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Hunt I DD- 194 - History

Hunt I DD- 194 - History


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Hunt I

(DD-194: dp. 1,215 1. 314'5", b. 31'9", dr. 9'4", s. 35 k.
cpl. 101; a. 4 4 ', 1 3", 12 21" tt., cl. Clemson)

The first Hunt (DD-194) was launched by the Newport News Shipbuilding & Dry Dock Co., Newport News, Va., 14 February 1920; sponsored by Miss Virginia Livingston Hunt; and commissioned 30 September 1920, Lt. Rosvvell H. Blair in command.

After shakedown, Hunt participated in training and readiness exercises with the Atlantic Fleet and conducted torpedo trials on the range out of Newport, R.I. She shifted her base of operations to Charleston, S.C., 3 December 1920. Sailing from Charleston Harbor 2g May l922 she entered the Philadelphia Navy Yard 6 June and decommissioned there 11 August 1922. From 13 September 1930 to 28 May 1934 the U.S. Coast Guard had custody of the ship.

Hunt recommissioned at Philadelphia and cleared that port 26 ;January 1940 tor neutrality patrol in the Caribbean Sea. She departed Panama Canal 3 April to escort submarine Searaven to Cape Ganaveral and then engaged in gunnery practice in Cuban waters en route to Norfolk arriving 17 April 1940. The next few months were devoted to maneuvers in Chesapeake Bay and training cruises down the eastern seaboard.

Hunt was l of the 50 "overage fourstacker destroyers" exchanged with the British for American bases in British West Indies. She got underway from Newport 3 October 1940, and reached Halifax, Nova Scotia 5 October. The following day she embarked 100 English officers and bluejackets tor instructions in ship handling. On 8 October she decommissioned from the U.S. Navy and commissioned in the British Navy as HMS Broadway.

Broadway arrived at Beltast 24 October 1940, where she joined the 11th Escort Group, Western Approaches Command, with whom she engaged in escorting numerous convoys. On 9 May, with the help of destroyer Bulldop and corvette Aubrietia, she captured German submarine U-110 between Iceland and Greenland. On the previous night, the U-boat had crept in to attack Broaday's convoy but was prevented from surfacing by the strong destroyer escort. She continued to shadow the Allied ships until early in the afternoon watch when she launched three torpedoes from periscope depth. Broadway and her fellow escorts promptly counterattacked and forced her to surface where she surrendered. Unfortunately the prize sank while in tow to port but only after her captors had recovered documents of great value and importance This victory was especially sweet since U-110 was commanded by Korvetten-Kapitan Lemp who had made the first kill of the war by sinking liner Athenia 3 September 1939, the day England declared war. Lemp was; lost with 14 mem bers of his crew, but a war correspondent, 4 officers and 28 men were rescued.

During 1942 and 1943 Broadway continued to escort Atlantic convoys. On 12 May 1943 she joined frigate Lagan and aircraft from escort carrier Biter in destroying another German submarine, U-89, which was sunk northeast of the Azores.

After refitting at Belfast in September 1943, Broadway became a target ship for aircraft and served as such at Rosyth in Scotland until the war ended in Europe. In May 1945 she left Rosyth for Northern Norway with one of the ocenpation force~s. At Narvik, Norway, she took charge of a convoy of German submarines which was sailing tor Trondheim. In the reduction of the British Navy after the war, Hunt was scrapped.


Hunt I DD- 194 - History

(DD-194: dp. 1,215 1. 314'5", b. 31'9", dr. 9'4", s. 35 k.cpl. 101 a. 4 4 ', 1 3", 12 21" tt., cl. Clemson)

The first Hunt (DD-194) was launched by the Newport News Shipbuilding & Dry Dock Co., Newport News, Va., 14 February 1920 sponsored by Miss Virginia Livingston Hunt and commissioned 30 September 1920, Lt. Roswell H. Blair in command.

After shakedown, Hunt participated in training and readiness exercises with the Atlantic Fleet and conducted torpedo trials on the range out of Newport, R.I. She shifted her base of operations to Charleston, S.C., 3 December 1920. Sailing from Charleston Harbor 29 May 1922 she entered the Philadelphia Navy Yard 6 June and decommissioned there 11 August 1922. From 13 September 1930 to 28 May 1934 the U.S. Coast Guard had custody of the ship.

Hunt recommissioned at Philadelphia and cleared that port 26 January 1940 tor neutrality patrol in the Caribbean Sea. She departed Panama Canal 3 April to escort submarine Searaven to Cape Canaveral and then engaged in gunnery practice in Cuban waters en route to Norfolk arriving 17 April 1940. The next few months were devoted to maneuvers in Chesapeake Bay and training cruises down the eastern seaboard.

