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Barber DE-161 - History

Barber DE-161 - History


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Barber

(DE161: dp. 1400; 1. 306'; b. 36'10"; dr. 13'6"; s. 24
k.; cpl. 186; a. 3 3", 3 21" TT.; cl. Buckley)

Barber (DE-161) was launched 20 May 1943 by Norfolk Navy Yard, sponsored by Mrs. Peter Barber, mother of the Barber brothers; commissioned 10 October 1943, Lieutenant E. T. B. Sullivan in command; and reported to the Atlantic Fleet.

Between December 1943 and October 1944 Barber escorted convoys in the Atlantic, completing three transAtlantic crossings to North Africa. For a brief, but rewarding, period 124 March-11 May 1944) she served as a unit of hunter killer TO 21.15 (Croatian Group). On 26 April Barber Joined Frost (DE~144), Huse (DE-145) and Snowdenr" ( DE-246) to sink the German submarine U 488 in 17°54' N., 38°05'W.

On 9 October 1944 Barber entered Philadelphia Navy Yard for conversion to a high speed transport. Her designation was changed to APD-57, 23 October 1944. Upon completion of her reconstruction she remained on the east coast for a short period of time and then proceeded to the Pacific, arriving at Pearl Harbor 26 March 1945. On 30 April she arrived at Ulithi, Caroline Islands, and then departed 5 May as a convoy escort to support the invasion of Okinawa. She remained at Okinawa on patrol until 4 July.

Between July and November 1945 she performed the duties of a convoy escort and patrol vessel throughout the islands of the Western Pacific and Japan. Departing the Far East 21 November, Barber steamed to the east coast of the United States for pre-inactivation overhaul. She was placed out of commission in reserve at Green Cove Springs, Fla., 22 May 1946.

Barber received two battle stars for her World War II service.


Barber DE-161 - History

FOUNDED SCHOOL OF SURGERY
In the middle of the 13th century, the barber companies of Paris, known as the Brotherhoods of St. Cosmos and St. Domain, founded the first school ever known for the systematic instruction of barbers in the practice of surgery. This school was later enlarged and became the model for schools of surgery during the Middle Ages.

Many of the foremost surgeons of the times were students of the School of St. Cosmos and St. Domain. The establishment of this school was one of the greatest contributions ever made toward the progress of humanity. The oldest barber organization in the world, still known in London as the "Worshipful Company of Barbers," was established in 1308. Richard le Barbour, as the Master of the Barbers, was given supervision over the whole of his trade in London. Once a month he had to go the rounds and

SHAVED HEADS AND BEARDS
In Egypt, many centuries before Christ, barbers were prosperous and highly respected. The ancient monuments and papyrus show that the Egyptians shaved their beards and their heads. The Egyptian priests even went so far as to shave the entire body every third day. At this time the barbers carried their tools in open-mouthed baskets and their razors were shaped like small hatchets and had curved handles. The Bible tells us that when Joseph was summoned to appear before Pharaoh, a barber was sent for to shave Joseph, so that Pharaoh's sight would not be offended by a dirty face.

In Greece, barbers came into prominence as early as the fifth century, BC. These wise men of Athens rivaled each other in the excellence of their beards. Beard trimming became an art and barbers became leading citizens. Statesmen, poets and philosophers, who came to have their hair cut or their beards trimmed or curled and scented with costly essences, frequented their shops. And, incidentally, they came to

ALLIANCE DISSOLVED
As the science of medicine, surgery and dentistry advanced, the barbers became less and less capable of performing the triple functions of barber-surgeon-dentist. The surgeons wished to be separated entirely from the barbers and they petitioned parliament to sever the ancient relationship of the barbers and surgeons and compel each profession to adhere strictly to its own provinces. A committee was appointed by parliament to investigate the matter and the petition was favorably reported to parliament. By an act of parliament, which received the sanction of the king, the alliance between the barbers and surgeons was dissolved in June, 1745. Two separate companies were formed and the property, formerly owned by the barbers and surgeons jointly, was divided among the two companies.

PROFESSION DECLINES
This marked the decline of the barber profession. Similar action was taken in France under the reign of Louis XIV. Toward the end of the 18th century the barbers of Europe had completely relinquished their right to perform any of the operations of surgery and dentistry, except in the small towns and out-of-the-way places where doctors and dentists were not obtainable.

After the barbers were prohibited from practicing medicine, surgery and dentistry, they became mere mechanics and servants, subject to the whims of fashion. When wigs became the fashion during the 18th and part of the 19th century, barbers became wigmakers. Their profession had lost its ancient dignity and barbers had become laborers, instead of professional men. In England, America and all over the civilized world, the decline of the barber was a spectacle for all to see. Barber shops became hangouts, places where low characters assembled. Smutty stories, malicious scandal and gossip of all kinds characterized barber shops until a few years ago. A barber shop was a place where men showed their lower instincts and where women dared not enter.

AN UPWARD TREND
Late in the nineteenth century there were several noteworthy events in the barber profession that gave it an upward trend, and the effects are still carrying onward and upward. How long it will be before the barber may be looked up to as a professional man, taking his place by the side of the dentist, chiropodist, chiropractor and other kindred professions, cannot be foretold, but it would seem both the public and the profession are ready for better things.

In 1893, A. B. Moler of Chicago, established a school for barbers. This was the first institution of its kind in the world, and its success was apparent from its very start. It stood for higher education in the ranks, and the parent school was rapidly followed by branches in nearly every principle city of the United States. In the beginning of schools, simply the practical work of shaving, haircutting, facial treatments, etc., was taught as neither the public nor the profession were ready to accept scientific treatments of hair, skin and scalp. Not until about 1920 was much effort made to professionalize the work.

In 1450, the Guild of Surgeons was incorporated with the Barbers Company by act of parliament. Barbers were restricted to bloodletting, toothdrawing, cauterization and the tonsorial operations. However the board of governors, regulating the operations of the surgeons and barber-surgeons, consisted of two surgeons and two barbers. Every time a surgeon was given a diploma entitling him to practice his profession, the diploma had to be signed by two barbers as well as two surgeons. The surgeons resented this, but the barbers were very much favored by the monarchs and preserved their privileges until the middle of the 18th century. Henry VIII, Charles II and Queen Anne presented the barber-surgeons with valuable gifts and raised many of them to high offices. Under a clause in the Act of Henry VIII, the Barber-Surgeons were entitled to receive every year the bodies of four criminals who had been executed. The dissections were performed four times a year in the Barber-Surgeons Hall which still stands in London.

ASSISTANTS TO CLERGY
During the first centuries of the Christian era, the barbers of Europe practiced their profession wherever it was the custom to shave the face and trim the beard. Charlemagne made long, flowing hair the fashion, but each new conqueror changed the fashion according to his whim and personal needs. During the first ten centuries after Christ, the great majority of the people and even the nobles were uneducated and could neither read nor write. The most learned people of the times were the monks and priests who became the physicians of the dark ages. There were no professional surgeons at that time. Most of the diseases, which are easily curable now, were fatal then. "Bloodletting" was the popular method of curing all ills. The clergy who enlisted barbers as their assistants first performed this. This was the first step in the upward progress of the barber profession. Barbers continued to act as assistants to the physician-clergy, until the 12th century. At the council of Tours in 1163, the clergy were forbidden to draw blood or to act as physicians and surgeons on the grounds that it was sacrilegious for

In 1416 an ordinance was passed forbidding barbers from taking under their care any sick person in danger of death or maiming, unless within three days after being called in, they presented the patient to one of the masters of the Barber-Surgeon's Guild. Until 1461 the barbers were the only persons practicing surgery. The practice of surgery was still in its primitive stage, but new discoveries were being made regularly and the barbers found it impossible to keep up with the new discoveries and at the same time maintain their skill in dentistry and barbering. The surgeons began to forge to the front and became increasingly jealous of the privileges accorded the barbers. But for a long time they could do nothing to prevent the barbers from acting as surgeons.

rebuke any barbers whom he found acting disgracefully or entering on other trades less reputable. The master of a city company not only had this power, but he successfully prevented unauthorized persons from practicing the barber profession.

The Barbers Guild of the 14th Century was undoubtedly more powerful than any of the modern unions. The king and council sanctioned the Guilds and so they could enforce their regulations. It was not uncommon for violators of Guild regulations to suffer prison terms for their misdemeanors.

BARBERS AS SURGEONS
Up to the year 1416, the barbers were not interfered with in the practice of surgery and dentistry. But it was soon evident that they were attempting too much. It was impossible to expect ordinary human beings to competently practice surgery, dentistry and the various tonsorial operations. People began to complain that the barber-surgeons were making them sick instead of well. Many barber-surgeons resorted to quackery in order to cover up their ignorance of medicine and anatomy. These abuses came to the attention of the mayor and council of London.

ORIGIN OF BARBER POLE
The barber pole’s colors are a legacy of a (thankfully) long-gone era when people went to barbers not just for a haircut or shave but also for bloodletting and other medical procedures. During the Middle Ages bloodletting, which involves cutting open a vein and allowing blood to drain, was a common treatment for a wide range of maladies, from sore throat to plague. Monks, who often cared for the sick, performed the procedure, and barbers, given their skill with sharp instruments, sometimes provided assistance. After Pope Alexander III in 1163 prohibited clergymen from carrying out the procedure, barbers added bloodletting—something physicians of the day considered necessary but too menial to do themselves–to their repertoires. Known as barber-surgeons, they also took on such tasks as pulling teeth, setting bones and treating wounds. Ambroise Pare, a 16th-century Frenchman considered the father of modern surgery, started his career as a barber-surgeon.

discuss the news of the day, because the barber shops of ancient Greece were the headquarters for social, political, and sporting news. The importance of the tonsorial art in Greece may be gathered from the fact that a certain prominent Greek was defeated for office because his opponent had a more neatly trimmed beard.

