1920-1921 Ad - History

1920-1921 Ad - History

World History 1920-1921 AD

Finland Independent, Ireland Granted Home Rule, Kapp Putsch Fails, Gandhi -Independence Movement, Palestine Becomes British Mandate, Syria Becomes French Mandate, Prohibition Begun, Participate in League of Nations rejected, Women's Suffrage, Modern Turkey Founded, Aircraft Sink Battleship, Washington Naval Convention, US Burea of Budget, Reza Khan Ruler of Persia, Mongolion People's Government, Faisal Iraqi King, Immigration Quota, Treaty of Dorpat

1920 Finland Gains Independence Form Ussr -(12/6/20) Finland declared its independence on December 6th, 1917. First, however, a civil war ensued between Finnish Bolsheviks and their opponents. The opponents won after a difficult fight. In 1919, war broke out between Finland and the Soviet Union. The conflict was resolved by the Treaty of Dorpat, signed on October 14, 1920. This treaty reaffirmed Finland's independence.
1920 Ireland Granted Home Rule -(12/23/20) The British Parliament passed the Government Act. The Act called for the creation of separate parliaments in Northern and Southern Ireland. Each part of Ireland was also to retain its representation in the British Parliament. The Act was accepted in Northern Ireland. In the South, the Irish independence movement Sinn Fein won all but four seats in the new parliament.
1920 Kapp Putsch Fails -(3/13-17/20)Right wing forces, led by Wolfgang Kapp, attempted to overthrow the Weimar government. When the Socialists and Communists called a general strike, the leader realized they could not successfully overthrow the government.
1920 Gandhi Leader of Indian Independence Movement -Gandhi began a nationwide speaking campaign to enlist support for the non-cooperation movement. Indians were urged to boycott foreign goods, schools, law courts, official functions and the military. The Congress organization approved Gandhi's program and converted the movement into one whose official goal was the attainment of self-rule for India by peaceful and legitimate methods.
1920 Palestine Becomes British Mandate-Under terms agreed to at the Versailles Conference, the British government was given the mandate for Palestine. The conditions of the mandate were to be based on the terms set forth in the Balfour Declaration, with the exception that the Declaration would not apply to the area of Transjordan.
1920 Syria Becomes French Mandate -The Syrian National Congress declared its complete independence. However, Syria had been promised to the French. The League of Nations officially confirmed the French mandate, and French forces took Damascus by force. They had previously created a separate state out of Lebanon, which had a substantial Christian population.
1920 Prohibition Begun-(1/16/20) The Senate and House overrode the veto of President Wilson and enacted into law a bill outlawing the production, sale and transportation of all forms of liquor.
1920 Participate in League of Nations rejected-(11/19/20) On November 19th, the US Senate voted 53-38 against the Versailles Treaty. Approval would have resulted in American participation in the League of Nations. This participation was opposed by many as an infringement on American sovereignty.
1920 Women's Suffrage-(8/26/20) With the ratification of the 19th Amendment to the Constitution, women finally gained the right to vote.


1921 Modern Turkey Founded -During World War I, Turkey had sided with Germany and Austria-Hungary; and as one of the defeated powers, the Ottoman Empire was forced to give up its remaining non-Turkish lands. On May 19th, one of Turkey's few heroes of the war, Mustapha Kemal Pasha, began organizing resistance to the further dismemberment of Turkey by the victorious powers. This led to his dismissal by the Sultan. Mustapha Kemal Pasha then went on to establish a Nationalist party. The Nationalists put forth a multi-point program including self-determination, security of Constantinople, opening of the Dardanelle Straits, rights for minorities and non-capitulation to any additional demands made by foreign powers.

The Nationalists won a subsequent election, and their program was adopted by the Parliament. In an attempt to stop the increasing influence of the Nationalists, the allies occupied Constantinople in March 1920 and dissolved the Parliament. The Nationalists then set up a provisional government at Ankara. In June, the Greeks initiated open warfare against the Nationalists. In August, the Sultan's government agreed to and signed the Treaty of Severes, actions which were denounced by the Nationalists. On January 20th, the Nationalists adopted a set of fundamental laws that became the foundation of the modern state of Turkey. These laws provided for the sovereignty of the people, a parliament elected by male suffrage, and a president with extensive powers.