Hunt was l of the 50 "overage fourstacker destroyers" exchanged with the British for American bases in British West Indies. She got underway from Newport 3 October 1940, and reached Halifax, Nova Scotia 5 October. The following day she embarked 100 English officers and bluejackets tor instructions in ship handling. On 8 October she decommissioned from the U.S. Navy and commissioned in the British Navy as HMS Broadway.

Broadway arrived at Belfast 24 October 1940, where she joined the 11th Escort Group, Western Approaches Command, with whom she engaged in escorting numerous convoys. On 9 May, with the help of destroyer Bulldog and corvette Aubrietia, she captured German submarine U-110 between Iceland and Greenland. On the previous night, the U-boat had crept in to attack Broadway's convoy but was prevented from surfacing by the strong destroyer escort. She continued to shadow the Allied ships until early in the afternoon watch when she launched three torpedoes from periscope depth. Broadway and her fellow escorts promptly counterattacked and forced her to surface where she surrendered. Unfortunately the prize sank while in tow to port but only after her captors had recovered documents of great value and importance This victory was especially sweet since U-110 was commanded by Korvetten-Kapitan Lemp who had made the first kill of the war by sinking liner Athenia 3 September 1939, the day England declared war. Lemp was lost with 14 mem bers of his crew, but a war correspondent, 4 officers and 28 men were rescued.

During 1942 and 1943 Broadway continued to escort Atlantic convoys. On 12 May 1943 she joined frigate Lagan and aircraft from escort carrier Biter in destroying another German submarine, U-89, which was sunk northeast of the Azores.

After refitting at Belfast in September 1943, Broadway became a target ship for aircraft and served as such at Rosyth in Scotland until the war ended in Europe. In May 1945 she left Rosyth for Northern Norway with one of the occupation forces. At Narvik, Norway, she took charge of a convoy of German submarines which was sailing tor Trondheim. In the reduction of the British Navy after the war, Hunt was scrapped.


Hunt I DD- 194 - History

After shakedown off Bermuda and final alterations in New York Navy Yard, Hunt cleared Norfolk for the Pacific 2 December 1943. She entered Pearl Harbor 24 December 1943 and joined Vice Adm. Marc A. Mitscher&rsquos Fast Carrier Task Force 58 operating as a part of the antisubmarine screen for a task group which included Essex (CV-9), Intrepid (CV-11), and Cabot (CV-25). She sortied with the carrier task force 16 January 1944 to support the invasion of the Marshall Islands, the operation which, in the words of RAdm. Richard L. Conolly, &ldquo. . . really cracked the Japanese shell. It broke the crust of their defenses on a scale that could be exploited at once.&rdquo At dawn 29 January, Mitscher&rsquos planes opened the operation with strikes against enemy-held airfields on Roi Island, Kwajalein Atoll, while Hunt protected the carriers from which they were launched. The next day she joined battleships North Carolina (BB-55), South Dakota (BB-57) and Alabama (BB-60) in shelling pill boxes and other targets on the northern beaches of Roi and Namur Islands. After two days on bombardment station she rejoined the screen of the carriers who were furnishing planes to support landing operations on the small islands adjoining Roi and Namur. She entered newly won Majuro Lagoon in company with Essex 5 February 1944 for replenishment.

On 12 February Hunt sailed with most of the Fast Carrier Force for Truk Atoll to neutralize that reputedly impregnable enemy air and naval base which threatened both General MacArthur&rsquos forces then encircling Rabaul and Rear Adm. H. W. Hill&rsquos amphibious vessels preparing to assault Eniwetok. In the early morning darkness of 17 February, Hunt arrived off Truk with the rest of the force which began the systematic destruction of the Japanese ships and planes caught in the area. A group of heavies&mdashtwo battleships, two heavy cruisers, and four destroyers&mdashcircled the atoll to catch enemy ships attempting to escape, while carrier-based planes attacked targets on the islands and in the Lagoon. Hunt&rsquos role in the operation was to protect Admiral A. E. Montgomery&rsquos carrier group from submarine or air attack. When her task force steamed away the following evening, its planes and ships had sunk two light cruisers, 4 destroyers, 3 auxiliary cruisers, 6 auxiliaries of different types, and 137,091 tons of merchant shipping. Moreover, the destruction and damaging of between 250 and 275 enemy planes was especially gratifying to the Navy which, by this successful raid, had forced the Japanese Combined Fleet to shun Truk, its base since July 1942, in favor of safer areas closer to home.

After clearing Truk, Hunt, in company with carrier Enterprise (CV-6), cruiser San Diego (CL-53), and five other destroyers, left the main body of the task force to raid &ldquoleapfrogged&rdquo Jaluit Atoll, Marshall Islands, 20 February 1944. The next day she anchored in Majuro Lagoon from which, after a brief visit to Pearl Harbor, she put to sea as a part of the screen of the Bunker Hill carrier task group bound for the Palau Islands 22 March. She steamed on station as the first air strikes at Peleliu were launched 30 March. Intense and accurate antiaircraft fire from Hunt and her sister ships drove off three flight groups of Japanese torpedo bombers as strikes continued during the next 3 days. On 1 April she left the formation with destroyer Hickox (DD-673) to destroy two 125-foot patrol craft which had been firing on American planes.