In the third century, BC, the Macedonians under Alexander the Great began their conquest of Asia and lost several battles to the Persians who grabbed the Macedonians by their beards, pulled them to the ground and speared them. This resulted in a general order by Alexander that all soldiers be clean-shaven. The civilians followed the example of the soldiers and beards lost their vogue. Barbers were unknown in Rome until 296 BC, when Ticinius Mena came to Rome from Sicily and introduced shaving. Shaving soon became the fashion and the barber shop became the gathering place for the Roman dandies. No people were better patrons of the barbers than the Romans. They often devoted several hours each day to tonsorial operations, which included shaving, hair cutting, hairdressing, massaging, manicuring and the application of rare ointments and cosmetics of unknown formulas. The great ladies of Rome always had a hairdresser among their slaves and the rich nobles had private tonsors, as they were then called. Barbers were so highly prized that a statue was erected to the memory of the first barber of Rome.

When Hadrian became emperor, beards became the fashion again -- and for a very good reason. Hadrian had a face covered with warts and scars. He allowed his beard to grow to cover these blemishes. The people of Rome imitated the emperor and grew beards whether they needed them or not.

The fashion changed again to clean-shaven faces. We know that Caesar was clean-shaven. As we will see repeated in history many times, the leaders of the state were the leaders of fashion and the people were always ready to follow the prevailing styles. There are many passages in the Bible referring to the barber profession. Moses commanded that all who recovered from leprosy should be shaved. This was done as a health precaution, because throughout history the Jews have honored the beard as a badge of manhood. To this day, the orthodox Jews have little respect for clean-shaven men. During periods of mourning, the ancient Jews allowed their beards to go untrimmed, but ordinarily their beards were trimmed regularly. The prophet Ezekiel refers to an ancient custom in these words: "Take thou a barber's razor and cause it to pass upon thy head and upon thy beard." The razors of those days were made of flint and oyster shells.

FIRST BARBER ORGANIZATION
The earliest known organization of barbers was formed in 1096 in France when William, archbishop of Rouen, prohibited the wearing of a beard. The barber-surgeon, or chirurgeons, began to thrive all over Europe. They were the doctors of the times and the royalty as well as the common people came to the barbers to have their ills treated as well as for shaving and haircutting. The physicians proper were in continual conflict with the barber-surgeons. The barbers embraced dentistry as well as surgery and this brought down on them the enmity of the dentists of the times. This caused a long strife, whose settlement required the interference of kings and councils. Followed between the barbers and the regular surgeon-dentists. But the barbers retained the privilege of practicing dentistry and surgery for several centuries.

The look of the barber pole is linked to bloodletting, with red representing blood and white representing the bandages used to stem the bleeding. The pole itself is said to symbolize the stick that a patient squeezed to make the veins in his arm stand out more prominently for the procedure. In Europe, barber poles traditionally are red and white, while in America, the poles are red, white and blue. One theory holds that blue is symbolic of the veins cut during bloodletting, while another interpretation suggests blue was added to the pole as a show of patriotism and a nod to the nation’s flag.

By the mid-1500s, English barbers were banned from providing surgical treatments, although they could continue extracting teeth. Both barbers and surgeons, however, remained part of the same trade guild until 1745. While bloodletting largely fell out of favor with the medical community in the 19th century, it’s still used today to treat a small number of conditions.

HISTORY OF BARBERING

The word "barber" comes from the Latin word "barba," meaning beard. It may surprise you to know that the earliest records of barbers show that they were the foremost men of their tribe. They were the medicine men and the priests. But primitive man was very superstitious and the early tribes believed that both good and bad spirits, which entered the body through the hairs on the head, inhabited every individual. The bad spirits could only be driven out of the individual by cutting the hair, so various fashions of hair cutting were practiced by the different tribes and this made the barber the most important man in the community. In fact, the barbers in these tribal days arranged all marriages and baptized all children. They were the chief figures in the religious ceremonies. During these ceremonies, the hair was allowed to hang loosely over the shoulders so that the evil spirits could come out. After the dancing, the long hair was cut in the prevailing fashion by the barbers and combed back tightly so that the evil spirits could not get in or the good spirits get out.

This rule by barbers was a common thing in ancient Asia. In fact, wherever there were legends and superstitions about the hair, the barbers flourished. To this day in India, the veneration of the hair continues and those who cut and dress the hair are important characters.

ministers of God to draw blood from the human body. The barbers took up the duties relinquished by the clergy and the era of barber-surgeons began. The connection between barbery and surgery continued for more than six centuries and the barber profession reached its pinnacle during this time.


USS Barber (DE 161)

USS Barber (DE 161) was laid down on 27 April 1943 at Portsmouth, Virginia, by the Norfolk Navy Yard and launched on 24 May 1943. However, because the sponsor, Mrs. Peter Thomas Barber, the mother of the Barber brothers, could not be present at the launching of the ship, Barber's christening was delayed until the day of her commissioning—10 October 1943—when the two ceremonies were held simultaneously. Mrs. Barber christened the ship and she was placed in commission, Lt. Eugene T. B. Sullivan in command.

Following shakedown training off Bermuda, the destroyer escort was assigned convoy duty along the Atlantic coast. She escorted troopships to Panama as her first duty and, on her return trip northward, escorted the crippled New Zealand light cruiser HMNZS Leander to Boston. Although they arrived in Boston on 23 December, Barber could not spend Christmas in port. Instead, she pulled out of the harbor on Christmas Day and headed for North Africa escorting a convoy of 95 merchantmen. She arrived in Casablanca, French Morocco, after an uneventful transatlantic crossing. While waiting for a return convoy, she patrolled the Strait of Gibraltar for several days in search of German submarines. After another uneventful voyage, the ship left the convoy at Norfolk and continued on to the New York Navy Yard.

She spent most of February and March 1944 performing escort duties between New York and Norfolk and, then, on 24 March, received orders to join an antisubmarine "hunter killer" group built around USS Croatan (CVE 26) and joined by four other destroyer escorts. Formed to hunt German U boats, the group recorded its first success on 26 April when the escorts teamed up to sink the German submarine U 488. Relieved by another hunter killer group, Barber's unit headed for home on 11 May. After a brief availability at the New York Navy Yard and two weeks of maneuvers at Casco Bay, Maine, Barber resumed her convoy escort duties. She made two more transatlantic voyages to North Africa before October 1944 but did not encounter any enemy ships.

On 9 October, Barber entered the Philadelphia Navy Yard for conversion to a high speed transport. Although she was reclassified APD 57 on 23 October, she did not complete the preparations for her new role until January 1945. On the 17th, she left Philadelphia and proceeded to Norfolk's convoy escort piers. For a month, the fast transport served as "school ship" for crews of APD's not yet commissioned. Each day she got underway to train these crews in evolutions such as fueling, gunfire, target tracking, and other combat procedures.

On George Washington's Birthday, the warship steamed out of Norfolk bound for the Pacific and her first combat duty as a high speed transport. After a short stay in San Diego, she continued on westward and arrived at Pearl Harbor on 26 March. The fast transport then conducted specialized training at Maui with underwater demolition teams (UDT's). The mission of such teams was to destroy obstacles on landing beaches, and APD's such as Barber delivered these teams to the areas four or five days before the actual invasion. Just two days after receiving word of President Franklin D. Roosevelt's 12 April death, she sailed via Eniwetok for Ulithi.

Barber arrived there on 30 April and spent five days preparing for front line duty at Okinawa. She departed the safety of Ulithi with a merchant convoy on 5 May and continually felt the presence of the enemy through possible submarine contacts, floating mines, and radio message traffic emanating from Okinawa. The high-speed transport anchored in Hagushi Anchorage on 10 May and, throughout the daylight hours, heard not a sound from the Japanese. However, with sunset, the Japanese air attacks began in earnest.

On 11 May, Barber received orders to assist USS Hugh W. Hadley (DD 774) on a radar picket station north of the anchorage. That destroyer had been hit by two kamikaze planes and two bombs. Barber mustered all the hands she could spare to help evacuate the injured from Hugh W. Hadley and then to work on saving the damaged warship. The fast transport assumed picket duty north of Ie Shima on the 12th. The enemy never came close by air but, on 15 May, Barber picked up four Japanese soldiers in a raft and later transferred them to an Army boat for internment in an Okinawa camp.

Barber's good luck continued to hold. Every picket station on which she served had been the scene of a casualty either immediately before her duty there or would become one soon after she departed. On 20 May, the Japanese directed a massive force of midget submarines, mines and kamikaze planes at the Allied naval forces. Barber pursued two midget submarines and evaluated one as a "probable kill." The high speed transport continued on patrol, enduring nightly general quarters alarms for Japanese air raids. On 14 June, she captured three more prisoners. On the evening of 16 June, while Barber stood rescue-ship watch at anchor off Hagushi, USS Twiggs (DD 591) suffered a hit by air raiders and sank within an hour. Barber rushed to the area immediately to search for survivors. The fast transport worked through the night assisting in the rescue of the 188 sailors who survived before returning to the anchorage early the next morning.

Released from duty at Okinawa on Independence Day 1945, Barber joined a convoy of four other escorts and 32 LST's headed for Saipan. One day out of Saipan, Barber received orders to accompany a part of the convoy to Guam. Her new course took her across the routes used by American B 29 bombers headed for the Japanese mainland. On 9 July, the fast transport witnessed the crash of a returning bomber. Barber raced to the site and, despite fears of complete destruction, a raft appeared some 20 miles in the distance. Closer investigation revealed that the raft held all 11 members of the bomber's crew. The fast transport took them to Guam the next day.