1921 Reza Khan Becomes Ruler of Persia- (2/22/21) Reza Khan arrived in Teheran on February 22, commanding an army of 4,000 troops. His forces toppled the government and he became the new leader of Persia. His government renounced its agreement with the British. Reza Khan then entered into an agreement with the Soviets that called for the Soviets to withdraw from Persia and allowed Persia to abrogate all concessions. In 1925, Reza Khan became Reza Shah Pahlavi. He followed a policy of modernization and development in Persia.
1921 Mongolean People's Government Established -(7/6/21) With the support of the Soviet Union, the Mongolian Peoples Revolutionary Government was established. The new government was established after the White Russians were defeated.
1921 Faisal Becomes Iraqi King -(8/23/21)The British received the mandate for Iraq. An insurrection resulted,which lasted six months, until the British were able to put it down, in December 1920. In June 1921, Emir Faisal, formerly the King of Syria, arrived in Iraq. Faisal was soon proclaimed King of Iraq. He remained on the Iraqi throne until 1933.
1921 Immigration Quota -(5/19/21) For the first time, the United States passed a restrictive immigration quota. The quota was designed to maintain the "character" of the United States. It apportioned immigration certificates based on the population of the United States in the year 1910.
1921 US Burea of Budget -In 1921, President Harding established the Bureau of the Budget. The bureau, for the first time, placed formal restrictions on the spending of government funds. The Bureau of the Budget later became the Office of Management and Budget.
1921 Washington Naval Convention -(12/13/21)The United States, Britain, Japan, France and Italy met and agreed on a treaty limiting naval powers. The treaty called for a ratio of naval ships of 5 to 5 to 3 to 1.7 to 1.7. Thus, for every 5 large ships of the US and Britain, Japan could have 3 ships, and France and Italy, 1.7. The United States agreed to scuttle 30 war ships as a result of the treaty.
1921 Aircraft Sink Battleship -(9/23/21) The US Battleship "Alabama" was sunk on September 23rd, by Army Air Service. The battleship, which had to be destroyed anyway, was the subject of a test to determine the effectiveness of planes against ships. Leading the attack was Brigadier General Billy Mitchell. Mitchell claimed that surface ships were doomed when facing aircraft.

Developed on Indian Territory

Founded in 1906, Greenwood was developed on Indian Territory, the vast area where Native American tribes had been forced to relocate, which encompasses much of modern-day Eastern Oklahoma. Some African Americans who had been former slaves of the tribes, and subsequently integrated into tribal communities, acquired allotted land in Greenwood through the Dawes Act, a U.S. law that gave land to individual Native Americans. And many Black sharecroppers fleeing racial oppression relocated to the region as well, in search of a better life post-Civil War.

“Oklahoma begins to be promoted as a safe haven for African Americans who start to come particularly post emancipation to Indian Territory,” says Michelle Place, executive director of the Tulsa Historical Society and Museum.

The largest number of Black townships after the Civil War were located in Oklahoma. Between 1865 and 1920, African Americans founded dozens of Black townships and settlements in the region.

O.W. Gurley, a wealthy Black landowner, purchased 40 acres of land in Tulsa, naming it Greenwood after the town in Mississippi.

The intersection of Greenwood Avenue and Archer St. of Greenwood before the Tulsa Race Massacre.

Courtesy of Tulsa Historical Society & Museum

Flu Season

In the United States, 𠇏lu season” generally runs from late fall into spring. In a typical year, more than 200,000 Americans are hospitalized for flu-related complications, and over the past three decades, there have been some 3,000 to 49,000 flu-related U.S. deaths annually, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Young children, people over age 65, pregnant women and people with certain medical conditions, such as asthma, diabetes or heart disease, face a higher risk of flu-related complications, including pneumonia, ear and sinus infections and bronchitis.

A flu pandemic, such as the one in 1918, occurs when an especially virulent new influenza strain for which there’s little or no immunity appears and spreads quickly from person to person around the globe.


