Hannah Maynard

Hannah Maynard

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Hannah Hatherly was born in England in 1834. After marrying the shoemaker, Richard Maynard, the couple moved to Bowmanville, Canada.

Hannah opened a portrait studio in Victoria and made various photographic trips to Vancouver Island, Alaska, British Columbia and San Francisco. Hannah Maynard died in 1918.

Delaware County NY Genealogy and History Site

Be It Remembered, That heretofore, to wit: on the 7th day of December in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and ninety-six, C.L. Andrus, Attorney for the Executors named in the Last Will and Testament of Hannah F. Maynard, late of the Town of Harpersfield, in the County of Delaware, deceased, appeared in open Court, before the Surrogate of the County of Delaware, and made application to have the said Last Will and Testament which relates to Personal Estate, proved: and on such application the said Surrogate did ascertain by satisfactory evidence who were the heirs at law and next of kin of the said testatrix and their respective residences, and said Surrogate did thereupon issue a Citation in due form of law, directed to the heirs at law and next of kin by their respective names, requiring them to appear before said Surrogate at his office in the Village of Delhi in said County, on the 25th day of January, A.D., 1897, to attend the probate of said Will.

And afterwards, to wit: on the 25th day of January, A.D., 1897 satisfactory evidence by affidavit was produced and presented to said Surrogate, of the due service of said Citation in the mode prescribed by law, and on that day the proponent having appeared by Attorney in support of the probate of said Will, and no one appearing to oppose the probate of the same such proceedings were thereupon had in said Court that the said Surrogate took the proofs of said Will hereinafter set forth, upon this 1st day of February A.D., 1897 and he thereupon adjudged the said Will to be a valid Will of Personal Estate, and the proofs thereof to be sufficient, which said Last Will and Testament and proofs, are as follows, that is to say:

I, Hannah F. Maynard of the town of Harpersfield County of Delaware and State of New York being of sound mind and memory do make, ordain, publish and declare this to be my last Will and Testament that is to say:

First: After all my lawful debts are paid and discharged, I give, devise and bequeath to Everett Merriam of Scranton, PA., Stephen Maynard of Harpersfield, N.Y. and Jonathan Brazee of Davenport, N.Y. each the sum of ($1000) one thousand dollars.

Second: I give and bequeath to Andrew Maynard of Harpersfield, N.Y. the sum of ($500) Five hundred dollars.

Third: I give and bequeath to Wesley Maynard of Harpersfield, N.Y. and Stephen Van Dyke of Jefferson, N.Y. each the sum of ($500) Five hundred dollars.

Fourth: I give and bequeath to the children of my deceased Nephew, Peter I. Merriam the sum of ($1000) One thousand dollars to be divided equally between the surviving children of the said Peter I. Merriam share and share alike, and I also devise that one of my executors shall be Guardian of said children.

Fifth: I give and bequeath to each of my Neighbors Henry Davis and Peter Davis of Davenport, N.Y. the sum of one hundred dollars each.

Sixth: I give and bequeath to my nephews George Gibbs, Cyrenus Gibbs and Richard Gibbs each one hundred dollars.

Seventh: I give and bequeath to the two children of my niece Francelia Metcalf (now deceased) the sum of one hundred dollars each.

Eighth: I give and bequeath to Dorotha Brazee and Mrs. Nettie Maynard all of my wearing apparel which they may dispose of as they may choose.

Ninth: All the rest and residue of my estate both real and personal I give and bequeath to my nephew Everett Merriam and Stephen Maynard to be divided between them share and share alike.

Tenth: I give and bequeath to my brother Charles J. Merriam the use of the interest on a certain mortgage given by the said Charles J. Merriam to me for ($3000) three thousand dollars said use shall be for his support during his natural life.

Eleventh and lastly,
I make, constitute and appoint Everett Merriam and Stephen Maynard aforesaid to be executors of this my last Will and Testament, hereby revoking all former Wills by me made.

In Witness Whereof I have hereunto published my name and affixed my seal, the 14th day of June in the year one thousand eight hundred and Ninety five.

The above instrument, consisting of one sheet, was at the date thereof published by Hannah F. Maynard in the presence of us and each of us: she at the time of making such subscription, acknowledged that she made the same, and declared the said instrument so subscribed by her to be her last Will and Testament. Whereupon we then and there, at her request, and in her presence and the presence of each other, subscribed our names as witnesses thereto.

Stephen Van Dusen residing at Harpersfield, N.Y.
Mrs. Minnie Van Dusen residing at Harpersfield, N.Y.

At a Surrogate's Court, held at the Surrogates Office in Delhi, in and for the County of Delaware, on the 1st day of February, 1897.
Present, Albert H. Sewell, Surrogate

In the Matter of Proving the Last Will and Testament of Hannah F. Maynard, Deceased

Satisfactory proof having been made of the due service of the Citation heretofore issued in this matter, requiring the proper persons to appear in this Court on the 25th day of January, 1897, and attend the probate of the Last Will and Testament of Hannah F. Maynard, deceased, bearing date the 14th day of June, 1895 and the Executors named in the Will having appeared in person and by his attorney, in support of the probate of the same, and George W. Youmans having been appointed and appeared as Special Guardian for Gertrude Merriam, Charles Merriam, George Merriam, Ira Merriam, Blanche Merriam, Arthur V. Metcalf and Nellie Metcalf, and the matter having been adjourned to this day, no other parties or persons having appeared, and the several witnesses having been examined before the Surrogate, and the proofs reduced to writing, and the said Surrogate having inquired particularly into all the facts and circumstances, and it appearing that the Will was duly executed, that the testator at the time of executing it was in all respects competent to make a Will and not under restraint and being satisfied of the genuineness of the Will and the validity of its execution, the probate not being contested.

It is Ordered, Adjudged and Decreed, that the said instrument is the Last Will and Testament of the said Hannah F. Maynard deceased that the same be and hereby is admitted to probate as a Will valid to pass real and personal property, and that Letters Testamentary issue to Everett F. Merriam and Stephen E. Maynard the Executors named therein.

Albert H. Sewell, Surrogate

Surrogate's Office, Delaware County ss:

The Last Will and Testament of Hannah F. Maynard, deceased, having been admitted to probate as a Will valid to pass real and personal property, I have recorded the same with the decree admitting it to probate, and the proof thereupon, as required by law, this 1st day of February, 1897.