Barber remained at Guam until 21 July when she sailed for Ulithi escorting escort carrier USS Salamaua (CVE 96). She continued on to Leyte Gulf where she screened battleships USS Texas (BB 35) and USS Mississippi (BB-41) on 8, 9 and 10 August and then returned to Leyte to await further orders. While there, the news of Japan's capitulation reached Barber and she headed for Okinawa escorting Mississippi and her sistership USS Idaho (BB 42). Arriving on 21 August, she departed the next day for a brief visit to Manila Bay. On 2 September, the fast transport commenced three weeks of duty in Subic Bay, at the conclusion of which she moved to Lingayen Gulf to join Transport Division (TransDiv) 20. From there, she led a procession of 20 transports for occupation duty. The group entered Wakanoura Bay at Honshu on 7 October and passed three slow weeks while minesweepers cleared a channel to Nagoya. Finally, TransDiv 20 was able to enter the channel safely while Barber remained behind to control the harbor entrance.

After another three weeks of screening incoming and outgoing ships, the transport received welcome orders to load passengers to capacity and return home. On 21 November, she embarked on the long voyage home. After steaming via Sasebo, Eniwetok, Pearl Harbor, San Diego, and Panama, Barber returned to the east coast for pre-inactivation overhaul. The fast transport was decommissioned on 22 May 1946 and was berthed with the reserve fleet at Green Cove Springs, Fla., where she remained for more than two decades. Her name was struck from the Navy list on 27 November 1968, and she was sold to the government of Mexico on 22 December 1969. Renamed ARM Coahuila (B07) she served until 1994, after which she was briefly-renamed Vincente Guerrero. She ultimately served until 16 July 2001, when she was decommissioned and stricken from the rolls of the Mexican Navy. Her ultimate fate is unknown.

Barber received three battle stars for her World War II service. [1]

This article incorporates text from the Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships, a work in the public domain.


Lịch sử hoạt động [ sửa | sửa mã nguồn ]

Mặt trận Đại Tây Dương [ sửa | sửa mã nguồn ]

Sau khi hoàn tất chuyến đi chạy thử máy huấn luyện tại khu vực Bermuda, Barber đảm nhiệm hộ tống vận tải dọc bờ biển Đại Tây Dương. Nó lên đường đi sang khu vực kênh đào Panama hộ tống một đoàn tàu vận tải chuyển quân, và trong chặng quay trở về đã hộ tống cho tàu tuần dương hạng nhẹ New Zealand HMNZS Leander bị hư hại trong chiến đấu đi đến Xưởng hải quân Boston để sửa chữa. Đi đến Boston vào ngày 23 tháng 12, nó không được dịp nghỉ lễ Giáng sinh trong cảng, nhưng phải khởi hành ngay ngày 25 tháng 12 để hộ tống một đoàn tàu vận tải gồm 95 tàu buôn hướng sang Bắc Phi. Sau khi đi đến Casablanca, Morocco thuộc Pháp, con tàu tuần tra chống tàu ngầm tại eo biển Gibraltar trong nhiều ngày trước khi tham gia một đoàn tàu vận tải cho hành trình quay trở về Hoa Kỳ. Α]

Sau khi thực hiện một chuyến hộ tống vận tải khác, Barber quay trở về Norfolk, Virginia và tiếp tục đi đến Xưởng hải quân New York. Nó dành phần lớn thời gian trong tháng 2 và tháng 3, 1944 làm nhiệm vụ hộ tống vận tải dọc bờ biển giữa New York và Norfolk, rồi đến ngày 24 tháng 3 được điều động gia nhập Đội đặc nhiệm 21.15, một đội tìm-diệt tàu ngầm được hình thành chung quanh tàu sân bay hộ tống Croatan (CVE-25) cùng bốn tàu khu trục hộ tống khác. Đơn vị này lập được chiến công vào ngày 26 tháng 4, khi Barber phối hợp cùng với Frost (DE-144), Huse (DE-145) và Snowden (DE-246) đã đánh chìm tàu ngầm U-boat Đức U-488 tại tọa độ 17°54′B 38°05′T  /  17,9°B 38,083°T  / 17.900 -38.083 . Sau khi được một đội tìm-diệt khác thay phiên, nó quay trở về cảng nhà vào ngày 11 tháng 5. Α]

Được bảo trì một thời gian ngắn tại Xưởng hải quân New York và thực hành huấn luyện tại Casco Bay, Maine, Barber quay lại nhiệm vụ hộ tống vận tải, và cho đến tháng 10 đã thực hiện hai chuyến khứ hồi vượt Đại Tây Dương sang Bắc Phi, nhưng không đụng độ với đối phương. Vào ngày 9 tháng 10, nó đi đến Xưởng hải quân Philadelphia để được cải biến thành một tàu vận chuyển cao tốc lớp Charles Lawrence, và được xếp lại lớp với ký hiệu lườn mới APD-57 vào ngày 23 tháng 10. Sau khi công việc trong xưởng tàu hoàn tất vào tháng 1, 1945, nó rời Philadelphia vào ngày 17 tháng 1 để đi đến Norfolk, làm nhiệm vụ huấn luyện cho thủy thủ đoàn các tàu vận chuyển cao tốc tương lai. Α]

Mặt trận Thái Bình Dương [ sửa | sửa mã nguồn ]

Vào ngày 22 tháng 2, Barber khởi hành từ Norfolk để đi sang khu vực Mặt trận Thái Bình Dương sau chặng dừng ngắn tại San Diego, California, nó đi đến Trân Châu Cảng vào ngày 26 tháng 3. Con tàu thực hành huấn luyện cùng các đội phá hoại dưới nước (UDT: Underwater Demolition Team) tại khu vực Maui vai trò của các đội UDT này bao gồm trinh sát, rà phá thủy lôi và dọn sạch chướng ngại vật nhằm chuẩn bị cho cuộc đổ bộ, và những tàu APD có nhiệm vụ đưa họ đến các bãi đổ bộ vài ngày trước khi diễn ra cuộc đổ bộ chính. Α]

Rời khu vực quần đảo Hawaii vào ngày 14 tháng 4, Barber hướng đến Ulithi ngang qua Eniwetok, và sau khi đến nơi vào ngày 30 tháng 4, nó chuẩn bị trong năm ngày trước khi được phái đến Okinawa. Rời Ulithi vào ngày 5 tháng 5 trong thành phần một đoàn tàu vận tải, con tàu đi đến khu vực thả neo Hagushi năm ngày sau đó. Α]

Vào ngày 11 tháng 5, Barber được lệnh đi đến trợ giúp cho chiếc Hugh W. Hadley (DD-774) đang tại vị trí trạm cột mốc radar canh phòng về phía Bắc khu vực neo đậu. Chiếc tàu khu trục đã bị hai máy bay tấn công cảm tử Kamikaze và hai quả bom đánh trúng. Barber đã phái người sang giúp di tản những người bị thương của Hugh W. Hadley, rồi tiếp tục những nỗ lực kiểm soát hư hỏng nhằm cứu con tàu bạn. Sang ngày hôm sau nó được phái đến vị trí cột mốc canh phòng về phía Bắc Ie Shima máy bay đối phương đã không xuất hiện trong tầm nhìn. Đến ngày 15 tháng 5, nó vớt được bốn binh lính Nhật Bản trên một chiếc bè, và sau đó chuyển họ đến một trại tập trung tù binh chiến tranh tại Oknawa. Α]

Năm ngày sau đó, 20 tháng 5, phía Nhật Bản tung ra một đợt tổng tấn công bằng máy bay và tàu ngầm bỏ túi tấn công tự sát nhằm vào lực lượng hải quân Đồng Minh tại khu vực Okinawa. Bước vào báo động trực chiến suốt cả ngày và đêm, Barber đã truy đuổi hai tàu tàu ngầm bỏ túi và báo cáo có thể đã đánh chìm được một chiếc, và liên tục báo động phòng không đối phó các đợt không kích. Vào ngày 14 tháng 6, nó bắt giữ thêm ba tù binh, và vào chiều tối ngày 16 tháng 6 nó đã đi đến trợ giúp cho tàu khu trục hộ tống Twiggs (DD-591) tại khu vực neo đậu Hagushi bị máy bay tấn công cảm tử đối phương đánh trúng. Twiggs đắm chỉ sau một giờ, và Barber đã hoạt động suốt đêm để tìm kiếm và cứu vớt 188 người sống sót. Α]

Tách khỏi nhiệm vụ tại Okinawa vào ngày 4 tháng 7, Barber gia nhập một đoàn tàu bao gồm bốn tàu hộ tống khác và 32 tàu đổ bộ LST để hướng sang Saipan. Khi sắp đến nơi, nó tách ra để hộ tống một phần đoàn tàu đi đến Guam. Lộ trình mới cắt ngang tuyến đường bay được những máy bay ném bom B-29 Superfortress sử dụng cho những phi vụ ném bom Tokyo. Vào ngày 9 tháng 7, được tin tức về một vụ rơi máy bay tại khu vực lân cận, Barber đã đi hết tốc độ đến hiện trường và đi dọc ngược theo lộ trình chiếc máy bay ném bom, lần lượt cứu vớt toàn bộ 11 thành viên của đội bay. Chiếc tàu vận chuyển cao tốc đã đưa họ đến Guam vào ngày hôm sau. Α]


Barber DE-161 - History

Leroy Kenneth Barber was born on September 20, 1920. According to our records Wisconsin was his home or enlistment state and Outagamie County included within the archival record. We have New London listed as the city. He had enlisted in the United States Navy. Served during World War II. Barber had the rank of Enlisted. His military occupation or specialty was Fireman First Class. Service number assignment was 3000785. Attached to USS Oklahoma. During his service in World War II, Navy enlisted man Barber was reported missing and ultimately declared dead on December 7, 1941 . Recorded circumstances attributed to: Missing in action or lost at sea. Incident location: Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.