She returned to Majuro on 6 April for replenishment, then set course with the Bunker Hill carrier task group to lend support to the invasion and occupation of Hollandia, D.N.G. Planes from the carriers repeatedly struck enemy emplacements in the area, and night fighters successfully repelled all enemy planes which approached the warships. On the passage returning to Majuro Hunt&rsquos carriers paused off Truk 29 and 30 April for another raid on that weakened but reinforced enemy base. Thereafter Truk was almost useless to the Japanese.

May was a welcome interlude devoted to training exercises in the Marshalls enlivened by a diversionary raid on Wake Island 24 May to draw attention away from the Marianas. Hunt put to sea with the Bunker Hill carrier task group 6 June for the invasion of the Marianas. The first air strikes of the operation against the Island Group were launched on 11 June and continued until 15 June when the marines hit the beaches, and attention shifted to providing close support for troops ashore. On that day, Admiral Spruance received a warning from submarine Flying Fish that an enemy carrier force was approaching from San Bernardino Strait. In the early hours of 19 June it arrived within striking distance of the fast carrier force which guarded the amphibious forces off Saipan. The Battle of the Philippine Sea began in a series of dogfights over Guam, where American planes were neutralizing Japanese land-based air forces. About an hour and a half later, the major phase of the battle, nicknamed &ldquoThe Marianas Turkey Shoot,&rdquo opened when the American flattops launched their fighters to intercept the first of four raids from the Japanese carriers. During the ensuing 8 hours of fierce, continuous fighting in the air, Japan lost 346 planes and 2 carriers while only 30 U.S. planes splashed and 1 American battleship suffered a bomb hit but was not put out of action. Hunt then steamed westward with the carriers in pursuit of the fleeing remnants of the enemy fleet. The following afternoon planes from the carriers caught up with their quarry and accounted for carrier Hiyo and two oilers while damaging several other Japanese ships. This carrier battle, the greatest of the war, virtually wiped out the emperor&rsquos naval air power which would be sorely missed in the impending battle for Leyte Gulf.

The next evening the task force gave up the chase and set course for Saipan. On the return passage, Hunt rescued four pilots and seven crewmen from planes which had been unable to land on their carriers. Once back in the Marianas, Hunt and her sister ships resumed the task of supporting the American forces which were taking Saipan, Tinian, and Guam. They continued this duty until fighting in these islands ended early in August.

After voyage repairs at Pearl Harbor, she departed 30 August as part of the screen for Admiral Halsey&rsquos flagship, New Jersey. Hunt joined the Bunker Hill Carrier Group off the Admiralty Islands 6 September for operations south of the Palau Islands. On 11 September she carried Admiral Halsey from New Jersey to carrier Lexington for a conference and returned him to his flagship. In the following days she guarded the carriers which were repeatedly raiding the Palaus to soften them up for the invasion. When marines landed on Peleliu 15 September, planes from these carriers supported the efforts on shore until the determined leathernecks finally stamped out the last organized resistance of the dogged Japanese defenders. Hunt entered Kossol Passage 30 September to embark Admiral Halsey and his staff for passage to Peleliu. Hull put him ashore that afternoon and steamed off shore as stand-by flagship until the following afternoon when he again came on board to be returned to Kossol Passage.

On 6 October, she cleared port with the Bunker Hill carrier task group for air strikes against Okinawa Jima. Hunt rescued a pilot and two crewmen of a splashed Bunker Hill plane 10 October. She repeated this feat 2 days later when she saved a pilot and two crewmen whose plane had been downed during an attack on Formosan airbases.

Hunt accompanied the carriers off Northern Luzon during the landings on Leyte 20 October while they struck again and again at Japanese airfields throughout the Philippines to eliminate enemy airpower during General MacArthur&rsquos long-awaited return. During the decisive Battle for Leyte Gulf they went after the Japanese northern force and sank four carriers and a destroyer besides damaging several other ships.

For the rest of the year, Hunt continued to serve as a screening unit for the carrier strikes against Formosa and Japanese-held areas in the Philippines. On 16 February 1945, her fast carrier task force hit hard at the Tokyo Bay area in a furious 2-day attack. Then the flattops turned their attention to support the landings on Iwo Jima which began 19 February. That day her guns brought down an enemy plane as they repelled the first of the air raids against American ships off that bitterly-contested island. Hunt sailed from Iwo Jima 22 February for waters off Honshu, Japan and another swipe at Tokyo Bay, 25 February. On the way to Ulithi the carriers paused to strike Okinawa 1 March.