Surrogate's Court, County of Delaware
In the Matter of Proving the Last Will and Testament of Hannah F. Maynard, Deceased
County of Delaware ss:

Stephen Van Dusen of the Town of Harpersfield in the County of Delaware, being duly sworn as a witness in the above entitled matter, and examined in open Court in behalf of the proponent to prove said Will, deposes and says:

I was well acquainted with Hannah F. Maynard, the said testator, and had known her for more than ten years before her death. The subscription of the decedent's name to the instrument now shown to me, and offered for probate as her last Will and Testament, and bearing date the 14 day of June in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and ninety-five, was made by the decedent at Charles J. Merriam's in the Town of Harperfield in the County of Delaware, in the presence of myself and Mrs. Minnie Van Dusen, the other subscribing witness. At the time of such subscription the said decedent declared the said instrument, so subscribed by her, to be her last Will and Testament and I thereupon signed my name as a witness, at the end of the said instrument, at the request of said decedent, and in her presence, and in the presence of said Mrs. Minnie Van Dusen. I also saw said Mrs. Minnie Van Dusen, the other subscribing witness sign her name as a witness at the end of said Will, and know that she did so at the request of said decedent and in her presence. The said decedent, at the time of so executing said instrument, was upwards of the age of twenty-one years, and of sound mind, memory and understanding, and not under any restraint, or in any respect incompetent to devise real estate.
Stephen Van Dusen

Taken, subscribed and sworn to before me, this 25 day of January 1897
A.H. Sewell

Minnie Van Dusen of the Town of Harpersfield in the County of Delaware, being duly sworn as a witness in the above entitled matter, and examined in open Court in behalf of the proponent to prove said Will, deposes and says:

I was well acquainted with Hannah F. Maynard, the said testator, and had known her for more than 10 years before her death. The subscription of the decedent's name to the instrument now shown to me, and offered for probate as her last Will and Testament, and bearing date the 14 day of June in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and ninety-five, was made by the decedent at Charles Merriam's in the Town of Harpersfield in the County of Delaware in the presence of myself and Stephen Van Dusen the other subscribing witness. At the time of such subscription the said decedent declared the said instrument, so subscribed by her to be her last Will and Testament and I thereupon signed my name as a witness, at the end of the said instrument, at the request of said decedent, and in her presence, and in the presence of said Stephen Van Dusen, I also saw said Stephen Van Dusen the other subscribing witness sign his name as a witness at the end of said Will, and know that he did so at the request of said decedent in her presence. The said decedent, at the time of so executing said instrument, was upwards of the age of twenty-one years, and of sound mind, memory and understanding, and not under any restraint, or in any respect incompetent to devise real estate.
Minnie Van Dusen

Hannah Hatherly Maynard "Kuper Island Indian School, BC" 1890 / silver gelatin print mounted on card/ 7 x 9.5 in.

BACK ROOM: Hannah Maynard

By Portia Priegert

Vancouver is known for its vibrant contemporary photography scene, with leading artists Jeff Wall, Ian Wallace and Rodney Graham commanding international attention. But photography in British Columbia has a long history that dates back to the 1800s, when Hannah Maynard, a determined and independent-minded woman, made her way in what was then largely a man’s trade.

Born Hannah Hatherly in Cornwall in 1834, she married Richard Maynard, a shoemaker, in 1852, and moved with him to Canada. They settled initially in Ontario, where she learned to take photographs, but ended up in Victoria with their four children a decade later, after Richard made a trip West to prospect for gold. There she bought cameras and opened a photo studio. Her husband also took photographs, but focused on landscape, which he documented on trips to the northern reaches of Vancouver Island.

For her part, Maynard photographed the people and places of Victoria, but also experimented with complex composites and multiple exposures more than a century before digital technology would turn such techniques into child’s play. In one striking image, Maynard, wearing a full-skirted, floor-length dress, stands at a table where she is also sitting with her correspondence. She added three other self-portraits to the image, creating a surreal effect.

The BC Archives, which has many of Maynard’s photographs, makes note of the technical risks she took. “Hannah liked the idea of suspension,” it says in an online article about her work. “She would do this by using the same person twice in the same space at a single moment, or using a person standing beside or opposite his double on one exposed plate. She experimented with mirrors and the possibilities of infinity contained within them, as well as pursuing the technical problems posed by multiples, to push her surrealism.”

Masters Gallery in Vancouver, which handles historic photographs, has two of Maynard’s images, both from an Ontario collector. One is an 1890 silver gelatin print called Kuper Island Indian School, which shows a group of students in a field with trumpets, drums and other musical instruments. The second, dated 1895, is a cityscape of Victoria shot from a high angle. They are valued at $1,500 each.

Western Canadians have been slow to collect historic photographs, which are popular in Europe and the United States, and affordable compared to drawings and watercolours of the same era. “I think it’s definitely something we’re playing catch-up on,” says Jill Turner, assistant director at Masters. Still, she says there was plenty of public interest in the gallery’s recent show of vintage prints shot along the CPR line by Richard Henry Trueman, one of Vancouver’s early photographers. She encourages people to look through old family albums and bring in promising photographs for an appraisal.

And what of Maynard? She retired in 1912, died six years later, and was buried in Victoria’s Ross Bay Cemetery.

My right to death with dignity at 29

Brittany Maynard with her dog Charley in San Francisco. Maynard, a 29-year-old with terminal brain cancer, has died, advocacy group Compassion and Choices said in a Facebook post on Sunday. Click through to see more photos of Maynard's life.

Maynard, second from right, visits the Grand Canyon with her family in October. She had said the Grand Canyon was the last item on her bucket list.

Maynard at age 4 with her mom, Debbie.

Maynard with her mom during a trip.

Maynard, right, poses for a photo during her travels.

Maynard and her husband, Dan Diaz, on their wedding day. They had been married a little more than a year when she was diagnosed with brain cancer.

Maynard shares a moment with her bridesmaids on her wedding day.

  • Married for a year, Brittany Maynard, 29, found she had aggressive brain cancer
  • She had six months to live, and she didn't want her family to watch her dying in pain
  • Maynard and her family moved to Oregon to take advantage of the Death with Dignity law
  • She says nobody has the right to take away the option from someone who is terminally ill

Editor's note: Brittany Maynard worked as a volunteer advocate for the nation's leading end-of-life choice organization, Compassion and Choices. She lived in Portland, Oregon, with her husband, Dan Diaz, and mother, Debbie Ziegler. Watch Brittany and her family tell her story at The opinions expressed in this commentary are solely those of the author.

(CNN) -- On New Year's Day, after months of suffering from debilitating headaches, I learned that I had brain cancer.