He was the son of Peter Barber and Gertrude Barber of New London, Waupaca county, Wisconsin. The three Barber brothers, Leroy Barber, Malcolm Barber and Randolph Barber, all joined the US Navy with all serving on the USS Oklahoma. All of them were lost with no remains to be returned.

The USS Barber (DE-161/APD-57), a Buckley-class destroyer escort of the United States Navy, was named in their honor.

Leroy Kenneth Barber is buried or memorialized at Tablets of the Missing at Honolulu Memorial, Honolulu, Hawaii. This is an American Battle Monuments Commission location.

7 Famous Barbers in History

There are too many famous barbers to mention them all in one post. So, for now, here are 7 iconic barbers to inspire your future.

Ambroise Paré (1510-1590) was a famous barber in history who worked back when barbers cut hair and performed surgeries. He worked for Henry II, Francis II, Charles IX and Henry III. Not only was he great at cutting hair, but also, he pioneered many surgical techniques, mostly related to the treatment of battlefield wounds.

A.B. Moler was elected to the Barber Hall of Fame in 1965. He founded the first US barber school in 1893. That same year, he penned the first barbering textbook titled The Moler Manual of Barbering.


Barber DE-161 - History

"To look backward for a while is to refresh the eye, to restore it, and to render it more fit for its prime function of looking forward." ----- Margaret Fairless Barber

The 161 st Aviation Company was stationed in Vietnam from 1965 to 1968. The years may indicate a four-year tour of duty, however, due to actual arrival and deactivation dates, the true tenure is slightly over two years. The company arrived in-country in December 1965 and was deactivated/reorganized in January of 1968.

The 161 st Aviation Company was organized on August 25, 1965 at Fort Benning, Georgia for deployment to the Republic of South Vietnam. At this point of the Vietnam War, the military buildup is escalating and as many as two helicopter companies a month are being sent to Vietnam. The 161 st was composed of three flight platoons with an authorized strength of seven helicopters each, a helicopter maintenance platoon, the 406 th Transportation Detachment, the 449 th Signal Detachment, and the headquarters section.

Two of the Huey platoons flew the UH-1D Huey and used the call sign of PELICAN. Many of these aircraft were brand-new Hueys right of the Bell Helicopter assembly line and had consecutive serial numbers.

The third Huey platoon flew the UH-1B Huey gunship and used the call sign of SCORPION. The 161 st was the last Army unit to be organized with the UH-1B gunship. An observation at the time was that most of the UH-1B’s were the "Hanger Queens" from various military units across the country. One aircraft had a previous duty station in Puerto Rico.

The 406 th TC augmented the 161 st service platoon, providing support in the area of rotor maintenance, engine repair, and airframe repair and general aircraft maintenance. The 406 th TC used a call sign of ROADRUNNER.

The 449 th Signal Detachment provided maintenance and repair of the aircraft avionics systems .

By November of 1965, the company was up to full strength and ready to ship out to Vietnam. An advance 10-man party led by a Major Meeks, set sail on the Private Joseph P. Merrell, a World War II victory ship operated by the Merchant Marines. Other known members of that team were Melvin Breeden, an aircraft maintenance officer and an enlisted man by the name of Joe Ever sole.

The remainder of the 161st set sail on the troop ships Point Cruz and General John Pope arriving some 14 days later at the port Qui Neon. The actual company area was actually 12 miles to the west of Qui Neon on a scrub-covered hill in the An Sou Valley. The area would later be designated as Lane Army Airfield, and was built from the bottom up largely from the personnel stationed at An Sou. Living in tents, the 161 st built their own quasi-permanent living quarters and Christmas dinner heralded the first "sit-down" meal for the company

How did An Sou become known as LANE ARMY AIRFIELD? It was named after CW2 Robert Carl Lane killed on January 5, 1966, as the first 1st Air Cavalry Division Sky Crane casualty in the war.

During its first month in-country, to help maintain morale, Major Michael Thomas, the Company Commanding Officer, wrote to his hometown of Wyoming, Pennsylvania. Major Thomas had already nicknamed the area around An Sou as "Wyoming Valley, Vietnam", and had given local landmarks names that reminded him of home. The town citizens responded by adopting the 161 st AHC as honorary citizens and set about sending letters and packages of "goodies" to their adopted citizens.

The townspeople also managed to obtain a bell for the company’s chapel. Kenneth Messick, a Warrant Officer pilot, did a lot work building a suitable structure for the bell. In 1967, when the unit moved to Chu Lai, the bell remained at Lane AAF since it was anticipated the unit would return to Lane. However, the 161 st never did return and today, the whereabouts of the bell is unknown. Jason Kaatz has taken it upon himself to determine the disposition of the bell and have it returned to the men of the 161 st Aviation Company.

Later while still at Lane AAF, Kenneth Jackson was instrumental in the modifications to the chapel, even encouraging several people to donate some of their time in assisting the chaplain.

While at Lane AAF, the unit operated in a relatively peaceful environment and a rather relaxed military command structure. Brightly colored baseball caps were wore instead of the military green caps. The first platoon wore red, the second wore yellow, the scorpions wore blue, and maintenance wore green. The hats were a source of considerable pride for the young pilots and were referred to as "Red Hats", ect. However, when the unit left Lane for Chu Lai, they were forced to discard the colored hats for the traditional army caps and eventually even to wearing the steel helmets. Giving up the hats was a source of great consternation but an indication of the hostile new environment and a stricter command structure .

In January of 1966, the 161 st was ready to begin performing the missions for which it had trained. The unit was assigned to the 52 nd Aviation Battalion, located at Pleiku, to begin combat missions.

The 161 st was assigned to give direct support to the Republic of Korea "Tiger" Capital Infantry Division. The company’s area of operation was concentrated in the Phu Cat Mountains just north of Lane AAF. From their first combat missions, the company was known for their attitude of "only the best will do." Throughout their operation at Lane, the company compiled an extremely meritorious record and earned a well-deserved reputation of being dependable in any situation.

In return, the Capital Division provided security for Lane AAF. The Koreans were able to fight the war without some of the restrictions imposed on the American military. Any attacks on Lane by the Viet Cong would result in swift and harsh retaliation by the Koreans. As a result, the inhabitants of Lane, at least on the ground, would enjoy a relative safe existence.

One of the measures the Korean general utilized to intimidate the Vietnamese population was a special Karate demonstration team. The general selected a group of exceptionally large Korean Karate experts that were all over six feet tall. The team would be flown around to the various villages where the Koreans would assemble the local population. The Karate team would then be introduced as "average" Korean soldiers. This imposing team would then conduct an awesome display of their martial arts skills in front of the totally cowed audience.

Charles Ritzschke wrote: The information written by Craig Chandler is correct I can add some details about this incident.

Both Art and myself were both assigned to the 174th at Fort Benning and he was picked to accompany the aircraft to Vietnam. Upon his arrival in Vietnam, he was DEROS-shuffled into the 161 st .

We were the HOT gun team that day. Art was pilot and CWO Hopkins was AC in 045 (armed with an M-5 and rocket pods, a true challenge to fly) Captain Babe (AC) and myself were in 734 with Craig Chandler (gunner) and Rick Davis (CE).

An ARVN convoy was ambushed on the highway about half way between Lane and LZ English. Right where the Phu Cat Mountain almost reached the highway from the east.

Most of the fire was coming from a tree line about 100 yards West of the highway. Hopkins made several passes from different directions, but we were receiving fire from several automatic weapons on each pass. The VC had set up well.

The last past was from East to West over the convoy. As 045 broke, we heard his mayday and saw them start down. It turns out Art must have turned the fuel off when he was shot. (The maintenance officer flew the aircraft out later that day.)

My hat goes off to Dave Baeb for what went down after that.

We had no rockets and if I had machine-gun ammo left, it didn’t last very long. Dave kept making pass after pass, low and slow, keeping us between the VC and 045, with the door gunner firing on one and then the crewchief on the next.

With the gunner from 045 acting like John Wayne on the ground and our crewchief and gunner firing M-16s we managed to keep the VC at bay until a dustoff came in and picked up the crew, including Art.

That was the most useless time in my life. With no ammo and Dave wasn’t going to let a LT just out flight school fly, all I had to do was count the number of machine-guns that were shooting at us. It was easy and there were a lot of them.

At the end of the day, we were credited with 128 kills and all awarded the DFC. Hopkins also received another medal, the DSC I believe.

On May 17, 1966, the 161 st suffered its first combat loss with the death of Captain Arthur P. Wright being killed by small-arms fire on his first mission with the 161 st while flying a Scorpion gunship, UH-1B, s/n 64-14045.

During the first half of 1966, the 161 st did its share of flying combat support for the "Tiger" Division and its aircraft took hits from enemy ground fire and some of its crew wounded, they had only one fatal casualty. That changed on June 27, 1966, as a UH-1D and its entire 4-man crew were lost, not to combat fire, but to a mid-air collision. The 161 st aircraft had just taken off from Lane enroute to flare mission, when it collided with another Huey belonging to the 1/9 th Cav of the 1 st Cavalry Division. Captain Donald Ray Bryant, Captain Jerry Wayne McNabb were the pilots, the enlisted crewmembers were Fredrick Marlton Binder and Jackie Lee Goforth.

Warrant Officer Michael Quaintance wrote: Major Michael Baldasare was the company commander before Major Gala. I remember Baldasare had a few incidents during his command that must have been very embarrassing. One was the time he decided (as I recall) that to cut down the dust in the maintenance area at Lane Field was to run the tanker truck that had a spray-bar on the tail with JP-4. The truck had almost finished (fortunately the driver hadn't gotten very close to the maintenance tents when the truck rolled over an extension cord from a generator and caused a spark. You're imagination can take over here. It was quite a fire! The driver got out OK but the truck was a goner even though I don’t think it blew up. just burnt up thoroughly!