The early 20th century in Ireland was dominated by Irish nationalists' pursuit of Home Rule from the United Kingdom. The issue of Home Rule was shelved with the outbreak of World War I, and in 1916 Irish republicans staged the Easter Rising against British rule in an attempt to establish an independent republic. Growing support amongst the Irish populace for the republican Sinn Féin party saw it win a majority of Irish seats in the 1918 general election. On 21 January 1919, Sinn Féin followed through on its manifesto and founded an independent Irish parliament (Dáil Éireann), which then declared an independent Irish Republic. [13] The Dáil called on the public to boycott the RIC, while the Irish Republican Army (IRA) began attacking police barracks and ambushing police patrols. In September 1919 David Lloyd George, the British Prime Minister, outlawed the Dáil and augmented the British Army presence in Ireland. [14]

After the First World War, there were many unemployed ex-servicemen in Britain. British Unionist leader Walter Long had suggested recruiting these men into the RIC in a May 1919 letter to John French, the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. [15] The idea was promoted by French as well as by Frederick Shaw, Commander of the British Army in Ireland. The RIC's Inspector General, Joseph Byrne, was against it. He resisted the militarization of the police and believed ex-soldiers could not be controlled by police discipline. In December 1919, Byrne was replaced by his deputy T. J. Smith, an Orangeman. On 27 December, Smith issued an order authorizing recruitment in Britain. [15] The advertisements appeared in major cities calling for men willing to "face a rough and dangerous task". The first British recruits joined the RIC six days later, on 2 January 1920. [15]

Recruits Edit

About 10,000 were recruited between January 1920 and the end of the conflict. [16] [17] [6] About 100 were recruited each month from January to June 1920. The recruitment rate rose from July, when the RIC was given a large pay raise. [18] The RIC began losing men at a high rate in the summer of 1920, due to the IRA campaign. On an average week, about 100 men resigned or retired while only 76 recruits enlisted to replace them. More police were needed, but enough replacements could not be found in Ireland on average, the RIC recruited only seven Irishmen per week. [19] The intake of British recruits steadily rose and then surged from late September, following the widely publicized Sack of Balbriggan. [18]

This sudden influx of men led to a shortage of RIC uniforms, and the new recruits were issued with khaki army uniforms (usually only trousers) and dark green RIC tunics, caps and belts. These uniforms differentiated them from both the regular RIC and the British Army, and gave rise to their nickname: "Black and Tans". Christopher O'Sullivan wrote in the Limerick Echo on 25 March 1920 that, meeting a group of recruits on a train at Limerick Junction, the attire of one reminded him of the Scarteen Hunt, whose "Black and Tans" nickname derived from the colours of its Kerry Beagles. [20] Ennis comedian Mike Nono elaborated the joke in Limerick's Theatre Royal, and the nickname soon took hold, [20] persisting even after the men received full RIC uniforms.

The new recruits were trained at Gormanstown Camp near Dublin, most spending two or three weeks there before being sent to RIC barracks around the country. In general, the recruits were poorly trained for police duties and received much less training than the existing Irish RIC constables. [21]

The vast majority of Black and Tans were unemployed First World War veterans in their twenties, most of whom joined for economic reasons. [22] The RIC offered men good wages, a chance for promotion, and the prospect of a pension. [23] According to historian David Leeson, "The typical Black and Tan was in his early twenties and relatively short in stature. He was an unmarried Protestant from London or the Home Counties who had fought in the British Army [. ] He was a working-class man with few skills". [24] The popular Irish claim made at the time that most Black and Tans had criminal records and had been recruited straight from British prisons is incorrect, as a criminal record would disqualify one from working as a policeman. [22] According to Jim Herlihy, author of The Royal Irish Constabulary – A Short History and Genealogical Guide, 10,936 Black and Tans were recruited, of whom 883 (8%) were born in Ireland. [6] Based on RIC recruitment data stored in the British Public Record Office at Kew, William Lowe estimates that 20% of Black and Tans, and 10% of auxiliaries, were Irish, with 55% of these giving their religion as Catholic. [5]