Hunt departed Ulithi 14 March for rendezvous with carrier Franklin (CV-13) off the Ryukyu Islands 18 March. The next day Franklin maneuvered closer to the Japanese mainland than had any other U.S. carrier up to that point in the war to launch a fighter sweep against Honshu and later a strike against shipping in Kobe Harbor. Suddenly a single enemy plane broke through the cloud cover and made a low level run to drop two semi-armor-piercing bombs on the gallant ship. The carrier burned furiously as the flames triggered ammunition, bombs, and rockets. Hunt closed the stricken ship to assist in picking up survivors blown overboard by the explosions. After rescuing 429 survivors, she joined three other destroyers in a clockwise patrol around the stricken ship which had gone dead in the water within 50 miles of the Japanese Coast. Cruiser Pittsburgh (CA-72) took the ship in tow and, after an epic struggle, managed to get her to Ulithi 24 March. Hunt put the survivors ashore and sped to the Ryukyus 5 April to support troops who were struggling to take Okinawa.

Hunt took up radar picket station off Okinawa 8 April. On 14 April a kamikaze roared in toward Hunt and was riddled by her guns during the approach. It struck the destroyer at deck level shearing off the mainmast and slicing into the forward stack where it left its starboard wing. The fuselage of the suicide plane splashed into the water about 25 yards from Hunt whose crew quickly doused the small fires which had broken out on board. A second kamikaze which approached Hunt that day was knocked down by her alert gunners before it could reach the ship.

Hunt continued to guard the carriers as they gave direct support to troops on Okinawa, taking time out on 4 separate days for radar picket duty in dangerous waters. When she departed Ryukyus 30 May for tender overhaul in Leyte Gulf, her crew had been to general quarters 54 times.

Hunt sailed for the United States 19 June 1945, arrived in San Francisco for overhaul 6 July, and decommissioned 15 December 1945 at San Diego.

Hunt recommissioned at San Diego 31 October 1951, Comdr. Lynn F. Barry in command. After refresher training in local areas, she departed 14 February for Newport where she arrived 3 March 1952. She cruised from that port for the next 2½ years conducting antisubmarine and plane guard duty. She departed Newport 1 June 1954 for Yokosuka where she arrived 7 July and was underway again 16 July for task force maneuvers off the Philippine Islands. On 21 October she cleared Sasebo, Japan, on the second leg of a world cruise which took her to Hong Kong, Singapore, the Suez Canal, and Naples which she reached 20 November 1954. She passed through the strait of Gibraltar 12 December 1954 and arrived back in Newport 18 December.

The next 2 years were filled with intensive antisubmarine warfare and convoy exercises. Hunt departed Newport 6 November for patrol in the Eastern Mediterranean during the Suez Crisis and the Hungarian Revolution. She returned to Newport 27 February 1957 where more antisubmarine warfare and convoy exercises awaited. She embarked midshipmen at Annapolis for a training cruise which included the International Naval review in Hampton Roads on 12 June, and a visit to Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. She departed Newport for Belfast, Northern Ireland 3 September to participate in Operation &ldquoSeaspray&rdquo, maneuvers with the combined forces of NATO. From 22 October 1957 through 1 August 1958 Hunt operated out of Newport. On the latter date while on a cruise to the Caribbean she sped from San Juan, Puerto Rico to join attack carrier Saratoga (CVA-60) in the Mediterranean to augment the 6th Fleet during the Near Eastern crisis which had necessitated the landing of marines in Beirut, Lebanon to check aggression. She reached that port 28 August and 3 days later was underway for the Red Sea. She completed transit of the Suez Canal 11 September for Massawa, Ethiopia, and after calling at Aden, Arabia, set course 14 October for the Mediterranean and maneuvers with the Sixth Fleet en route home to Newport, arriving 13 November.

Hunt operated out of Newport with occasional cruises in the Caribbean conducting exercises in antisubmarine warfare and battle practice. She won the Battle Efficiency Award for the fiscal year 1957 to 1958 and repeated the feat for the 1958 to 1959 period. She decommissioned 30 December 1963.


World War II History

The HUNT DD674 was on the ways at the Federal Shipbuilding and Drydock Company in Kearny, NJ. DD 674 was launched on August 1, 1943. The HUNT DD 674 was a member of the FLETCHER class FLETCHERS represented the largest class of destroyers built, and would serve into the Fifties and Sixties. The FLETCHER class were workhorses, designed with few frills and an eye toward efficiency.

Slightly more than a month after her launching, USS HUNT was commissioned and skippered by Commander Frank P. Mitchell, set out for a shakedown off Bermuda and a return to New York Navy Yard for modifications. By December, she was underway for the Pacific she was not destined to visit an Atlantic coast port again for almost ten years.