In August 1966, the 161 st was released from assignment to the 52 nd Aviation Battalion and reassigned to the 14 th Aviation Battalion, which had arrived at Lane AAF in April of that year. The 14 th Battalion had previously been working around the Nha Trang area. In April of 1966, the 174 th Aviation Company had arrived at Lane from stateside.

The 161 st and the other companies of the 14 th Aviation Battalion continued to operate out of Lane AAF until April of 1967. At this time the 14 th Battalion, including the 161 st , were repositioned for a 3-4 month period, to the Chu Lai Combat Base in support of a "Provisional Division". Chu Lai is located on the coast in the I-Corp combat zone, approximately 75 mile south of Da Nang. The United States Marine Corps ground and helicopter units were being moved further north along the DMZ.

Warrant Officer Jeff Peecook wrote. I was the fortunate (volunteer?) to be the officer in charge of our goods on the Navy LST during the cruise. The max speed on the LST was 12 knots and we had a 10-knot headwind with rough seas all the way. What was supposed to take a little over one day turned into a three day and nightmare trip. I was offered the finest officer quarters with the best food, only I was so sick the whole time we pitched and bobbed I couldn’t enjoy the benefits. A defining moment during the trip was at night when I was thrown out of my bunk onto the floor it was then that I learned the purpose of seat belts on the bunks.

In mid-April, the company was alive packing all its gear and equipment for its relocation. On April 14, most of the equipment was loaded onto a Navy LST, and Air Force C-130’s transported most personnel to Chu Lai.

The aircraft and crews were flown from Lane AAF on the 20 th of April to Chu Lai. Ky Ha was the initial destination for the 161 st , and is located on a peninsula approximately 4 miles north of the main Chu Lai base. Most of the Marine helicopter units were based at Ky Ha, while Chu Lai had a jet runway used by the Marines flying the F-4 Phantom.

Ky Ha was only a temporary location for company. On May 19, construction was begun on a new heliport at the south end of Chu Lai and on June 13, the 161 st moved into its new not-quite finished quarters. The new base was along the coast and was called "Pelican’s Roost" proved to be not an ideal location for people or aircraft. It was mostly loose sand that seemed to get into everything. The taxiways and parking revetments were coated with an asphalt compound and the maintenance areas had steel planking, the blowing sand took it toll on aircraft grease seals and bearings. The typical Vietnam semi-permanent living hooch’s had tents for roofs until tin roofs were installed several months later.

Task Force Oregon, as the Provisional Division was called, was the predecessor to the AMERICAL Division, which would be formally organized in late 1967. The Area of Operations (AO) for the AMERICAL Division extended generally to the Hoa An River to the north, to Duc Pho to the south, and into the mountains to the west. The 14 th Aviation Battalion and later the 123 rd Aviation Battalion would provide most of the helicopter support to the Americal Division.

Most of the Huey companies would be assigned an infantry battalion or brigade that they generally supported. However, any aircraft could be reassigned to any mission as necessary.

The 161 st had the mission of providing general support for the Americal, meaning they flew all kinds of missions. These would include combat support, but also logistical support (resupply), troop movements, command and control, courier missions, and even VIP missions.

One typical mission each day was to provide an aircraft to the US Marine Engineers still stationed at Chu Lai, who were responsible for keeping Highway-1 open from Chu Lai to the Liberty Bridge on the Hoa An River. Each morning, we would pick up the engineers and fly a reconnaissance up Highway-1 looking for bombed culverts and bridges. It was normally an uneventful mission that started out early in the morning and lasted only a few hours. If time permitted, the aircrew would be able to eat at the engineer’s well-provisioned mess hall.

On July 20, a North Vietnamese trawler loaded with munitions tried to shoot it out with the U.S. Navy and enter the Riviere De Sa Ky River. As the naval action continued into the night, gunships and flares were provided by the 71 st AHC. The 161 st provided additional gunship support in finishing off the trawler.

Bobby Williams wrote that he and Ken Messick were returning from Nha Trang when they were called upon to assist in stopping the NVA trawler. Ken scored direct hits from altitude with the 40mm grenade launcher.

On July 26, 1967, Major Donald S.Galla assumed command of the 161 st AHC. I think Major Galla had previously been the 2 nd Platoon Commander. Major Fredrick Shanker replaced Major Galla for a short period before the reorganization into the 123 rd AHB.

On August 30, the 161 st was the recipient of approximately 40 rounds of Viet Cong mortar rounds. The only damage was to the refueling point, damaging a fuel bladder and several fuel hoses. I think there was some sort of homemade-lighted ground approach system that was destroyed, much to the ire of Lt. Walker of the Scorpions.

September 1967 was a costly month for the company. On September 12, 1967, many of the 161 st aircraft participated in the battalion size troop movement. One particular incident had aircraft dropping troops onto a rocky LZ that was supposedly been cleared of mines by ‘daisy-cutter’ artillery fire. However, soon after the first lift, there were reports of American soldiers being injured by mines. Captain Thomas Hooker piloted a Pelican slick back into the LZ to evacuate some of the injured. There was even an aircraft from the 71 st AHC aircraft that was disabled by a mine. One of its crewmen who had been killed by the explosion was loaded along with some the injured soldiers. Later that same day, continuing with the same battalion movement, several of the company’s aircraft was damaged by small-arms fire coming out of the landing zone. Eight rounds that severely damaged its avionics system struck Pelican 839, and would be grounded for several weeks while its avionics systems were repaired.

Later in the month on September 29, the 161 st was again involved in another large-scale combat assault for the 1 st Brigade of the 101 st Airborne Division. Captain Hooker again returned to the LZ to evacuate wounded soldiers. While loading the injured, the aircraft (Pelican 955) was raked with NVA .51 caliber machine gun fire. The co-pilot, William Chellis was wounded when a round penetrated the armored seat. Captain Hooker had minor wounds to his face when a round shattered one of the windshields. The crewchief, Robert Anderson, was not so fortunate. He was hit in the groin area, severing a major artery and as a result, he bled to death before he could be flown to a nearby aid station.

After dropping off the Anderson and the wounded at the Chu Lai Evacuation Hospital, alone he fly his aircraft back to Pelican’s Roost, shutting down at the aircraft wash point. With Anderson’s still wet blood all on the interior, it was quite sobering for us who cleaned up the aircraft.

Michael Quaintance, a Pelican pilot who participated in these flights, related what he saw in the LZ. On his second or third mission into the LZ, he noticed the aircraft to his left and its rotor blades and transmission being torn out of the aircraft and the tail boom being twisted and crushed like an eggshell. This Pelican slick, it was later learned had been hit by an NVA mortar that was being fired into the LZ. Miraculously, the entire crew escaped serious injury. I think Robert Mix was the crewchief on this aircraft (Pelican 836).

After this action, the LZ where this action occurred was referred as "Million Dollar Hill" for all the wreckage of helicopters abandoned on the hill. This infamous hill in future years was where future Pittsburgh Steeler Rocky Blier was wounded. Also, in 1969, at this location, an infantry company refused an order to attack the hill.

Also on that same day and mission, an UH-1B gunship from the 161 st was shot down by .51 machine gun fire. The gunship, Scorpion 045, had recently been overhauled with the 40mm grenade launching system and great things were expected from this aircraft.

Warrant Officer Michael Knapp recalls: Scorpion 045 being shot down, that was piloted by myself and George Grinnell, we were rescued by Ty Carr who was flying the HOG that day, we were very fortunate as we could see “Charlie” coming at us from the tree line as Ty brought the hog in to a hover.

I cannot remember who the crew was my only vivid memory is that my door was jammed in the crash, and that I managed to beat the gunner out the back! We were pretty much full of holes when we finally set down. I seem to recall over 200, but I’m not sure. Unfortunately that was the end of 045, as she was bombed by the Air Force later in the day,

On November 29, 1967, the unit lost another aircraft, 65-09955, and its entire crew. The crew’s mission was to be on standby for flare missions. This was a routine mission that rotated among the aircraft and its crew. The crew was called out for a mission, but soon lost radio contact after taking off from Pelican Roost. Several versions of this loss incident are recorded in a separate section of the historical narrative.

On January 1, 1968, the Scorpions along with the Firebirds from the 71 st and the Sharks from the 174 th racked up the most impressive body count ever attributed to the battalion gunships. The Americal Division had caught a main force Viet Cong unit that had routinely operated just to the northwest of Quang Ngai in a pincer operation. Airmobile forces had been placed in a blocking position to the west to prevent the enemy from escaping into the mountain an mechanized infantry force (probably the 11 th Armored Cavalry Regiment) was pressing in from the east with their armored personnel carriers. When the Viet Cong was trapped in between the two forces, they scrambled out of battalion gunships to finish them off. The Scorpions launched every available aircraft, which consisted of at least two fire teams (four aircraft) and attacked the enemy positions. The Viet Cong had assumed positions in a series of overgrown hedgerows that separated the rice fields. We continued to fly all afternoon, alternating the refueling and rearming activities so that one fire team was always on station. It was one of the few times when we could positively identify the enemy locations and in spite of the heavy fire, we were having a field day. On one pass were so low that we flew through the tops of the bamboo plants and had pieces of bamboo trailing from the skids and gun mounts. The commander eventually called off the gunships and ordered his infantry to sweep the area. Afterwards, the credited the gunships with 145 kills (Chuck Carlock’s book Firebirds states the count was 90 kills).