I was 29 years old. I'd been married for just over a year. My husband and I were trying for a family.

Our lives devolved into hospital stays, doctor consultations and medical research. Nine days after my initial diagnoses, I had a partial craniotomy and a partial resection of my temporal lobe. Both surgeries were an effort to stop the growth of my tumor.

In April, I learned that not only had my tumor come back, but it was more aggressive. Doctors gave me a prognosis of six months to live.

Because my tumor is so large, doctors prescribed full brain radiation. I read about the side effects: The hair on my scalp would have been singed off. My scalp would be left covered with first-degree burns. My quality of life, as I knew it, would be gone.

After months of research, my family and I reached a heartbreaking conclusion: There is no treatment that would save my life, and the recommended treatments would have destroyed the time I had left.

I considered passing away in hospice care at my San Francisco Bay-area home. But even with palliative medication, I could develop potentially morphine-resistant pain and suffer personality changes and verbal, cognitive and motor loss of virtually any kind.

Brittany Maynard: I don't want to die

Because the rest of my body is young and healthy, I am likely to physically hang on for a long time even though cancer is eating my mind. I probably would have suffered in hospice care for weeks or even months. And my family would have had to watch that.

I did not want this nightmare scenario for my family, so I started researching death with dignity. It is an end-of-life option for mentally competent, terminally ill patients with a prognosis of six months or less to live. It would enable me to use the medical practice of aid in dying: I could request and receive a prescription from a physician for medication that I could self-ingest to end my dying process if it becomes unbearable.

I quickly decided that death with dignity was the best option for me and my family.

We had to uproot from California to Oregon, because Oregon is one of only five states where death with dignity is authorized.

I met the criteria for death with dignity in Oregon, but establishing residency in the state to make use of the law required a monumental number of changes. I had to find new physicians, establish residency in Portland, search for a new home, obtain a new driver's license, change my voter registration and enlist people to take care of our animals, and my husband, Dan, had to take a leave of absence from his job. The vast majority of families do not have the flexibility, resources and time to make all these changes.

I've had the medication for weeks. I am not suicidal. If I were, I would have consumed that medication long ago. I do not want to die. But I am dying. And I want to die on my own terms.

I would not tell anyone else that he or she should choose death with dignity. My question is: Who has the right to tell me that I don't deserve this choice? That I deserve to suffer for weeks or months in tremendous amounts of physical and emotional pain? Why should anyone have the right to make that choice for me?

Now that I've had the prescription filled and it's in my possession, I have experienced a tremendous sense of relief. And if I decide to change my mind about taking the medication, I will not take it.

Having this choice at the end of my life has become incredibly important. It has given me a sense of peace during a tumultuous time that otherwise would be dominated by fear, uncertainty and pain.

Now, I'm able to move forward in my remaining days or weeks I have on this beautiful Earth, to seek joy and love and to spend time traveling to outdoor wonders of nature with those I love. And I know that I have a safety net.

I plan to celebrate my husband's birthday on October 26 with him and our family. Unless my condition improves dramatically, I will look to pass soon thereafter.

I hope for the sake of my fellow American citizens that I'll never meet that this option is available to you. If you ever find yourself walking a mile in my shoes, I hope that you would at least be given the same choice and that no one tries to take it from you.

When my suffering becomes too great, I can say to all those I love, "I love you come be by my side, and come say goodbye as I pass into whatever's next." I will die upstairs in my bedroom with my husband, mother, stepfather and best friend by my side and pass peacefully. I can't imagine trying to rob anyone else of that choice.


Maynard, located on the Assabet River, was first settled as a farming community by Puritan colonists in the 1600s who acquired the land comprising modern-day Maynard from local Native American tribe members who referred to the area as Pompositicut or Assabet. [5] In 1651 Tantamous ("Old Jethro") transferred land in what is now Maynard to Herman Garrett by defaulting on a mortgaged mare and colt, and in 1684 Tantamous' son Peter Jethro, a praying Indian, and Jehojakim and ten others transferred further land in the area to the settlers. [6] In 1676 during King Philip's War, Native Americans gathered on Pompasitticut Hill (later known as Summer Hill) to plan an attack on Sudbury. [6] Residents of what is now Maynard fought in the Revolutionary War, including Luke Brooks of Summer Street who was in the Stow militia company which marched to Concord on April 19, 1775. [7] In 1851 transcendentalist Henry David Thoreau wrote about his walk through the area in his famous journal. [8] and he published a poem about Old Marlboro Road, part of which runs through Maynard. [9] During the American Civil War, at least thirty-six residents of Assabet Village fought for the Union. [6]

The area now known as Maynard was originally known as "Assabet Village" and was then part of the towns of Stow and Sudbury. [5] The Town of Maynard was incorporated as an independent municipality in 1871. There were some exploratory town-founding rumblings in 1870, followed by a petition to the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, filed January 26, 1871. State approval was granted April 19, 1871. In return, the new town paid Sudbury and Stow about $23,600 and $8,000 respectively. Sudbury received more money because more land came from Sudbury and Sudbury owned shares in the railroad, and the wool mill and paper mill were located in Sudbury. The population of the newly formed town – at 1,820 – was larger than either of its parent towns. [10]

Formation of new towns carved out of older ones was not unique to Maynard. Near-by Hudson, with its cluster of leather processing and shoe-making mills, seceded from Marlborough and Stow in 1866. In fact, the originally much larger Stow formed in 1683 lost land to Harvard, Shirley, Boxborough, Hudson and Maynard. The usual reason to petition the State's Committee on Towns was that a fast-growing population cluster – typically centered around mills – was too far from the schools, churches and Meeting Hall of the parent town. [11]

The community was named after Amory Maynard, the man who, with William Knight, had bought water-rights to the Assabet River, installed a dam and built a large carpet mill in 1846–47. The community grew along with the Assabet Woolen Mill and made wool cloth for U.S. military uniforms for the Civil War. Further downstream along the Assabet, the American Powder Mills complex manufactured gunpowder from 1835 to 1940. [12] The woolen mill went bankrupt in 1898 it was purchased in 1899 by the American Woolen Company, a multi-state corporation, which greatly modernized and expanded the mill complex from 1900 through 1919.