On the day before Christmas, 1943,USS HUNT entered Pearl Harbor, finally meeting up with mighty Task Force 58 (TF 58). Vice Admiral Marc Mitchner’s fast carrier task force included two fleet carriers and a light carrier with more than two hundred aircraft aboard, a tempting target for Japanese submarines. HUNT’s job was to protect the carriers.

HUNT’s log recorded her participation in some of the most famous naval operations of the Pacific War. In February, she screened TF 58 while the carriers’air group neutralized the huge Japanese base at Truk. Two battleships, two heavy cruisers, and three destroyers joined her in circling the atoll to prevent the escape of any enemy forces. The effort was successful TF 58 accounted for almost 140,000 tons of merchant shipping as well as two light cruisers, four destroyers, three auxiliary cruisers, and six other naval craft sunk.

For the next three months, HUNT swept the Pacific, screening carriers on operation in the Marshalls, Palau, and Hollandia. Days were hectic for her crew. At Palau, HUNT’s deadly anti- aircraft fire helped to drive off three flights of Japanese torpedo bombers intent on destroying the American carriers.

The Marianas came next. DD 674 stood guard while her charges, the BUNKER HILL carrier group, decimated Japan’s naval air arm in the battle of the Philippine Sea the air massacre became the “Marianas Turkey Shoot” after nearly three hundred fifty enemy aircraft and two Japanese carriers fell to American pilots in eight hours of fierce action. Two oilers and another Japanese carrier were destroyed during the pursuit the following day. HUNT rescued eleven air crewmen during two hectic days of unrelenting action. DD 674 then supported landings at Saipan, Tinian, and Guam.

After a brief visit to Pearl Harbor for repairs, HUNT joined the screen of Admiral Halsey’s flagship, USS NEW JERSEY, then rejoined the BUNKER HILL carrier group. DD 674 was chosen to ferry Halsey to conferences aboard USS LEXINGTON and was pressed into service to carry the Admiral to Peleliu. Once again, HUNT shielded carriers in some of the most pivotal operations in the Pacific. DD 674 picked up American pilots who had ditched after strikes against Okinawa and Formosa. During the battle of Leyte Gulf, HUNT’s carrier group sank four carriers and a destroyer. Off Iwo Jima, HUNT’s guns brought down an enemy plane.

By January, 1945, HUNT’s task group was approaching Japan. On almost a monthly basis, HUNT sheparded her carriers to within striking distance of the “Home Islands.” By March 15, HUNT and FRANKLIN, along with other destroyers in the carrier’s screen, had maneuvered closer to Japan than any other carrier had previously ventured. An enemy aircraft broke through FRANKLIN’s screen and hit the carrier with two heavy bombs. Burning furiously, with bombs and ammunition adding to the inferno, the big carrier seemed doomed. HUNT closed on the FRANKLIN, rescuing 429 of the FRANKLIN’s crew, then, with three other cans, protectively circled the huge vessel, by this time dead in the water less than fifty miles off the coast of Japan. HUNT’s and FRANKLIN’s luck held USS PITTSBURGH took the carrier under tow, and CV-13 reached the fleet anchorage at Ulithi. HUNT put FRANKLIN’s survivors ashore and left for a picket station off Okinawa.

In the Ryukyus, HUNT’s amazing luck nearly ran out. After six days on the picket line, a kamikaze singled out DD 674. Another of HUNT’s scathing barrages hit the intruder, but not in time. The aircraft hit DD 674 at deck level, badly bending the main mast and slicing her right wing in the ship’s forward stack. Fortunately, the plane’s forward motion carried her over the side and she hit the water less than twenty-five yards off the can’s beam. HUNT’s crew put out the small fires and repaired the damage quickly. Left with only the TBS and one TAJ antenna ET, Ivan Jensen, connected them to a receiver to be able to copy “skids” until such a time as he could get the other antennas repaired. A second kamikaze that day didn’t get nearly that close before she went down to a HUNT barrage. By the time she left the picket line for a tender overhaul in Leyte Gulf, HUNT’s crew had been to general quarters no less than fifty-four times.

In Dec 1944 the fleet was caught in the middle of a killer typhoon. The winds peaked at 130 mph and the waves were 65 feet high. The fleet was rendezvoused with tankers for refueling and the storm was so fierce that ships were breaking off the fuel lines and could not refuel fully. The USS Spence was refueling on the starboard side of the NEW JERSEY and only got 1000 gallons of fuel when her fuel lines parted. The HUNT was refueling on the port side of the NEW JERSEY and got 23000 gallons of fuel before her fuel lines parted. After the storm was over, the USS SPENCE along with two other destroyers were sunk. The HUNT sustained relatively minor damage, but her forward 5 inch gun was put out of action.