During the later months of 1967 and into 1968, the 161 st provided some direct support to the U.S. Special Forces along the DMZ. Typically, two gunships and a Huey slick would spend a one to two week rotation at the Phu Bai and Khe Sanh combat bases. These were "Classified Missions" and are discussed in further detail in a separate history section.

Warrant Officer Michael Knapp recalls: As to the missions supporting the SOG teams out of Hue Phu Bai, Roger (Old) and I were sent up there, initially. I seem to recall another gunship coming up later to make us a heavy team, but I’m not sure. I do remember doing support missions across the borders, flying gun cover for the VNAF H-34’s (Butterfly) that were carrying the teams. Also remember seeing on more than one occasion all black B-26’s support the ground troops as well. Roger and I worked out of Khe Sanh, flying across the river when requested. I was awarded the DFC for taking out a 37mm Anti-Aircraft that had been firing at the USAF FACs in the area. I remember flying one mission into Laos where we recovered a Catholic priest who was being hunted by the NVA. We brought him across the border in the back seat my gunship (we always felt it was lucky after that!) The best I can remember for dates is going up to Da Nang, Phu Bai in April or May, and more or less being there until around August, September. I’m almost positive that 045 was my gunship up there as in was the Frog, and I don’t recall any other Frog in the organization at the time, I wish I could remember more, but that’s all that comes to mind.

By mid January 1968, the unit received a group of new doorgunners. Actually, they were all Military Policemen, who had trained in the United States as a unit for assignment to the Saigon area. However, upon arrival there were no open assignments for Military Police. They were given a choice of individual reassignment duties, that of… infantry or helicopter door gunners. I think almost all of them choose aviation and at least 10 of them were assigned to the 161 st .

In late January 1968 (probably during TET), the company compound was on the receiving end of a number of NVA rockets and mortars. I believe the Tech Supply hooch took a direct hit by a rocket. During one of these attacks, a NVA rocket scored a direct hit on one of the nearby munition bunkers. The resulting explosion of aerial bombs was so tremendous it was felt on the northern end of the Chu Lai complex. Langdon Carpenter described it as, "looking like a miniature atomic bomb."

The company also had one fatal casualty when a mortar hit one of the enlisted crewmember hooches. A new MP doorgunner was sitting on the edge of his bunk, lacing up his boots, when the round came through the roof, and killing him. He had been in the company less than a month and there is some confusion or uncertainly about his name. Several people recall the incident, but could not remember his name, other than he was one of the MP’s. Eventual, David Czarnecki, one of the MP doorgunners confirmed him to be Stephen Mueller.

Scorpion crewchief John Terry wrote that he vividly recalls the incident because he tired unsuccessfully to stop the bleeding from a neck wound, but Stephen Mueller died from his wounds.

It was rumored in latter months of 1967, that the 161 st would be deactivated or reorganized. Looking back, I think it had already been decided by mid 1967. As I recall, the 161 st never got a new aircraft for replacements. Whenever we did get a replacement, it would be an older aircraft from another in-country unit. I suspect the 1 st Aviation Brigade, did not want to send any of its new in-country aircraft to a unit that would soon be reorganized into the new AMERICAL Division.

In January 1968, the 161 st received orders that it was officially being deactivated. About the same time, the 123 rd Aviation Battalion was organized into the AMERICAL Division. The two Huey slick platoons would be used to build the core of "A" Company, while the gunship platoon would be used to form the core of "B" Company. The aircraft and personnel remained at the beach complex for several more weeks, but soon relocated to the Ky Ha Heliport. The aircraft, now part of the 123 rd AHB, remained at Ky Ha for the remainder of the war or until lost for one reason or another. Alpha Company of the 123 rd Aviation Battalion retained the "Pelican" call sign. However, "B" Company, initially continued to use the "Scorpion" call sign, but later adopted the "Warlords" call sign.

This history focuses primarily on the history of the 161 st Aviation Company. However, initially after the reorganization into the 123 rd Aviation Battalion, a few significant events are mentioned because of the involvement of 161 st personnel.

On February 7, 1968, Captain Thomas Tucker was killed by a sniper while getting out of his aircraft at a LZ in the Que Son Mountains. According to Langdon Carpenter, the aircraft (UH-1H 66-16675) began to spin from a battle damaged tail rotor control cable. After Captain Tucker landed the aircraft and shut it down, the sniper killed him.

In late February, another original aircraft UH-1D 64-13839 was lost, not from enemy action but from "pilot error." Warrant Officer Jim Stefancic was piloting when he failed to hear the Low RPM audible alarm (the circuit breaker had been pulled). During the autorotation maneuver, the left skip caught a Vietnamese stone burial structure, causing the aircraft to roll on its right side. The sudden rotor stoppage severely damaged the airframe and all systems. Fortunately, crewchief John Hastings and gunner Patrick Whelan received only minor injuries. The aircraft commander was Gary Busby, TDY from the 176 th AHC.

The infamous My Lai incident occurred in the AMERICAL area of operations. It was on the morning of March 16, 1968 that Hugh Thompson was flying his helicopter just above the treetops in search of enemy soldiers. It was a reconnaissance mission in support of U.S. troops on the ground. Onboard with him were Larry Colburn and Glenn Andreotta. What they saw instead was U.S. soldiers gunning down unarmed civilians and countless bodies of Vietnamese people in a ditch. To say they were stunned by what was going on would be an understatement.

Thompson is recognized for his heroic and successful efforts to save the lives of innocent civilians who were being pursued by American soldiers. He has been described as the hero of the My Lai massacre – the soldier who stepped in to stop his fellow soldiers who were on a murderous rampage, totally out of control, at My Lai, South Vietnam. Danny Millians, who was flying cover in a Huey gunship, also landed and took some of the civilians to nearby Quang Ngai.

More detailed accounts of this action may be read in the book, The Forgotten Hero of My Lai, The Hugh Thompson Story by Trent Angers.

On April 8, 1968, Glenn Andreotta and Charles Dutton, crewmen on an OH-13 (62-03813) "Warlord" scout were killed when their aircraft was shot down, crashed and burned. John Terry, another Scorpion crewchief had been a mentor to Charles Dutton, assisting him in his transition from Infantry to Aviation.

After his tour of duty with the 161 st AHC, Warrant Officer Michael James Kerl took a commission and transitioned to the CH-47 Chinook helicopter. Many years later, on February 6, 1971, he was piloting a CH-47 Chinook helicopter belonging to the 178 th Aviation Company. As they were sling loading a water trailer to Fire Base Siberia, the Chinook lost power and crashed while approaching the LZ, killing Captain Michael James Kerl.


Samuel Barber

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Samuel Barber, (born March 9, 1910, West Chester, Pennsylvania, U.S.—died January 23, 1981, New York, New York), American composer who is considered one of the most expressive representatives of the lyric and Romantic trends in 20th-century classical music.

Barber studied the piano from an early age and soon began to compose. In 1924 he entered the Curtis Institute of Music in Philadelphia, where, in addition to piano and composition, he studied singing and conducting. After graduation in 1934, Barber devoted himself entirely to composition. His style was distinctive and modern but not experimental. He established his reputation with his overture to The School for Scandal (1933), based on Richard Sheridan’s comedy by that name, and with Music for a Scene from Shelley (1935), inspired by the poet Percy Bysshe Shelley’s Prometheus Unbound.

Although many of Barber’s works make literary allusions, his music is not programmatic in the strict sense. Significant in this respect are the three Essays for Orchestra (1938, 1942, and 1978), which are intended as musical counterparts of the literary form. Structural considerations govern Barber’s instrumental writing there is great astringency in harmony, but the basic tonality remains secure the rhythmic lines are very strong, without loss of coherence.

In 1936 Barber composed his String Quartet. Its slow movement, arranged for string orchestra, was performed under the title Adagio for Strings by the NBC Symphony Orchestra under Arturo Toscanini in 1938 and acquired extraordinary popularity in the United States and Europe.

Barber’s Symphony No. 1 (1936 rev. 1942) is in the Romantic tradition. In the Symphony No. 2 (1944 rev. 1947), commissioned by the U.S. Army Air Forces (which he had joined in 1943), Barber introduced an electronic instrument imitating radio signals for air navigation, an effect replaced in the revised version by an E-flat clarinet.

Barber also wrote a Violin Concerto (1941) and a Cello Concerto (1946). His Piano Sonata (1949) is a monument of 20th-century American piano music. His other compositions include Dover Beach, for voice and string quartet (1931) three vocal works with orchestra, Knoxville: Summer of 1915 (1948), Prayers of Kierkegaard (1954), and Andromache’s Farewell (1962) and Medea (1947). His opera Vanessa, with libretto by longtime partner Gian Carlo Menotti and produced by the Metropolitan Opera Association, New York City, in 1958, was awarded a Pulitzer Prize.

Barber’s Piano Concerto (1962) brought him new international success and another Pulitzer Prize. His opera Antony and Cleopatra inaugurated the new auditorium of the Metropolitan Opera Association at the Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts in 1966. After a period of creative inactivity, Barber resumed composing for orchestra. The Lovers and Fadograph of a Yestern Scene were first performed in 1971, and Third Essay for Orchestra had its premiere in 1980.

This article was most recently revised and updated by Amy Tikkanen, Corrections Manager.


Why are barber poles red, white and blue?

The barber pole’s colors are a legacy of a (thankfully) long-gone era when people went to barbers not just for a haircut or shave but also for bloodletting and other medical procedures. During the Middle Ages bloodletting, which involves cutting open a vein and allowing blood to drain, was a common treatment for a wide range of maladies, from sore throat to plague. Monks, who often cared for the sick, performed the procedure, and barbers, given their skill with sharp instruments, sometimes provided assistance. After Pope Alexander III in 1163 prohibited clergymen from carrying out the procedure, barbers added bloodletting—something physicians of the day considered necessary but too menial to do themselves–to their repertoires. Known as barber-surgeons, they also took on such tasks as pulling teeth, setting bones and treating wounds. Ambroise Pare, a 16th-century Frenchman considered the father of modern surgery, started his career as a barber-surgeon.