There was an attempt in 1902 to change the town's name from "Maynard" to "Assabet". Some townspeople were upset that Amory Maynard had not left the town a gift before he died in 1890, and more were upset that Lorenzo Maynard, Amory's son, had withdrawn his own money from the Mill before it went bankrupt in 1898. The Commonwealth of Massachusetts decided to keep the name as "Maynard" without allowing the topic to come to a vote by the residents. [6] [12]

In the early twentieth century, the village of Maynard was more modern and urbanized than many of the surrounding areas, and people would visit Maynard to shop, including Babe Ruth who lived in nearby Sudbury during the baseball off-season, and would visit Maynard to buy cigars and play pool at pool halls on Main Street. The town had a train station, an electric trolley, hotels and movie halls. [12]

In 1942 the U.S. Army seized one-fifth of the town's land area, from the south side, to created a munitions storage facility. Land owners were evicted. The land remained military property for years. In 2005 it became part of the Assabet River National Wildlife Refuge. [3] [13]

After the woolen mill finally shut down in 1950, a Worcester-based group of businessmen bought the property in July 1953 and began leasing it as office or manufacturing space. Major tenants included Raytheon and Dennison Manufacturing Company. Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) moved into the complex in 1957, initially renting only 8,680 square feet (806 m 2 ) for $300/month. The company grew and grew until it bought the entire complex in 1974, which led to Maynard's nickname "Mini Computer Capital of the World". DEC remained in Maynard until 1998 when it was purchased by Compaq, which was itself later bought out by Hewlett Packard in 2002. [14]

"The Mill", as locals call it, was renovated in the late 1990s and renamed "Clock Tower Place" (2000–2015), and then renamed "Mill & Main Place" by new owners in 2016. The site houses many businesses, including the headquarters of Powell Flutes. The mill complex is also home to the oldest, still-working, hand-wound clock in the country (see image). The clock tower was constructed in 1892 by Lorenzo Maynard as a gift to the town. The weights that power the E. Howard & Co. tower clock and bell-ringing mechanisms are wound up once a week – more than 6,000 times since the clock was installed. The process takes one to two hours. The four clock faces have always been illuminated by electric lights. [10] For three months a year the Mill parking lot adjacent to Main Street is used on Saturdays for the Maynard Community Farmers' Market. [15]

Glenwood Cemetery (incorporated 1871), located south of downtown Maynard, was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 2004. This still-active cemetery is the site of approximately 7,000 burials. On its east side it abuts St. Bridget's Cemetery, also in Maynard.

The Maynard Family Edit

John Maynard, born 1598, emigrated from England with his wife Elizabeth (Ashton) Maynard around 1635. Five generations later, Isaac Maynard was operating a mill in Marlborough. When he died in 1820 at age 41 his teenage son, Amory Maynard, took over the family business. The City of Boston bought Amory's water rights to Fort Meadow Pond in 1846. He partnered with William Knight to start up a woolen mill operation on the Assabet River. Amory and his wife Mary (Priest) Maynard had three sons: Lorenzo (1829–1904), William (1833–1906) and Harlan (1843–1861). Amory managed the mill from 1847 to 1885 (Knight retired in 1852). Lorenzo took over from 1885 to 1898. William had less to do with the family business – he lived in Boston a while, then Maynard again, then off to Pasadena, California, in 1885 for reasons of ill health (possibly tuberculosis). He recovered and moved back east to Worcester in 1888 for the remainder of his life. Harlan died at age 18. [10] [12]

Lorenzo married Lucy Davidson and had five children, but all of them died without issue – the four daughters passing away before their parents. William married Mary Adams and had seven children. Descendants of two – Harlan James and Lessie Louise – are alive today, but not living locally. William's granddaughter, Mary Augusta Sanderson, who died in 1947, was the last descendant to live in Maynard. [10] [12]

The Maynard Crypt is a prominent feature on the north side of Glenwood Cemetery, within sight of passers-by on Route 27. It is an imposing earth-covered mound with a granite facade facing the road. The mound is 90 feet (27 m) across and about 12 feet (4 m) tall. The stonework facade is approximately 30 feet (9 m) across. The ceiling of the crypt has a glass skylight surmounted by an exterior cone of iron grillwork. The granite lintel above the door reads "MAYNARD." Chiseled above the lintel are the year 1880 and the Greek letters Alpha and Omega entwined with a Fleur-de-lis Cross. Amory Maynard, his wife, Mary, and twenty-one of their descendants or spouses thereof are interred in the crypt. At one point in time Amory's first son, Lorenzo, along with Lorenzo's wife and their four daughters, were also in the crypt, but in October 1904 Lorenzo's son arranged to have his six family members moved to a newly constructed mausoleum in Mount Auburn Cemetery, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Lorenzo had contracted for the mausoleum while still alive but died before it was completed. William, Amory's second son, was buried in the Hope Cemetery, Worcester, along with his wife and four of their seven children. [12]

According to the United States Census Bureau, Maynard has a total area of 5.4 square miles (13.9 km 2 ), of which 5.2 square miles (13.6 km 2 ) is land and 0.1 square miles (0.3 km 2 ), or 2.42%, is water. Average elevation is roughly 200 feet (

61 m) above sea level the highest point is Summer Hill, elevation 358 feet (109.1 m) the lowest is the Maynard/Acton border next to the Assabet River, at 145 feet (44.2 m).

The Assabet River flows through Maynard from west to east, spanned by seven road bridges and one foot bridge. The river's vertical drop from the Stow border to the Acton border is 30 feet (9 m). Initially, this was sufficient to hydropower the wool and paper mills, but both later added coal-powered steam engines. Average flow in the river is 200 cubic feet per second (5.7 m 3 /s). However, in summer months the average drops to under 100 cubic feet per second (2.8 m 3 /s), in drought conditions as low as 10 cubic feet per second (0.28 m 3 /s) The flood of March 2010 reached 2,500 cubic feet per second (71 m 3 /s). Recent, monthly and annual riverflow data is available from the U.S. Geological Service. [16]

Average precipitation, long-term, is 43 inches (1,092 mm) per year, which includes 44 inches (112 cm) of snow. (The snow-to-water conversion is roughly eight inches of snow melts to one inch of water.) However, there has been a trend over the past 100 years of increasing precipitation, so the more recent average is closer to 50 inches per year (127 cm/year), and six of the snowiest winters on record have been since 1992–93.

Maynard borders the towns of Acton, Sudbury and Stow. The town owns water rights to White Pond, located about three miles south of Maynard, in Stow and Hudson. [17]

The nearest rail station is in South Acton on the MBTA Commuter Rail Fitchburg Line, which is 1 mile (1.6 km) from the Maynard town line. The express commuter rail is approximately 30 minutes to Porter Square in Cambridge and 45 minutes to North Station in Boston. By driving, the connection to Route 2 is 4 miles (6 km) from downtown Maynard. Connections to I-95 in the east and I-495 in the west are both 8 miles (13 km) from downtown Maynard.