The British government also founded a new Auxiliary Division of the RIC, which was also composed mostly of British recruits. While the Black and Tans were recruited into the RIC as regular constables, the Auxiliaries were an offensive "paramilitary force composed of ex British military and naval officers, dressed in distinctive uniforms and organised in military style companies. officially temporary cadets paid and ranked as RIC sergeants". [25] At least some of the crimes attributed to the Black and Tans were actually the work of the Auxiliaries. [26] However, sometimes the term "Black and Tans" covered both groups. [3]

Black and Tans served in all parts of Ireland, but most were sent to southern and western regions where the IRA was most active and fighting was heaviest. [27] By 1921, Black and Tans made up nearly half of all RIC constables in County Tipperary, for example. [27] Few were sent to what became Northern Ireland, however. [27] The authorities there raised their own reserve force, the Ulster Special Constabulary. For the most part, the Black and Tans were "treated as ordinary constables, despite their strange uniforms, and they lived and worked in barracks alongside the Irish police". They spent most of their time manning police posts or on patrol—"walking, cycling, or riding on Crossley Tenders". [28] They also undertook guard, escort and crowd control duties. While some Irish constables got along well with the Black and Tans, "it seems that many Irish police did not like their new British colleagues" and saw them as "rough". [29]

Alexander Will, [30] from Forfar in Scotland, was the first Black and Tan to die in the conflict. He was killed during an IRA attack on the RIC barracks in Rathmore, County Kerry, on 11 July 1920.

The Black and Tans soon gained a reputation for brutality. [31] [32] In the summer of 1920, Black and Tans began responding to IRA attacks by carrying out arbitrary reprisals against civilians, especially republicans. This usually involved the burning of homes, businesses, meeting halls and farms. Some buildings were also attacked with gunfire and grenades, and businesses were looted. Reprisals on property "were often accompanied by beatings and killings". Many villages suffered mass reprisals, including the Sack of Balbriggan (20 September), Kilkee (26 September), Trim (27 September), Tubbercurry (30 September) and Granard (31 October). [33] [34] Following the Rineen ambush (22 September) in which six RIC men were killed, police burned many houses in the surrounding villages of Milltown Malbay, Lahinch and Ennistymon, and killed five civilians. [35] In early November, Black and Tans "besieged" Tralee in revenge for the IRA abduction and killing of two local RIC men. They closed all the businesses in the town, let no food in for a week and shot dead three local civilians. On 14 November, Black and Tans were suspected of abducting and murdering a Roman Catholic priest, Father Michael Griffin, in Galway. His body was found in a bog in Barna a week later. From October 1920 to July 1921, the Galway region was "remarkable in many ways", most notably the level of police brutality towards suspected IRA members, which was far above the norm in the rest of Ireland. [22] The villages of Clifden and Knockcroghery suffered mass reprisals in March and June 1921.

Members of the British government, the British administration in Ireland, and senior officers in the RIC tacitly supported reprisals as a way of scaring the population into rejecting the IRA. In December 1920, the government officially approved certain reprisals against property. There were an estimated 150 official reprisals over the next six months. [36] Taken together with an increased emphasis on discipline in the RIC, this helped to curb the random atrocities the Black and Tans committed for the remainder of the war, if only because reprisals were now directed from above rather than being the result of a spontaneous desire for revenge. [37]

Many of the activities popularly attributed to the Black and Tans may have been committed by the Auxiliary Division or 'old' RIC constables. For instance, Tomás Mac Curtain, the Mayor of Cork, was assassinated in March 1920 by local RIC men under the command of an Inspector General who had been a 'plague on the local Catholic population'. The Burning of Cork city on 11 December 1920 was carried out by K Company of the Auxiliary Division, in reprisal for an IRA ambush at Dillon's Cross. [38] The shooting dead by Crown forces of 13 civilians at Croke Park on Bloody Sunday, in retaliation for the killing of British intelligence officers was carried out by a mixed force of military, Auxiliaries and RIC, though it is not clear who initiated the shooting. [39] In the aftermath, "The army blamed the Auxiliaries and the Auxiliaries blamed the regular police". [40] Most Republicans did not make a distinction, and "Black and Tans" was often used as a catch-all term for all police groups.