By mid-June,19945 HUNT was on her way home. Repairs began in San Francisco on July 6, 1945 and DD 674 was decommissioned on December 15, 1945.


Merchant Marine Records Document Maritime Service

SAINT LOUIS, December 16, 2019 — The public now has access to previously unavailable information concerning former merchant mariners and their maritime service through Merchant Marine Licensing Files, made available by the National Archives at St. Louis.

One of the documents found in a record for a 17-year-old merchant seaman named William Hitchcock. (Records of the U.S. Coast Guard, Record Group 26)

The public can access these records in two ways: through a request made via an offsite reference request (with reproduction provided for a fee), or via onsite viewing at the National Archives at St. Louis Research Room. The collection opened to the public on December 2, 2019.

"Service in the Merchant Marine was considered civilian service under several different civilian personnel agencies. However, service was considered military in nature for those who served between December 7, 1941, and December 31, 1946. Due to the multifaceted nature of the Merchant Marine, we are very grateful to obtain this collection in order to provide clarity to their service," said Theresa Fitzgerald, Chief of Archival Operations in St. Louis.

Merchant mariners or merchant seamen are assigned to vessels that primarily transport cargo and passengers during peacetime. During wartime, however, they can become an auxiliary to the United States Navy—called upon to deliver military personnel and materiel for the military.

“Along with this new series have come some new experiences. These files have joined our collection in an effort to better serve the public who are looking for proof of their ancestor's service –civilian or military,” Fitzgerald said.

She explained that the files provide a unique glimpse into our nation’s maritime history and offer a visual record of the toll that wartime service took on these merchant mariners.

“Though looking into the past, it is usually rare that we can also look into the faces from the past. That is not the case with the Merchant Marine Licensing Files,” Fitzgerald said. “These records not only tell the complicated stories of merchant mariners, some of whom served in peacetime and were transitioned to very different wartime service, but they also, almost consistently, show the faces of the young men and women in service. It is not uncommon to find multiple pictures in these files. Here at the National Archives at St. Louis, we are honored to observe the change in a face over time-in-service via these photographs. It is humbling to see how service affected these individuals.”

The first block of this series contained 4,800 cubic feet of records . The series includes personnel records with papers documenting the service of merchant seamen licensed by the United States in the years up to and including 1967.

These pre-1967 records, from Record Group 26, Records of the U.S. Coast Guard, Merchant Marine Personnel and Licensing Records, contain a wealth of information. Most notably they contain rich genealogical history, photographs, and artifacts such as ID cards or log books that relay information from their journey over the seas.

Each file provides the name and address of the seaman, place and date of birth, and license numbers. It also notes the name of vessels served on and the seaman’s status. The personnel record can contain an identification number (“Z” number), relevant contract renewal and discharge information, and the date and place of issue of other certifications, applications, licenses, and correspondence. The record may also contain photographs, birth certificates, and documents related to union membership.

Another two blocks in this collection, approximately 3,283 feet of records, will be accessioned at the National Archives at St. Louis in the coming months.

The Coast Guard National Maritime Center (NMC) is the approving official for World War II Merchant Marine separation documents. The National Archives at St. Louis does not provide information for benefits or separation documents, such as DD-214s, for these records. To determine eligibility for a Certificate of Release or Discharge from Active Duty, DD Form 214, or a Report of Casualty, DD Form 1300, customers will be directed to to NMC’s website. St. Louis staff will also refer requests to the NMC on a customer's behalf.


Photo Gallery

But by day’s end, 155,000 Allied troops𠄺mericans, British and Canadians–had successfully stormed Normandy’s beaches and were then able to push inland. Within three months, the northern part of France would be freed and the invasion force would be preparing to enter Germany, where they would meet up with Soviet forces moving in from the east.

Before the Allied assault, Hitler’s armies had been in control of most of mainland Europe and the Allies knew that a successful invasion of the continent was central to winning the war. Hitler knew this too, and was expecting an assault on northwestern Europe in the spring of 1944. He hoped to repel the Allies from the coast with a strong counterattack that would delay future invasion attempts, giving him time to throw the majority of his forces into defeating the Soviet Union in the east. Once that was accomplished, he believed an all-out victory would soon be his.

For their part, the Germans suffered from confusion in the ranks and the absence of celebrated commander Field Marshal Erwin Rommel, who was away on leave. At first, Hitler, believing that the invasion was a feint designed to distract the Germans from a coming attack north of the Seine River, refused to release nearby divisions to join the counterattack and reinforcements had to be called from further afield, causing delays.

He also hesitated in calling for armored divisions to help in the defense. In addition, the Germans were hampered by effective Allied air support, which took out many key bridges and forced the Germans to take long detours, as well as efficient Allied naval support, which helped protect advancing Allied troops.