Construction of a 3.4-mile (5.5 km) portion of the Assabet River Rail Trail was completed in September 2018. It runs from the South Acton train station at the north end, though the center of Maynard and along the Assabet River to the Maynard:Stow border, where, via White Pond Road, there is access to the Assabet River National Wildlife Refuge. ARRT is open to pedestrians and non-motorized transportation (skateboards, bicycles, rollerblades, etc.). [4]

Historical population
YearPop. ±%
Source: United States Census records and Population Estimates Program data. [1] [2] [18] [19] [20] [21] [22]

The 2019 census estimate put the population at 10,754 residents, a 6% increase from 2010. [1] There were 4,239 households, and 2,649 families residing in the town. The population density was 1,991 people per square mile (727/km 2 ). There were 4,239 housing units, at an average density of 785 per square mile (305/km 2 ). The racial makeup of the town was 92.4% White, 1.3% Black or African American, 0.1% Native American, 1.7% Asian, 2.8% from other races, and 1.7% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.7% of the population. [1]

From 2010 census results: For the households, 28.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.4% were married couples living together, 9.9% had a female householder with no husband present, and 34.5% were non-families. 30.7% of all households were made up of individuals, and 10.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.38 and the average family size was 3.03. The population distribution was 24.2% under the age of 19, 32.0% from 20 to 44, 30.9% from 45 to 64, and 12.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41.3 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.8 males. For every 100 females age 65 and over, there were 71.1 males. [2] By per capita income, Maynard ranked 113 out of 351 Massachusetts towns and cities, at $39,447. The median income for a household in the town was $77,622, and the median income for a family was $104,398. About 3.8% of families and 5.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 7.4% of those under age 18 and 6.0% of those age 65 or over. [2]

Maynard has three public schools on adjoining campuses off Route 117. There is also an adult education program. One private school offers a classical Christian education program for grades K through 8.

  • Green Meadow School: grades Pre-K through 3 2015–16 enrollment: 509 students building opened for start of 1956–57 school year major expansion 1988. [23]
  • Fowler School: grades 4 through 8 2015–16 enrollment: 427 students building opened January 2001. [24] : grades 9 through 12 2015–16 enrollment: 485 students Building opened for start of 2013–14 school year. [25]
  • Hudson Maynard Adult Learning Center offers free adult literacy classes: English Spoken with Other Languages (ESOL) and GED preparation classes. [26]
  • The Imago School teaches grades K through 8 enrollment: 90 students classical Christian education program opened in 1980. [27]

Maynard uses the Open Town Meeting form of town government popular in small to mid-sized Massachusetts towns. Anyone may attend a town meeting, but only registered voters may vote. Before the meeting, a warrant is distributed to households in Maynard and posted on the town's website. Each article in the warrant is debated and voted on separately. A minimum of 75 registered voters is required as a quorum to hold a town meeting and vote on town business. The quorum requirement was reduced from 100 in 2009 because at times, meetings were failing to achieve a quorum. Important budgetary issues approved at a town meeting must be passed by a subsequent ballot vote. Maynard's elected officials are a five-member Board of Selectmen. Each member is elected to a three-year term. Also filled by election are the School Committee, Housing Authority, Maynard Public Library Trustees and a Moderator to preside over the town meetings. Positions filled by appointment include the Town Administrator and other positions. Details of government are in the Maynard Town Charter and Town of Maynard Bylaws. [28]

State and federal government Edit

In the Massachusetts General Court, Maynard is represented by Rep. Kate Hogan and Sen. Jamie Eldridge. In the United States Congress, Maynard is represented by Rep. Lori Trahan in the House of Representatives. The state's senior (Class I) member of the United States Senate is Elizabeth Warren. The junior (Class II) senator is Ed Markey.

Behind the Lens: Contextualizing Hannah Maynard’s Photography Surrounding Indigenous Peoples

The imagery surrounding Indigenous peoples can provide remarkable insight into the often extremely flawed ideologies and perspectives belonging to the people creating these images. Through capturing images of Indigenous peoples, photographers indirectly showcase their attitudes and feelings towards Indigenous sitters. Hannah Maynard’s photographs of Indigenous people in the mid- to late-19th century reinforce the Noble Savage paradigm, reflect power inequity between photographer and subject, and showcase a lack of understanding of Indigenous culture reflective of the surrounding historical context [1]. By situating these images amongst other photographs surrounding Indigenous subjects in British Columbia and Quebec, as well as the political conditions surrounding Indigenous peoples, it becomes clear that photographs like Maynard’s reflect and assist in facilitating the oppression of Indigenous peoples.

Fig. 1: Hannah Maynard, Haida Washerwoman (1865-66), Photograph, Provincial Archives of British Columbia, Canada.

Hannah Maynard was born in Cornwall, England in 1834, married Richard Maynard at the age of eighteen and, shortly thereafter, settled in Bowmanville, in present day Ontario [2]. They quickly had four children before Richard temporarily left his family in pursuit of British Columbia gold [3]. During his absence, Maynard began to study photography, possibly under the R. and H. O’Hara photography, insurance and bookseller’s firm [4]. After her husband’s return, Maynard and her family relocated to Victoria where she set up her own photographic studio in 1862, becoming the first professional female photographer in British Columbia [5]. She became a prolific, varied and successful photographer, with newspapers hailing her as “industrious” and “persevering,” [6] and naming her a “leading photographer of Victoria," [7]. Throughout her career, Maynard’s work reflected technological and aesthetic innovation, as she experimented with composite images, multiple exposures and other new techniques [8]. Despite this aesthetic progressiveness, the content of Maynard’s work, particularly during her early career, reflects and reinforces problematic ideologies, which become most apparent in her creation of cartes-de-visite of Indigenous sitters.

Cartes-de-visite are small, 4” by 2½” photos mounted on calling cards, which became extremely popular in mid-19th century Europe and North-America [9]. The popularity of these cartes along with the low production cost made the sale of these pieces a lucrative business [10]. These products sold between $1.50 and $4.00 per dozen, representing a substantial cost considering that during this time, the male store clerk only earned eight dollars per week [11]. Therefore, these cartes became status symbols of the prosperous middle class [12]. In Victoria, they were sold mostly to tourists as keepsakes of their visit [13]. Generally, cartes-de-visite displayed various subject matter from family members to celebrities, but in Victoria, cartes-de-visite of Indigenous people were the most commonly produced and sold [14]. The British Columbia Provincial Museum, and the British Columbia Provincial Archives, have preserved 143 images of this nature created by at least five photographers in Victoria [15]. Of these, Maynard produced forty-two, making her one of the most prolific creators of these images at the time [16]. She positioned herself in an ideal place to make profit off these images, as they began to gain popularity the year she established her studio in 1862, and remained a lucrative business until the 1870s [17].