Reaction Edit

The actions of the Black and Tans alienated public opinion in both Ireland and Great Britain. Their violent tactics encouraged the Irish public to increase their covert support of the IRA, while the British public pressed for a move towards a peaceful resolution.

In January 1921, the British Labour Commission produced a report on the situation in Ireland which was highly critical of the government's security policy. It said the government, in forming the Black and Tans, had "liberated forces which it is not at present able to dominate". [37] Edward Wood MP, better known as the future Foreign Secretary Lord Halifax, rejected force and urged the British government to make an offer to the Irish "conceived on the most generous lines". [41] Sir John Simon MP, another future Foreign Secretary, was also horrified at the tactics being used. Lionel Curtis, writing in the imperialist journal The Round Table, wrote: "If the British Commonwealth can only be preserved by such means, it would become a negation of the principle for which it has stood". [42] The King, senior Anglican bishops, MPs from the Liberal and Labour parties, Oswald Mosley, Jan Smuts, the Trades Union Congress and parts of the press were increasingly critical of the actions of the Black and Tans. Mahatma Gandhi said of the British peace offer: "It is not fear of losing more lives that has compelled a reluctant offer from England but it is the shame of any further imposition of agony upon a people that loves liberty above everything else". [43]

More than a third left the service before they were disbanded along with the rest of the RIC in 1922, an extremely high wastage rate, and well over half received government pensions. Over 500 members of the RIC died in the conflict and more than 600 were wounded. Some sources have stated that 525 police were killed in the conflict, including 152 Black and Tans and 44 Auxiliaries. [6] This figure of total police killed would also include 72 members of the Ulster Special Constabulary killed between 1920 and 1922 [44] and 12 members of the Dublin Metropolitan Police. [45]

Many Black and Tans were left unemployed after the RIC was disbanded and about 3,000 were in need of financial assistance after their employment in Ireland was terminated. [46] About 250 Black and Tans and Auxiliaries, among over 1,300 former RIC personnel, joined the Royal Ulster Constabulary. Another 700 joined the Palestine Police Force which was led by former RIC head, Henry Hugh Tudor. Others were resettled in Canada or elsewhere by the RIC Resettlement branch. [46] Those who returned to civilian life sometimes had problems re-integrating. At least two former Black and Tans were hanged for murder in Britain and another (Scott Cullen) wanted for murder committed suicide before the police could arrest him. [47]

Due to the Tans' behaviour in Ireland, feelings continue to run high regarding their actions. The term can still stir bad reactions because of their remembered brutality. [48] One of the best known Irish Republican songs is Dominic Behan's "Come out Ye Black and Tans". The Irish War of Independence is sometimes referred to as the "Tan War" or "Black-and-Tan War." This term was preferred by those who fought on the anti-Treaty side in the Irish Civil War and is still used by Republicans today. The "Cogadh na Saoirse" ("War of Independence") medal, awarded since 1941 by the Irish government to IRA veterans of the War of Independence, bears a ribbon with two vertical stripes in black and tan. [49] [50]

…The movie industry of the early 1900s, during the silent film era, was not the star-centered commercial enterprise it is today. Most actors, in fact, labored in obscurity. And film makers liked it that way. The film studios then were out to produce a cheap, standardized product and part of the strategy was to keep actors anonymous and low paid. But that was about to change…

In early September 2007, a rare sports trading card depicting the famous Pittsburgh baseball player Honus Wagner was sold at auction to an anonymous private collector for a $2.8 million — a record sales price.

Tulsa Race Massacre begins

Beginning on the night of May 31, 1921, thousands of white citizens in Tulsa, Oklahoma descended on the city’s predominantly Black Greenwood District, burning homes and businesses to the ground and killing hundreds of people. Long mischaracterized as a race riot, rather than mass murder, the Tulsa Race Massacre stands as one of the worst incidents of racial violence in the nation’s history.

In the years following World War I, segregation was the law of the land, and the Ku Klux Klan was gaining ground—not only in the Jim Crow South, but across the United States. Amid that charged environment, Tulsa’s African American community was nationally recognized for its affluence. The Greenwood District, known as 𠇋lack Wall Street,” boasted more than 300 Black-owned businesses, including two movie theaters, doctors’ offices and pharmacies.