Though D-Day did not go off exactly as planned, as later claimed by British Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery𠄿or example, the Allies were able to land only fractions of the supplies and vehicles they had intended in France–the invasion was a decided success. By the end of June, the Allies had 850,000 men and 150,000 vehicles in Normandy and were poised to continue their march across Europe.

The heroism and bravery displayed by troops from the Allied countries on D-Day has served as inspiration for several films, most famously The Longest Day (1962) and Saving Private Ryan (1998). It was also depicted in the HBO series Band of Brothers (2001).


Hunt I DD- 194 - History

by Lt Cdr Geoffrey B Mason RN (Rtd) (c) 2003

HMS CAPRICE (R 01) - Ca-class Destroyer
including Convoy Escort Movements

Ca-Class Fleet Destroyer of the 11th Emergency Flotilla ordered in February 1942 from Yarrow at Scotstoun. The ship was originally to be named SWALLOW but this was changed in November 1942 to CAPRICE as part of the rationalisation of names for the Class. She was laid down on 28th September 1942 and launched on 16th September 1943 as the first RN ship to have this name. Build was completed on 5th April 1944 and she replaced HM Destroyer LANCE as the ship adopted by the civil community of Bexley and Welling, Kent. (Note: HM Destroyer LANCE was withdrawn from service after being declared a constructive total loss in 1942 and had been allocated to the area after a successful WARSHIP WEEK National Savings campaign in December 1941).

B a t t l e H o n o u r s

Badge: On a Field Green, a kid salient Proper.

D e t a i l s o f W a r S e r v i c e

(for more ship information, go to Naval History Homepage and type name in Site Search)

5th Build completion and commenced Acceptance Trials.

Carried out Gunnery trials.

Accepted into service with 6th Destroyer Flotilla, Home Fleet.

On completion of trials and storing too passage to Scapa Flow for work-up with ships of

May Worked up for service at Scapa Flow with Home Fleet.

June Deployed with Flotilla for screening duties in Home Fleet.

17th Joined Russian Convoy JW59 with HM Cruiser JAMAICA, HM Escort Carriers VINDEX

and STRIKER, HM Destroyers MARNE, METEOR. MILNE and MUSKETEER as escort.

24th Detached from JW59 on arrival at Kola Inlet.

28th Sailed as escort for return Convoy RA59A with same ships.

5th Detached from RA59A after unscathed passage.

Resumed Flotilla duties in Home Fleet.

October Home Fleet duties with Flotilla in continuation.

23rd Deployed with screen for HM Aircraft Carrier IMPLACABLE and HM Cruiser BELLONA

with HM Destroyers VENUS, SCOURGE, SAVAGE, VERULAM, CASSANDRA,

ZAMBESI and CAMBRIAN during air attacks on Sorreisa and Bardufoss as well as photo-

reconnaissance in the Tromso area for the German battleship TIRPITZ.

(For details of naval activities in Norway see ENGAGE THE ENEMY MORE CLOSELY by

Corelli Barnett and CONVOY! by P Kemp.)

31st Detached for escort of ss EMPRESS OF AUSTRALIA and ss SCYTHIA carrying Russian

nationals who had been captured by the allies in Normandy.

2nd Joined EMPRESS OF AUSTRALIA and ss SCYTHIA with H M Cruiser BERWICK, H M

Escort Carrier CAMPANIA, HM Destroyers CAMBRIAN, CASSANDRA, SAUMAREZ,

SCOURGE and SERAPIS for passage to Kola Inlet as Russian Convoy JW61A.

11th Return passage to Clyde with same ships and HM Destroyer SCORPION and SAVAGE as escort

for mercantiles as return Convoy RA61A.

1st Joined escort of Russian Convoy JW62 with HM Cruiser BELLONA, HM Escort Carriers

CAMPANIA and NAIRANA. H M Cruiser BELLONA, H M Destroyers CAESAR,

CASSANDRA and CAMBRIAN of Flotilla and HM Destroyers ONSLOW, OBEDIENT,

OFFA, ONSLAUGHT, ORIBI and ORWELL of 17th Flotilla.

CONVOY ESCORT MOVEMENTS of HMS CAPRICE

These convoy lists have not been cross-checked with the text above


What is DNA?

DNA is self-replicating material that’s in every living organism. In simplest terms, it is a carrier of all genetic information. It contains the instructions needed for organisms to develop, grow, survive, and reproduce. It’s one long molecule that contains our genetic “code,” or recipe. This recipe is the starting point for our development, but DNA’s interaction with outside influences such as our lifestyle, environment, and nutrition ultimately form the human being.

While most DNA is found in the nucleus of a cell, a small amount can also be found in the mitochondria, which generates energy so cells can function properly. Perhaps the most fascinating part of the process is the fact that nearly every cell in your body has the same DNA.

What is DNA Made of?