Of the many ways that Maynard’s images are problematic, the perpetuation of stereotypes surrounding Indigenous peoples is especially prominent. Maynard was one of the first photographers to isolate Indigenous sitters in studio images, and then re-photograph them onto photos of landscapes or Indigenous villages (fig 1 and 2) [18]. The resulting image portrayed a single Indigenous person often imposed on a vast landscape. Most prolific in this re-photography technique surrounding Indigenous subjects was Maynard’s contemporary, Benjamin Leeson [19]. Leeson was a photographer in British Columbia in the late 19th and early 20th century [20]. Working around the same time and in the same location as Maynard, their meeting would not be unlikely, and since they shared the same technique, they were certainly aware of each other’s work. Producing many images of this kind, Leeson’s photographs often included vast landscapes with a single Indigenous person, and a trace of the village, producing a feeling of isolation with the Indigenous person seeming to contemplate their disappearance [21]. These images are in direct alignment with the Noble Savage myth present in various forms of art [22].

The Noble Savage myth was a popular artistic motif showcasing Indigenous peoples’ calmness in the face of a supposedly “inevitable and pre-destined” decline of their culture as a result of the “superior” white settler culture [23]. One example directly adopting this ideology, “The Sunset of his Race” by Leeson, showcases an Indigenous man imposed on a vast landscape watching the sunset and appearing to contemplate the demise of his peoples (fig. 3). The title reinforces this representation, shedding light on Leeson’s intentional incorporation of this myth. The Noble Savage myth facilitated the forgetting of violence against Indigenous peoples, and enforced the myth of their “logically inevitable disappearance,” [24]. Not only did these images reflect the Romanticism of the Noble Savage myth pre-existent in other art, but their popularity assisted in solidifying this idea as emblematic of Western Canada [25]. Since these images were often sold to tourists as cartes-de-visite, they became symbols of the West when presented as proof of a visit to this territory [26].

Fig. 2:Hannah Maynard, Haida Mary (1865-66), Photograph, Provincial Archives of British Columbia, Canada.

Not only did the content of cartes-de-visite reinforce stereotypical ideas of Indigenous peoples, but the conditions of production further contributed to the deeply unequal power dynamic that existed between Indigenous sitter and white photographer [27]. Indigenous sitters posing for cartes-de-visite were usually paid a small amount or offered goods in a barter exchange [28]. However, Indigenous peoples were not the patrons of these images, and therefore, had no control over how they were being represented [29]. Moreover, this payment was often seen as an annoyance to white photographers [30]. Leeson complained that this payment was a hindrance, placing a damper “upon the enthusiasm that might otherwise lead me to make a great many more exposures than I do,” [31]. This attitude informs the context under which Maynard’s photos were likely created.

The subordination of Indigenous sitters is further highlighted in the way in which sitters were photographed. While white patrons in studio portraits most often stood or sat on a chair, twenty percent of the 143 preserved carte-de-visite images contain Indigenous peoples sitting on the studio floor, further highlighting the marginal status given to Indigenous peoples [32]. One example is Maynard’s image of Indigenous workers, who had likely been selling products on the street outside the studio, allowing Maynard to easily access this kind of portrayal (fig. 4) [33]. In this image, the high angle and the seated position of the Indigenous subjects render them small and subordinate. More, scholars suggest that there was not very much interaction between the subjects and the photographer, and very little information is recorded to shed light on the identities of the subjects [34].

Fig. 3: Benjamin Leeson, The Sunset of His Race (1913), Photograph, City of Vancouver Archives, Canada.

The lack of agency of Indigenous peoples over their own representation presents a power structure that is further complicated by the market for these photographs. As mentioned, white, middle-class tourists sought out these images as status symbols which were meant to be shared and presented to others as calling cards [35]. Presenting an image of an Indigenous person as a symbol of one’s own wealth showcases a dehumanization of Indigenous individuals. These images would communicate to other white people not only that the owner had enough money to travel to British Columbia, a land characterized by its supposed savageness, but to own a keepsake of a member of its “dying race,” [36]. Through these photos, imagery of Indigenous peoples was commercialized, further reinforcing power inequality as Indigenous people were reduced to symbols for white tourists to purchase.

Furthermore, as a result of the lack of Indigenous agency over representation, cartes-de-visite images present a blatant lack of understanding and respect surrounding Indigenous culture. Maynard had a preference for Haida imagery, often re-photographing the images on top of Haida villages without regard for the actual tribe the Indigenous subjects belonged to [37]. The disregard for the specificity of this individual and tribe becomes very apparent in this process, as the diversity of Indigenous culture was ignored. This lack of understanding of, and respect for, Indigenous culture was not isolated in British Columbia, but also reflected elsewhere in Canada.

Indigenous culture was not only simplified through photography, but this art form was also implicated in appropriation. William Notman, a prominent photographer in Montreal during the mid- to late-19th century, photographed many white sitters wearing Indigenous clothing and accessories [38]. This appropriation of Indigenous clothing not only demonstrates a lack of understanding and respect for Indigenous culture, but it further illustrates another phenomenon: the creation of Canadian identity through this imagery, and through the “othering” of Indigenous peoples [39]. An advertisement for the Notman studio illustrates the adoption of Indigenous imagery into the Canadian identity, stating that Indigenous props had the, “additional advantage of affording to friends at a distance an excellent idea of our Canadian winters, and of the following Canadian sports and out-door amusements,”[40]. By utilizing Indigenous imagery and activities as Canadian signifiers, Notman’s images further shed light on how Indigenous peoples were reduced to ideology, which white people were able to pick and choose from in order to assist in constructing Canadian identity [41].

While no evidence has been found to suggest Maynard photographed white sitters in Indigenous clothing, an attitude of appropriation and “othering” of Indigenous peoples is present in her work. The ideal of the Noble Savage was adopted by white tourists and became emblematic of Western Canadian ideology, while the specificity of Indigenous peoples was ignored [42]. Therefore, Maynard’s images highlight an idealization and commodification of Indigenous peoples and culture in order to make profit while rejecting the individual.