LISTEN:਋lindspot: Tulsa Burningਏrom The HISTORY® Channel and WNYC Studios

On May 30, 1921, a young Black man named Dick Rowland entered an elevator in an office building in downtown Tulsa. At some point, Rowland was alone in the elevator with its white operator, Sarah Page. It’s unclear what happened next (one common version is that Rowland stepped on Page’s foot) but Page screamed, and Rowland fled the scene. The next day, the police arrested him.

Rumors about the incident spread quickly through Tulsa’s white community, some members of which undoubtedly resented the prosperity of the Greenwood District. After a story published in the Tulsa Tribune on the afternoon of May 31 claimed that Rowland had attempted to rape Page, an angry white mob gathered in front of the courthouse, demanding that Rowland be handed over.

Seeking to prevent a lynching, a group of some 75 Black men arrived on the scene that night, some of them World War I veterans who were carrying weapons. After a white man tried to disarm a Black veteran and the gun went off, chaos broke out.

Over the next 24 hours, thousands of white rioters poured into the Greenwood District, shooting unarmed Black citizens in the streets and burning an area of some 35 city blocks, including more than 1,200 Black-owned houses, numerous businesses, a school, a hospital and a dozen churches. Historians believe as many as 300 people were killed in the rampage, though official counts at the time were much lower.

By the time Governor James Robertson declared martial law, and National Guard troops arrived in Tulsa by noon on June 1, the Greenwood District lay in ruins. Survivors of the massacre worked to rebuild the neighborhood, but segregation remained in force in Tulsa (and the nation) and racial tensions only grew, even as the massacre and its lingering scars were left largely unacknowledged by the white community for decades to come.

In 1997, the Oklahoma state legislature created the Oklahoma Commission to Study the Tulsa Race Riot of 1921 (later renamed the Tulsa Race Massacre Commission), which studied the massacre and recommended that reparations be paid to the remaining Black survivors. City officials continue to investigate the events of May 31-June 1, 1921, and to search for unmarked graves used to bury the massacre’s many victims. 

Timeline of the Roaring 20s

The Roaring '20s were marked by prosperity after World War I, drastic changes for women that included the right to vote and freedom from corsets and long, structured clothing to a more modern style of dress. Ladies bobbed their hair and displayed a more liberated demeanor. Prohibition brought the age of speakeasies and bootleggers, and everyone did the Charleston. The frivolity and excess ended with a loud crash of the stock market in October 1929, which was the first signal of the Great Depression to come.

Women won the right to vote in 1920 with the adoption of the 19th Amendment, the first commercial radio broadcast aired, the League of Nations was established, and the Harlem Renaissance began.

There was a bubonic plague in India, and Pancho Villa retired.

Prohibition began in the United States, and though it was intended to eliminate the use of alcoholic beverages, it resulted in an abundance of speakeasies, bathtub gin, and the rise of the bootleggers.

In 1921, the Irish Free State was declared after a five-year fight for independence from Britain, Bessie Coleman became the first female African-American pilot, there was extreme inflation in Germany, and the lie detector was invented.

The "Fatty" Arbuckle scandal caused a sensation in the newspapers. The comedian was acquitted, but his career as a comedian was destroyed.

Michael Collins, a prominent soldier and politician in the Irish fight for independence, was killed in an ambush. Benito Mussolini marched on Rome with 30,000 men and brought his fascist party to power in Italy. Kemal Ataturk founded modern Turkey, and the tomb of King Tut was discovered. And The Reader's Digest was first published, all in 1922.

The Teapot Dome scandal dominated front-page news in the United States, the Ruhr region of Germany was occupied by French and Belgian forces, and Adolf Hitler was jailed after a failed coup in Germany.

The Charleston swept the nation, and Time magazine was founded.

In 1924, the first Olympic Winter Games took place in Chamonix and Haute-Savoie, France J. Edgar Hoover was appointed the first director of the F.B.I. Vladimir Lenin died, and the trial of Richard Leopold and Nathan Loeb shocked and riveted the country.