DNA is made up of molecules known as nucleotides. Each nucleotide contains a sugar and phosphate group as well as nitrogen bases. These nitrogen bases are further broken down into four types, including:

DNA’s structure is a double-stranded helix, and it resembles the look of a twisted ladder. The sugar and phosphates are nucleotide strands that form the long sides. The nitrogen bases are the rungs. Every rung is actually two types of nitrogen bases that pair together to form a complete rung and hold the long strands of nucleotides together. Remember, there are four types of nitrogen bases, and they pair together specifically – adenine pairs with thymine, and guanine with cytosine.

Human DNA is unique in that it is made up of nearly 3 billion base pairs, and about 99 percent of them are the same in every human. However, it’s the sequence of these bases that determines what information is available to both build and maintain any organism.

Think of DNA like individual letters of the alphabet — letters combine with one another in a specific order and form to make up words, sentences, and stories. The same idea is true for DNA — how the nitrogen bases are ordered in DNA sequences forms the genes, which tell your cells how to make proteins. Ribonucleic acid (RNA), another type of nucleic acid, is formed during the process of transcription (when DNA is replicated). RNA’s function is to translate genetic information from DNA to proteins as it is read by a ribosome.

How Does DNA Work?

DNA is essentially a recipe for any living organism. It contains vital information that’s passed down from one generation to the next. DNA molecules within the nucleus of a cell wind tightly to form chromosomes, which help keep DNA secure and in place and store important information in the form of genes to determine an organism’s genetic information.

DNA works by copying itself into that single-stranded molecule called RNA. If DNA is the blueprint, you can think of RNA as the translator of instructions written in the blueprint. During this process, DNA unwinds itself so it can be replicated. RNA is similar to DNA, but it does contain some significant molecular differences that set it apart. RNA acts as a messenger, carrying vital genetic information in a cell from DNA through ribosomes to create proteins, which then form all living things.


What Animals Did the Iroquois Hunt?

Animals hunted by the Iroquois people included forest species such as deer, bears, pigeons, muskrats and beavers. Rabbits, wild turkeys, geese, ducks, wolves and moose were also common prey. The Iroquois also caught various species of fish that included walleye, white and yellow bass, shovelnose sturgeon and trout.

Iroquois men were responsible for providing meat for the tribe. They caught animals by using snares or hunting them with bows and arrows. Hunting was mainly engaged in during the fall season.

The main birds hunted by the Iroquois were the now-extinct passenger pigeons. These birds bred and nested on Iroquois land during the spring. As the Iroquois were careful to hunt only the young birds so that older birds would be able to breed again, the extinction of this species was largely due to white hunters.

Iroquois hunters caught fish by netting them using a fence-style trap known as a weir. They then speared them using bone harpoons. Fish were an important part of the Iroquois diet due to their abundance.

Most families ate just one fairly large meal a day. Women were responsible for growing crops and gathering wild foods. Corn, beans and squash were staple foods for the Iroquois. Sunflower seeds were grown so that their oil could be used for cooking.


Unijapedija je koncept, zemljevid ali semantično mrežo, organizirano kot enciklopedije - slovar. To je na kratko opredelitev vsakega koncepta in njegovih odnosov.

To je velikanski spletni mentalni zemljevid, ki služi kot osnova za koncept diagramov. To je prost za uporabo in vsak članek ali dokument, ki se lahko prenese. To je orodje, vir ali predlog za študije, raziskave, izobraževanje, učenje in poučevanje, ki jih učitelji, vzgojitelji, dijaki ali študenti lahko uporablja Za akademskega sveta: za šolo, primarno, sekundarno, gimnazije, srednje tehnične stopnje, šole, univerze, dodiplomski, magistrski ali doktorski stopinj za papir, poročil, projektov, idej, dokumentacije, raziskav, povzetkov, ali teze. Tu je definicija, razlaga, opis ali pomen vsakega pomembno, na kateri želite informacije in seznam njihovih povezanih konceptov kot pojmovnika. Na voljo v Slovenski, Angleščina, Španski, Portugalski, Japonski, Kitajski, Francosko, Nemški, Italijansko, Poljski, Nizozemski, Rusko, Arabsko, Hindi, Švedski, Ukrajinski, Madžarski, Katalonščina, Češka, Hebrejščina, Danski, Finski, Indonezijski, Norveški, Romunščina, Turški, Vietnamščina, Korejščina, Thai, Grški, Bolgarski, Hrvaški, Slovak, Litvanski, Filipino, Latvijski in Estonski Več jezikov kmalu.

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Watch the video: The Hunt: Hillaries Final Step. History (July 2022).


Comments:

  1. Beltran

    I am not clear.

  2. Maeleachlainn

    bullshit .. why ..

  3. Magnus

    What words ... the phenomenal idea, admirable



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