The look of the barber pole is linked to bloodletting, with red representing blood and white representing the bandages used to stem the bleeding. The pole itself is said to symbolize the stick that a patient squeezed to make the veins in his arm stand out more prominently for the procedure. In Europe, barber poles traditionally are red and white, while in America, the poles are red, white and blue. One theory holds that blue is symbolic of the veins cut during bloodletting, while another interpretation suggests blue was added to the pole as a show of patriotism and a nod to the nation’s flag.


The Greatest Murder Machine in History

When one thinks of mass murder, Hitler comes to mind. If not Hitler, then Tojo, Stalin, or Mao. Credit is given to the 20th-century totalitarians as the worst species of tyranny to have ever arisen. However, the alarming truth is that Islam has killed more than any of these, and may surpass all of them combined in numbers and cruelty.

The enormity of the slaughters of the "religion of peace" are so far beyond comprehension that even honest historians overlook the scale. When one looks beyond our myopic focus, Islam is the greatest killing machine in the history of mankind, bar none.

The Islamic conquest of India is probably the bloodiest story in history. -- Will Durant, as quoted on Daniel Pipes site.

Conservative estimates place the number at 80 million dead Indians.

According to some calculations, the Indian (subcontinent) population decreased by 80 million between 1000 (conquest of Afghanistan) and 1525 (end of Delhi Sultanate). -- Koenrad Elst as quoted on Daniel Pipes site

80 Million?! The conquistadors' crimes pale into insignificance at that number. No wonder Hitler admired Islam as a fighting religion. He stood in awe of Islam, whose butchery even he did not surpass.

Over 110 Million Blacks were killed by Islam.

. a minumum of 28 Million African were enslaved in the Muslim Middle East. Since, at least, 80 percent of those captured by Muslim slave traders were calculated to have died before reaching the slave market, it is believed that the death toll from 1400 years of Arab and Muslim slave raids into Africa could have been as high as 112 Millions. When added to the number of those sold in the slave markets, the total number of African victims of the trans-Saharan and East African slave trade could be significantly higher than 140 Million people. -- John Allembillah Azumah, author of The Legacy of Arab-Islam in Africa: A Quest for Inter-religious Dialogue

Add just those two numbers alone together, and Islam has surpassed the victims of 20th-century totalitarianism. However, it does not end there. Add the millions who died at the hand of Muslims in the Sudan in our lifetime.

Much of Islamic slavery was sexual in nature, with a preference for women. Those men who were captured were castrated. The mulatto children of the women were often killed, which explains why Islam was not demographically shifted towards the black race, unlike slaves in the West, who bore children to breed a mestizo class. Add in those dead children and we arrive at well over 200 million.

Remember that in the 7th century, North Africa was almost totally Christian. What happened to them?

By the year 750, a hundred years after the conquest of Jerusalem, at least 50 percent of the world's Christians found themselves under Muslim hegemony&hellip Today there is no indigenous Christianity in the region [of Northwest Africa], no communities of Christians whose history can be traced to antiquity.-- "Christianity Face to Face with Islam," CERC

What happened to those Christian millions? Some converted. The rest? Lost to history.

We know that over 1 million Europeans were enslaved by Barbary Pirates. How many died is anybody's guess.

. for the 250 years between 1530 and 1780, the figure could easily have been as high as 1,250,000 - BBC

&hellipmany slaves were passed through Armenia and were castrated there to fill the Muslim demand for eunuchs. -- Slavery in Early Medieval Europe.

The same practice ran through Islamic Spain. North Europeans captured from raids up to Iceland, or purchased, were butchered in the castratoriums of Iberia. Many died from the operations that ran for centuries.

The number of dead from the Muslim conquest of the Balkans and Southern Italy is unknown, but again the numbers add up, surely into the millions over the centuries. Don't forget the 1.5 million Armenian Christians killed by the Turks during WWI. We do know that over five centuries, vast numbers of Christian boys were kidnapped to become Islamic Janissary mercenaries for the Turks. Add those in, too.

Muslims prized blonde women for their harems and so enslaved Slavic women were purchased in the bazaars of the Crimean Caliphate. In Muslim Spain, an annual tribute of 100 Visigothic [blonde] women was required from Spain's Cantabrian coast.

For decades, 100 virgins per year were required by the Muslim rulers of Spain from the conquered population. The tribute was only stopped when the Spaniards began fighting back -- Jihad: Islam's 1,300 Year War Against Western Civilisation

Add in the death toll from the Reconquista and the numbers climb higher.

Research has shown that the Dark Ages were not caused by the Goths, who eventually assimilated and Christianized:

&hellipthe real destroyers of classical civilization were the Muslims. It was the Arab Invasions. which broke the unity of the Mediterranean world and turned the Middle Sea -- previously one of the world&rsquos most important trading highways -- into a battleground. It was only after the appearance of Islam. that the cities of the West, which depended upon the Mediterranean trade for their survival, began to die. -- Islam Caused the Dark Ages

Add in those unknown millions who died as a consequence.

How many know the horrors of the conquest of Malaysia? The Buddhists of Thailand and Malaysia were slaughtered en masse.

When attacked and massacred by the Muslims, the Buddhists initially did not make any attempt to escape from their murderers. They accepted death with an air of fatalism and destiny. And hence they are not around today to tell their story. &ndash History of Jihad.org

We may never know the numbers of dead.

After Muslims came to power in the early 15th century, animist hill peoples eventually disappeared due to their enslavement and &lsquoincorporation&rsquo into the Muslim population of Malaya, Sumatra, Borneo, and Java via raids, tribute and purchase, especially of children. Java was the largest exporter of slaves around 1500. -- Islam Monitor

In the same manner, Islam arrived in the Philippines. Only the appearance of the Spanish stopped a total collapse, and confined Islam to the southern islands.

The coming of the Spanish saved the Philippines from Islam, except for the Southern tip where the population had been converted to Islam.-- History of Jihad.org

Again, the number of dead is unknown but add them to the total.

The animist Filipinos were eager to ally with the Spanish against Islam. In fact, much of Southeast Asia welcomed the Spanish and Portuguese as preferable to Islam.

. from the 17th century successive Thai kings allied themselves with the seafaring Western powers &ndash the Portuguese and the Dutch and succeeded in staving off the threat of Islam from the Muslim Malays and their Arab overlords.-- History of Jihad.org

A few galleons and muskets were not enough to conquer Asia. Islam had made the Europeans initially appear as liberators and to a certain extent they were. Who were the real imperialists?

. Malaysian Jihadis are plotting to transform multi-ethnic Malaysia into an Islamic Caliphate, and fomenting trouble in Southern Thailand.-- History of Jihad.org

Add this all up. The African victims. The Indian victims. The European victims. Add in the Armenian genocide. Then add in the lesser known, but no doubt quite large number of victims of Eastern Asia. Add in the jihad committed by Muslims against China, which was invaded in 651 AD. Add in the Crimean Khanate predations on the Slavs, especially their women.

Though the numbers are not clear, what is obvious is that Islam is the greatest murder machine in history bar none, possibly exceeding 250 million dead. Possibly one-third to one-half or more of all those killed by war or slavery in history can be traced to Islam and this is just a cursory examination.

Now consider the over 125 Million women today who have been genitally mutilated for Islamic honor's sake. In spite of what apologists tell you, the practice is almost totally confined to Islamic areas.

New information from Iraqi Kurdistan raises the possibility that the problem is more prevalent in the Middle East than previously believed and that FGM is far more tied to religion than many Western academics and activists admit. &ndash &ldquoIs Female Genital Mutilation an Islamic Problem?&rdquo ME Quarterly

Once thought concentrated in Africa, FGM has now been discovered to be common wherever Islam is found.

There are indications that FGM might be a phenomenon of epidemic proportions in the Arab Middle East. Hosken, for instance, notes that traditionally all women in the Persian Gulf region were mutilated. Arab governments refuse to address the problem. -- "Is Female Genital Mutilation an Islamic Problem?" ME Quarterly

Remember that this has gone on for 1400 years and was imposed on a population that had been formerly Christian or pagan.

FGM is practiced on large scale in Islamic Indonesia and is increasing.

. far from scaling down, the problem of FGM in Indonesia has escalated sharply. The mass ceremonies in Bandung have grown bigger and more popular every year. -- Guardian

The horrified British author of that Guardian article is still deluded that Islam does not support FGM, when in fact it is now settled that FGM is a core Islamic practice. Islamic women have been brainwashed to support their own abuse.

Abu Sahlieh further cited Muhammad as saying, "Circumcision is a sunna (tradition) for the men and makruma (honorable deed) for the women." -- &ldquoIs Female Genital Mutilation an Islamic Problem?&rdquo ME Quarterly

What other tyranny does this? Not even the Nazis mutilated their own women!

Unlike the 20th-century totalitarians whose killing fury consumed themselves, reducing their longevity, Islam paces itself. In the end, though slower, Islam has killed and tortured far more than any other creed, religious or secular. Unlike secular tyranny, Islam, by virtue of its polygamy and sexual predations, reproduces itself and increases.

Other tyrannies are furious infections, which burn hot, but are soon overcome. Islam is a slow terminal cancer, which metastasizes, and takes over. It never retreats. Its methods are more insidious, often imperceptible at first, driven by demographics. Like cancer, excision may be the only cure.

So whenever you read about this or that Israeli outrage -- and there may be truth to the complaint -- place the news in context. Look whom the Israelis are fighting against. Islam is like nothing else in history.