The Scopes (Monkey) Trial was 1925's top news story. Flapper dresses were all the rage for modern women, and those women were called flappers the American entertainer Josephine Baker moved to France and became a sensation and Hitler's "Mein Kampf" was published, as was F. Scott Fitzgerald's "The Great Gatsby."

In this year mid-decade, actor Rudolph Valentino died suddenly at the age of 31, Henry Ford announced the 40-hour work week, Hirohito became the emperor of Japan, Houdini died after being punched, and mystery writer Agatha Christie went missing for 11 days.

Richard Byrd and Roald Amundsen began their legendary race to be the first to fly over the North Pole, Gertrude Ederle swam the English Channel, Robert Goodard fired off his first liquid-fueled rocket, and Route 66, the Mother Road, was established across the United States.

Last but certainly not least,​ A.A. Milne's "Winnie-the-Pooh" was published, which brought the adventures of Pooh, Piglet, Eeyore, and Christopher Robin to generations of children.

The year 1927 was a red-letter one: Babe Ruth set a home run record that would stand for 70 years the first talkie, "The Jazz Singer," was released Charles Lindbergh flew solo across the Atlantic Ocean in the "Spirit of St. Louis" and the BBC was founded.

That great thing, sliced bread, was invented in 1928, along with bubble gum. If that wasn't enough, the first Mickey Mouse cartoon was shown, penicillin was discovered, and the first Oxford English Dictionary was published.

Chiang Kai-shek became the leader of China, and the Kellogg-Briand Treaty outlawed war.

In the last year of the '20s, Richard Byrd and Floyd Bennett flew over the South Pole, the car radio was invented, the Academy Awards made their debut, and the murder of seven members of the Moran Irish gang in Chicago became infamous as the St. Valentine's Day Massacre.

But this was all dwarfed by the October crash of the stock market, which marked the beginning of the Great Depression.


The most significant development in men’s fashion occurred in two unique kinds of trousers: the Oxford bags and the plus-fours. Oxford bags grew in popularity around 1924-25 when undergraduates at Oxford adopted these wide-legged trousers. Though the origin of the style is contentious, it is generally agreed that it derived from the trousers that rowers on Oxford’s crew teams pulled on over their shorts, and you can see how The Bystander satirized this in 1924 (Fig. 2). The original style was about 22 inches wide at the bottom, several inches wider than the average men’s trouser leg. Oxford undergraduates began wearing these around the university and soon the style spread. As the style spread, so too did the width of the trouser legs until at one point they reached up to 44 inches wide. The trousers were made out of flannel and came in a variety of colors. They were mostly worn by youths – perhaps the male counterparts of the flapper – and became a favorite of Britain’s “Bright Young People,” a group of wealthy, aristocrats known for their antics in London’s nightlife.

The other development in menswear in the twenties was the plus-fours. Plus-fours developed out of ordinary knickers – short-legged trousers that gather around the knee – and like Oxford bags were a bit baggier version of their precursor. They had four extra inches of material (hence the name) but instead of extending the trouser leg, they still fastened around the knee and the extra material hung over the band, creating the baggy look as seen at a racecourse in 1920 (Fig. 3). Often worn with a sweater, plus-fours were popular golf attire, but much like how tennis-wear crept into casual womenswear, this style was also popular daywear for men, as was tennis-wear for men, too. You can see the casual way men dressed to play tennis, though some still wore ties in 1920 (Fig. 4).

Fig. 1 - Artist unknown. Fashion Plate, 1920-1939. New York: Costume Institute Fashion Plates. Source: The Met Digital Collections

Anna Quirentia Nilsson, shown here on Photoplay’s November 1920 cover, became a star of the silent screen and was the first Swedish-born actress to receive a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. Nilsson’s story, however, is quite American in many ways […]

…On April 27th, 1947, more than 58,000 fans packed Yankee Stadium to honor former New York Yankee baseball star Babe Ruth… It was 20 years since he had set baseball’s most revered record — hitting an unheard-of 60 home runs in one season — and it was more than a dozen years since he had been an active player… Still, on this Babe Ruth Day, the fans loved him…

Watch the video: Советская Россия 1920-1921 гг. и английский шпион. (January 2022).