The white colonial gaze surrounding images of Indigenous persons is further highlighted by ethnographic efforts of the time. Again, it is highly likely that Maynard was aware of these efforts, considering she subscribed to four separate photography journals [43]. While she did not directly adopt this practice, it surely informed her attitude towards Indigenous peoples as subjects and types. Photographs of Indigenous people also served the purpose of documenting racial “types,” [44]. While no evidence has been found to suggest Maynard’s works directly and intentionally served this purpose, another photographer of Victoria demonstrates this initiative. George Dawson was a prolific photographer in British Columbia in the 19th century, and his main purpose was to conduct ethnographic surveys of Indigenous peoples [45]. Even going as far as unearthing graves to recover head shapes, Dawson’s pseudo-scientific work illustrates another power dynamic, establishing white settlers as students and Indigenous people as objects to be studied [46]. These images reflect the exotification of Indigenous peoples, as well as the salvage paradigm of documenting a dying race on this territory [47].

Cartes-de-visite began to decrease in popularity in the 1870s, as larger photographs became more popular [48]. Maynard accommodated to local markets, and moved towards landscape photography and on-site Indigenous documentation [49]. It would have been considered remarkably inappropriate and dangerous for a woman at this time to enter the wilderness of Victoria without being accompanied by a man [50]. Therefore, after teaching her husband photography, Maynard accompanied him on his photography expeditions around British Columbia [51]. Despite the change in photographic processes, these images were still bathed in flawed assumptions about Indigenous peoples. In her journal, Maynard’s notes illustrate how these trips were not void of problematic Indigenous stereotyping. She writes, “3 indians came up with nothing on but a piece of old blanket. However they did not kill me. We took three negatives [sic],” [52]. This description exposes the conditions and attitudes under which these images were taken. The photographs taken of Indigenous people on-site follow similar conventions as the carte-de-visite, often propagating the Noble Savage myth, and recording little information on photographic subjects [53].

10 of the Oldest Selfies of all Time

Selfies are not so modern as they might appear to be. People have been taking selfies for centuries. But at that time, they were referred to as ‘self-portraits.’ These artistic self-portraits first started with paintings and then moved on to being taken by the first cameras. We bring to you 10 of the oldest selfies of all times that are taken with cameras. These selfies play a significant role in helping us understand how the photography world has developed over the years.

1. A self-portrait taken by Robert Cornelius in 1839 has been officially declared as the world’s oldest selfie. The words “the first light picture ever taken” were written on the back of his photo.

World’s oldest selfie by Robert Cornelius (1839). Image Credit: Wikipedia

Robert Cornelius is a pioneer in the history of American photography. His parents were immigrants from Amsterdam and his father was a silversmith who later opened a lamp manufacturing company. When Cornelius finished school, he started working for his father. He became an expert in silver plating and metal polishing. His work became so famous that when the daguerreotype, the first ever photography process, was invented, he was approached by Joseph Saxton. Saxton, an American inventor and photographer, wanted him to create a silver plate for his daguerreotype. This sparked an interest in photography in Cornelius.

Cornelius had a keen interest in chemistry while he was at school, so, he combined his chemistry knowledge with the metallurgy experience and worked towards improving the daguerreotype. At the age of 30, he took a self-portrait outside their family shop. The year was 1839, and this image was the first ever self-portrait. Cornelius had to sit motionless for about 10-15 minutes for the imprint to take place on the exposure. (source)

2. Hippolyte Bayard’s self-portraits were well-known in the 1840s. He created his first staged photograph entitled “Self Portrait as a Drowned Man” in 1840 as a response to the injustice subjected to him when he was persuaded by a friend to not declare his photography technique costing him the recognition as one of the principal inventors of photography.

Self-Portrait as a Drowned Man by Hippolyte Bayard (1840). Image Credit: Wikipedia

Hippolyte Bayard is another pioneer in the history of photography. He was a French photographer and invented his own technique to take print photographs. His method consisted of the production of direct positive paper prints in the camera itself. On June 24, 1839, he became the first person to hold a public photography exhibition. He also claims to have invented photography before Louis-Jacques Mandé Daguerre of France and Englishman William Henry Fox Talbot, the two men who are hailed as the inventors of photography.

Bayard’s photo-developing method involved exposing silver chloride paper to light. This turned the paper to black. The black paper was then soaked in potassium iodide before being exposed in a camera. After the exposure, it was washed in a solution of hyposulfite of soda and left to dry.

Bayard wanted to take his technique to the French Academy of Sciences, but he was persuaded by François Arago, a friend of Louis Daguerre the inventor of the daguerreotype process, to postpone it. Because of the delay, Bayard lost his chance to be recognized as one of the principal photography inventors. In response to this injustice to which he was subjected, he created his masterpiece “Self Portrait as a Drowned Man” in 1840. (source)

3. Jean-Gabriel Eynard was one of the first Swiss people to use the daguerreotype photography technique. He created numerous self-portraits in the 1840s making him one of the pioneers of the modern-day selfie.

Jean-Gabriel Eynard’s self-portraits dating back to 1847 (left), 1851 (middle), and 1853 (right). Image Credit: Wikipedia, Wikipedia, Wikipedia

Jean-Gabriel Eynard was one of the first enthusiasts of the daguerreotype method of photography. He started using the daguerreotype in 1839. This made him one of the first people in Switzerland to use this method of photography. He kept his passion alive until he breathed his last in 1863.

The pictures above are a few of his self-portraits. (source)

4. Henri-Jacques-Edouard Evenepoel was a Belgian artist whose self-portrait using a mirror dates back to 1897-1898.

Henri Evenepoel, the Belgian painter taking a selfie in 1898. Image Credit: New York Post

Henri-Jacques-Edouard Evenepoel was an artist from Belgian, well known for his artworks related to Fauvism. Fauvism refers to the painting style of a group of modern artists of the 20th century. These particular group of artists emphasized vibrant and colorful artistic styles as opposed to the representational or realistic styles prevalent at that time.

But this Belgian painter was not just constrained to paintings. Evenepoel experimented with camera selfies and seriously considered them as a form of artistic expression. The picture above is a selfie Evenepoel took around 1897-1898. (1, 2)

5. Hannah Maynard used an exposure trick in photography to give the impression that there are many of her in her self-portraits. These multiple-exposure self-portraits were created by her around 1893.