Mike Konrad is the pen name of an American who is not Jewish, Latin, or Arab. He runs a website, http://latinarabia.com, where he discusses the subculture of Arabs in Latin America. He wishes his Spanish were better.

When one thinks of mass murder, Hitler comes to mind. If not Hitler, then Tojo, Stalin, or Mao. Credit is given to the 20th-century totalitarians as the worst species of tyranny to have ever arisen. However, the alarming truth is that Islam has killed more than any of these, and may surpass all of them combined in numbers and cruelty.

The enormity of the slaughters of the "religion of peace" are so far beyond comprehension that even honest historians overlook the scale. When one looks beyond our myopic focus, Islam is the greatest killing machine in the history of mankind, bar none.

The Islamic conquest of India is probably the bloodiest story in history. -- Will Durant, as quoted on Daniel Pipes site.

Conservative estimates place the number at 80 million dead Indians.

According to some calculations, the Indian (subcontinent) population decreased by 80 million between 1000 (conquest of Afghanistan) and 1525 (end of Delhi Sultanate). -- Koenrad Elst as quoted on Daniel Pipes site

80 Million?! The conquistadors' crimes pale into insignificance at that number. No wonder Hitler admired Islam as a fighting religion. He stood in awe of Islam, whose butchery even he did not surpass.

Over 110 Million Blacks were killed by Islam.

. a minumum of 28 Million African were enslaved in the Muslim Middle East. Since, at least, 80 percent of those captured by Muslim slave traders were calculated to have died before reaching the slave market, it is believed that the death toll from 1400 years of Arab and Muslim slave raids into Africa could have been as high as 112 Millions. When added to the number of those sold in the slave markets, the total number of African victims of the trans-Saharan and East African slave trade could be significantly higher than 140 Million people. -- John Allembillah Azumah, author of The Legacy of Arab-Islam in Africa: A Quest for Inter-religious Dialogue

Add just those two numbers alone together, and Islam has surpassed the victims of 20th-century totalitarianism. However, it does not end there. Add the millions who died at the hand of Muslims in the Sudan in our lifetime.

Much of Islamic slavery was sexual in nature, with a preference for women. Those men who were captured were castrated. The mulatto children of the women were often killed, which explains why Islam was not demographically shifted towards the black race, unlike slaves in the West, who bore children to breed a mestizo class. Add in those dead children and we arrive at well over 200 million.

Remember that in the 7th century, North Africa was almost totally Christian. What happened to them?

By the year 750, a hundred years after the conquest of Jerusalem, at least 50 percent of the world's Christians found themselves under Muslim hegemony&hellip Today there is no indigenous Christianity in the region [of Northwest Africa], no communities of Christians whose history can be traced to antiquity.-- "Christianity Face to Face with Islam," CERC

What happened to those Christian millions? Some converted. The rest? Lost to history.

We know that over 1 million Europeans were enslaved by Barbary Pirates. How many died is anybody's guess.

. for the 250 years between 1530 and 1780, the figure could easily have been as high as 1,250,000 - BBC

&hellipmany slaves were passed through Armenia and were castrated there to fill the Muslim demand for eunuchs. -- Slavery in Early Medieval Europe.

The same practice ran through Islamic Spain. North Europeans captured from raids up to Iceland, or purchased, were butchered in the castratoriums of Iberia. Many died from the operations that ran for centuries.

The number of dead from the Muslim conquest of the Balkans and Southern Italy is unknown, but again the numbers add up, surely into the millions over the centuries. Don't forget the 1.5 million Armenian Christians killed by the Turks during WWI. We do know that over five centuries, vast numbers of Christian boys were kidnapped to become Islamic Janissary mercenaries for the Turks. Add those in, too.

Muslims prized blonde women for their harems and so enslaved Slavic women were purchased in the bazaars of the Crimean Caliphate. In Muslim Spain, an annual tribute of 100 Visigothic [blonde] women was required from Spain's Cantabrian coast.

For decades, 100 virgins per year were required by the Muslim rulers of Spain from the conquered population. The tribute was only stopped when the Spaniards began fighting back -- Jihad: Islam's 1,300 Year War Against Western Civilisation

Add in the death toll from the Reconquista and the numbers climb higher.

Research has shown that the Dark Ages were not caused by the Goths, who eventually assimilated and Christianized:

&hellipthe real destroyers of classical civilization were the Muslims. It was the Arab Invasions. which broke the unity of the Mediterranean world and turned the Middle Sea -- previously one of the world&rsquos most important trading highways -- into a battleground. It was only after the appearance of Islam. that the cities of the West, which depended upon the Mediterranean trade for their survival, began to die. -- Islam Caused the Dark Ages

Add in those unknown millions who died as a consequence.

How many know the horrors of the conquest of Malaysia? The Buddhists of Thailand and Malaysia were slaughtered en masse.

When attacked and massacred by the Muslims, the Buddhists initially did not make any attempt to escape from their murderers. They accepted death with an air of fatalism and destiny. And hence they are not around today to tell their story. &ndash History of Jihad.org

We may never know the numbers of dead.

After Muslims came to power in the early 15th century, animist hill peoples eventually disappeared due to their enslavement and &lsquoincorporation&rsquo into the Muslim population of Malaya, Sumatra, Borneo, and Java via raids, tribute and purchase, especially of children. Java was the largest exporter of slaves around 1500. -- Islam Monitor

In the same manner, Islam arrived in the Philippines. Only the appearance of the Spanish stopped a total collapse, and confined Islam to the southern islands.

The coming of the Spanish saved the Philippines from Islam, except for the Southern tip where the population had been converted to Islam.-- History of Jihad.org

Again, the number of dead is unknown but add them to the total.

The animist Filipinos were eager to ally with the Spanish against Islam. In fact, much of Southeast Asia welcomed the Spanish and Portuguese as preferable to Islam.

. from the 17th century successive Thai kings allied themselves with the seafaring Western powers &ndash the Portuguese and the Dutch and succeeded in staving off the threat of Islam from the Muslim Malays and their Arab overlords.-- History of Jihad.org

A few galleons and muskets were not enough to conquer Asia. Islam had made the Europeans initially appear as liberators and to a certain extent they were. Who were the real imperialists?

. Malaysian Jihadis are plotting to transform multi-ethnic Malaysia into an Islamic Caliphate, and fomenting trouble in Southern Thailand.-- History of Jihad.org

Add this all up. The African victims. The Indian victims. The European victims. Add in the Armenian genocide. Then add in the lesser known, but no doubt quite large number of victims of Eastern Asia. Add in the jihad committed by Muslims against China, which was invaded in 651 AD. Add in the Crimean Khanate predations on the Slavs, especially their women.

Though the numbers are not clear, what is obvious is that Islam is the greatest murder machine in history bar none, possibly exceeding 250 million dead. Possibly one-third to one-half or more of all those killed by war or slavery in history can be traced to Islam and this is just a cursory examination.

Now consider the over 125 Million women today who have been genitally mutilated for Islamic honor's sake. In spite of what apologists tell you, the practice is almost totally confined to Islamic areas.

New information from Iraqi Kurdistan raises the possibility that the problem is more prevalent in the Middle East than previously believed and that FGM is far more tied to religion than many Western academics and activists admit. &ndash &ldquoIs Female Genital Mutilation an Islamic Problem?&rdquo ME Quarterly

Once thought concentrated in Africa, FGM has now been discovered to be common wherever Islam is found.

There are indications that FGM might be a phenomenon of epidemic proportions in the Arab Middle East. Hosken, for instance, notes that traditionally all women in the Persian Gulf region were mutilated. Arab governments refuse to address the problem. -- "Is Female Genital Mutilation an Islamic Problem?" ME Quarterly

Remember that this has gone on for 1400 years and was imposed on a population that had been formerly Christian or pagan.

FGM is practiced on large scale in Islamic Indonesia and is increasing.

. far from scaling down, the problem of FGM in Indonesia has escalated sharply. The mass ceremonies in Bandung have grown bigger and more popular every year. -- Guardian

The horrified British author of that Guardian article is still deluded that Islam does not support FGM, when in fact it is now settled that FGM is a core Islamic practice. Islamic women have been brainwashed to support their own abuse.

Abu Sahlieh further cited Muhammad as saying, "Circumcision is a sunna (tradition) for the men and makruma (honorable deed) for the women." -- &ldquoIs Female Genital Mutilation an Islamic Problem?&rdquo ME Quarterly

What other tyranny does this? Not even the Nazis mutilated their own women!

Unlike the 20th-century totalitarians whose killing fury consumed themselves, reducing their longevity, Islam paces itself. In the end, though slower, Islam has killed and tortured far more than any other creed, religious or secular. Unlike secular tyranny, Islam, by virtue of its polygamy and sexual predations, reproduces itself and increases.

Other tyrannies are furious infections, which burn hot, but are soon overcome. Islam is a slow terminal cancer, which metastasizes, and takes over. It never retreats. Its methods are more insidious, often imperceptible at first, driven by demographics. Like cancer, excision may be the only cure.

So whenever you read about this or that Israeli outrage -- and there may be truth to the complaint -- place the news in context. Look whom the Israelis are fighting against. Islam is like nothing else in history.


Watch the video: The Bloody History of the Barber Pole (May 2022).


Comments:

  1. Mazuramar

    Yes, I looked at everything. On the one hand, everything is beautiful, on the other hand, everything is bad in connection with the latest events.

  2. Muwaffaq

    I join. And I have faced it. Let's discuss this question. Here or in PM.

  3. Fridolf

    Very well.

  4. Burnell

    If I were you, I would not do that.

  5. Petrov

    I'm sorry, but I think you are making a mistake. Let's discuss this.

  6. Thomas

    I answer your request - not the problem.

  7. Dolabar

    What words ... great, brilliant idea



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