13 in 2003. In 2004, when a sudden split occurred in the ADCA at the AGM in Pennsylvania, Chuck volunteered to take on the task of Registrar and Webmaster. Since the association was left without past records or pedigrees from the old registry, Chuck worked many hours to reconstitute our historic pedigrees and rebuild the ADCA registry into the most up to date, most accurate record of pure-bred Dexter Cattle in the nation. The hours he spent on the phone and writing emails to help Dexter owners with questions about registration, transfer, and stewardship of their herds were characteristic of his generosity to our community.
Chuck continued his work as Registrar and Webmaster until his passing in 2012. Chuck lived his life as a good citizen in his city, with his family, at his church, and especially in the Dexter cattle community. He was a true gentleman, always giving &ldquoabove and beyond&rdquo to any who needed his help. He was a faithful educator to new Dexter owners, a true advocate for Dexter cattle, and a good, honest friend to all that knew him. His faithful service to the association during a pivotal period of our growth and his generous spirit toward all ADCA members will never be forgotten.
The Chuck Daggett Good Citizen Award is presented annually at the ADCA National Dexter Expo. This award recognizes an ADCA member that demonstrates exceptional herdsmanship in the care of their Dexters, treats both ADCA members and prospective members fairly and honestly, eagerly promotes the Dexter breed, is known for educating fellow Dexter owners, willingly aids Dexter owners in need of help, gladly helps prospective Dexter owners who want to learn more about the breed, and exemplifies a &ldquoGood Citizen&rdquo in society as well as in the Dexter community. The award includes a plaque, one year free Dexter Farm Advertisement on the ADCA website, and recognition in the ADCA bulletin.
HISTORY OF CATTLE DRIVES
Although Civil War devastated the country&rsquos economy, Texas had a valuable resource with millions of longhorn cattle roaming wild across the Texas plains.
In the two decades following the Civil War, great herds of these longhorn cattle were rounded up and driven north to the railheads in Kansas. Worth only about a dollar a head in Texas, a single longhorn could command a price of about forty dollars in the northeastern markets. Described as the greatest migration of livestock in the history of the world, more than six million longhorns made the three-month trek north, and the profit from the cattle revitalized the Texas economy after the war.
Benefiting greatly from the cattle drives, Fort Worth provided a final opportunity for drovers to purchase supplies before venturing out onto the five hundred miles of unsettled wilderness that extended to Abilene, Kansas. Upon their return, Fort Worth offered the first chance to rest and spend some of their hard earned pay.