Five shots of Hannah Maynard in one frame using multiple exposures (1893). Image Credit: Wikipedia

Hannah Maynard was active in the late 1800s, primarily around 1893. She was the first official photographer for the Victoria Police Department. She is famous for the eccentric self-portraits that depicted multiples of her in the same self-portrait. Like in the above photograph, there are five of her in the same frame! The trick is the utilization of multiple exposures. Maynard seemed to have exceeded the abilities of the cameras available during that time.

Hannah Maynard’s self-portrait with three of her in it captured using multiple exposures. Image Credit: Wikipedia

In the above photograph, two of her are depicted, dressed in identical Victorian clothing and having tea. Also, there seems to be a painting of her too on the wall, pouring tea over one of the seated Hannahs. Seems she had a mischievous side apart from her brilliant knowledge on multiple exposures! (1, 2)

“Died.” Weekly Chronicle [Saint John] 22 Mar. 1844: 3.

King, D.S. History of the North Russell Street M.E. Church & Sabbath School: With a Brief Account of St. John’s Church at the Odeon. Boston: J.P. Magee, 1861.

Lochhead, Douglas. “Thompson, Hannah Maynard (Pickard).” Dictionary of Canadian Biography. Vol. 7. Toronto: U of Toronto P, 1988. 853-54.

“Married.” New Brunswick Courier [Saint John] 16 Oct. 1841: 3.

“Pickard, Hannah Maynard Thompson.” SFU Digitized Collections. 2016. Simon Fraser U. 15 Oct. 2019 <>.

Rose, George MacLean. “Pickard, Rev. Humphrey.” A Cyclopaedia of Canadian Biography: Being Chiefly Men of the Time: A Collection of Persons Distinguished in Professional and Political Life. Vol 2. Toronto: Rose Publishing Co., 1888. 140-42.

Sherman, David. History of the Wesleyan Academy, in Wilbraham, Mass. 18171890. Boston: The McDonald & Gill Co., 1893.

Watters, Reginald Eyre. A Checklist of Canadian Literature and Background Materials, 16281960. 2nd ed. Toronto: U of Toronto P, 1972. 366.

Census records can tell you a lot of little known facts about your Maynard Menard ancestors, such as occupation. Occupation can tell you about your ancestor's social and economic status.

There are 3,000 census records available for the last name Maynard Menard. Like a window into their day-to-day life, Maynard Menard census records can tell you where and how your ancestors worked, their level of education, veteran status, and more.

There are 642 immigration records available for the last name Maynard Menard. Passenger lists are your ticket to knowing when your ancestors arrived in the USA, and how they made the journey - from the ship name to ports of arrival and departure.

There are 1,000 military records available for the last name Maynard Menard. For the veterans among your Maynard Menard ancestors, military collections provide insights into where and when they served, and even physical descriptions.

There are 3,000 census records available for the last name Maynard Menard. Like a window into their day-to-day life, Maynard Menard census records can tell you where and how your ancestors worked, their level of education, veteran status, and more.

There are 642 immigration records available for the last name Maynard Menard. Passenger lists are your ticket to knowing when your ancestors arrived in the USA, and how they made the journey - from the ship name to ports of arrival and departure.

There are 1,000 military records available for the last name Maynard Menard. For the veterans among your Maynard Menard ancestors, military collections provide insights into where and when they served, and even physical descriptions.

Take a Peep at This Gallery of Historic Selfies

The first-ever photograph was a still life. But it wasn’t long until people were taking pictures of one another.

Related Content

“Portraits were the most commonly produced type of photographs in the first decades of photography, comprising an estimated 95% of surviving daguerreotypes,” writes Kandice Rawlings for the Oxford University Press blog.

Selfies–especially given the fact that there was already a long artistic tradition of painted self-portraits–were an obvious next step. The early history of photography, like photography today, includes both beautiful self-portraits and technically questionable mirror selfies. Take a look:

(Library of Congress via Wikimedia Commons)

First photographic selfie: Robert Cornelius

This photograph, taken in October or November 1839 (just months after Daguerre announced his invention of the daguerreotype) is believed to be the earliest American portrait, as well as the first American selfie, according to the Library of Congress. Many believe it to be the first-ever selfie.

Robert Cornelius, the subject of the image, took the picture out-of-doors near his family's Philadelphia home. Looking at the image, it's easy to imagine him standing in front of his jury-rigged camera for the required exposure time of between three and 15 minutes, wondering "will this work?"

With such a long exposure time, early daguerreotypes were a poor choice for portraiture. But technological developments resulted in daguerreotype portrait studios becoming a craze of the 1840s and 1850s.

(The J. Paul Getty Museum )

Jean-Gabriel Eynard takes an early self-portrait 

Jean-Gabriel Eynard was an amateur daguerreotypist who worked from the early 1840s until he died in 1863. In that time, he documented everyday life and people around him, writes Allison Meier for Hyperallergic

"Eynard often jumped in front of the camera himself, sometimes posing with daguerreotypes he'd previously taken, sometimes standing in his shiny top hat alongside his impressive 'Palais Maynard' home or a more humble ox-cart," she writes. Both his top hat and a previous daguerreotype can be seen on the table he rests his elbow on in this 1847 image. 

Hannah Maynard's multiple-exposure selfie, circa 1893 (Wikimedia Commons)

Hannah Maynard takes a trick selfie

Hannah Maynard, a Canadian portrait photographer, used multiple exposures and other tricks in her self-portraits to give the impression there were many of her in the same space. Maynard's interest in this kind of image-making stemmed from an interest in Spiritualism, beginning in the 1880s. It was sparked by the deaths of two of her children, writes Susanna McLeod for the Kingston Whig-Standard

But Maynard was far from the only one to experiment in self-portrait trickery in the early days of photography. Perhaps the first trick self-portrait was taken by a man named Hippolyte Bayard in 1840. Bayard used the photographic process he invented–known as the direct positive process–to create an image of himself as a drowned man. He was implying that he had committed suicide after the French government funded Louis Daguerre's research but not his own.

Hippolyte Bayard's "drowned man" selfie (Wikimedia Commons)

An unidentified woman takes an early mirror selfie

This mirror selfie taken around 1900 raises a lot of questions: who was the woman who took it? Was she the same person who took the numerous photographs displayed on the shelf to her left? Nobody knows. 

Unidentified woman's "mirror selfie" (Wikimedia Commons)
About Kat Eschner

Kat Eschner is a freelance science and culture journalist based in Toronto.

Watch the video: HANNAH MAYNARD at RAW:Long Beach Discovery 03072013 (August 2022).